By John Porter,2014-06-04 02:52
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In the case of: as far as--- is concerned.

    e.g. In the case of Russia, they had succeeded at last. e.g. The rise in interest rate will be disastrous in the case of

    small firms

    Stand / get / be in the way: prevent from doing sth. e.g. Many teachers complain they cant make any

    improvement in teaching methods as the existing exam

    system in the way.

    e.g. I dont think kids have as much fun as we used to. Fierce

    competition keeps getting in the way of their


    Defender: n, 1.a person who cares for persons or property

    2. a fighter who holds out against attack

     e.g. For the Russian people, the winter was an icy defender

    Emperor: n, the ruler of an empire. Empress, king, queen,

    prince princess

    Homeland: n, ones native country. Hometown, homemade,


    Devastating: a, causing great destruction

     e.g. The devastating storm forced thousands to leave their homes.

    Raw: a, cold ; not cooked, processed organized or analyzed

     e.g. The events took place on a raw Feb morning.

     e.g. This cutting board is only used to cut raw meat. Bleak: a, cold and miserable; depressing. Sad, chilly.

     e.g. The future of a firm will be bleak indeed, if it cant devise

    new products.

    Launch: vt, start; send ( something) on its course.

     e.g. Beginning in the early 1960s, humans launched probes

    to explore other planets.

     e.g. The ship princess will be launched on the first of this


    Unequaled: a, superior to all others.

     e.g. This is a book, which I dare say, is unequaled as far as

    translation practice is concerned

    Campaign: n, a series of military operations or planned

    activities with a particular aim.

     e.g. Hitlers advisers tries to persuade him to avoid the risks

    of a winter campaign in the Soviet Union and wait until


     e.g. Some people complain that too much money had been

    spent on political campaign.

    Border: n, the line dividing two countries or areas; the land

    near this line. Frontier. Boundary.

    Efficient: a, able to work well or producing a satisfactory result

    without wasting time or resources.

     e.g. The new secretary is a quick, efficient worker, and boss

    is quite satisfied with him.

     e.g. This new copy machine is more efficient than the old


    Conquest: n, conquering, defeat.

     e.g. Hitler badly miscalculated when he assumed the

    conquest of the USSE would be simple.

    Decisive: a, producing a definite result or conclusion; having or

    showing the ability to decide quickly.

     e.g. Most of the decisive land campaigns of World War I

    occurred on the continent of Europe.

     e.g. Lincoln took decisive measures to end slavery. Retreat: vi, move back or withdraw when faced with danger or


     e.g. After a fierce battle, the troops retreated southland.

     e.g. We adopted the following strategies: when the enemy

    advances, we retreat; when they retreat; we pursue. Bog: v, ( cause to ) become stuck and unable to make


    Be / get bogged down: be unable to make progress.

     e.g. The tank got bogged down in the mud.

     e.g. The local government got bogged down in problems of

    how to handle re-employer.

    Engage: v, begin fighting with sb; ( cause to ) take part in or do;

    occupy or attract sbs interest, etc.

     e.g. The commander ordered the soldiers to engage the

    enemy immediately.

     e.g. I have no time to engage in gossip.

    Engage somebody in something: ( cause t ) take part in


     e.g. The teacher tried to engage the shy boy in conversation. Be faced with: have to deal with.

     e.g. The librarians were faced with huge task of listing all the


     e.g. We are often faced with challenge.

    Crucial: a, very important: followed by to or for.

     e.g. Getting this contract is crucial to the future of our


     e.g. Our soccer team won the victory in the crucial final


     e.g. Improved consumer confidence is crucial to economic


    Gamble: n, a thing one does with a risk of loss and a chance of


     e.g. Invested in stock is a kind of gamble.

    Take a gamble: take a risk

     e.g. The company took a gamble by cutting the price of the


    Press on / ahead : continue doing sth, in a determined way.

     e.g. The firm is pressing ahead with the modernization plan

     e.g. Our school authorities are keen to press on with

    education reform.

    Nightfall: n, dusk.

    Occupation: n, the seizure and control of a country or areas;

    ( ones ) trade, profession, or business.

     e.g. During the Japanese occupation of China, millions of

    innocent Chinese people were killed by Japanese


     e.g. When we fill in a form, we will usually write down our

    name, address, age, occupation etc.

    Truce: n, an agreement to stop fighting.

    Czar: n,

    Bide : v, ( arch ) wait.

    Bide ones time; wait patiently for a chance.

     e.g. We are biding our time.

     e.g. He bided his time until Harvard University offered him a


    Hit- and run: a, hitting and then escaping.

    Minus: prep, below zero; made less by.

     A, negative; slightly lower than the mark stated.

     e.g. Tomorrows temperature will be as low as minus ten

    degree centigrade.

     e.g. 20 minus 10 is 10.

     e.g. I got B minus in the final exam.

    Celsius: a,

    Cannon: n,

    Drag on: move slowly and with effort; continue endlessly and


     e.g. How much longer is the meeting going to drag on?

     e.g. These compensation cases have already dragged on for

    one year.

    Swollen: adj, grown bigger, wider, etc, than usual; expanded. Stroke: n, any of a series of repeated movements.

     e.g. He won a car in the lottery last week, thats his first

    stroke of good luck.

     e.g. We have lunch on the stoke of twelve every day.

At the cost of: with the loss of.

     e.g. The local government developed its economy but at the

    cost of environment.

     e.g. The soldier saved the student at the cost of his own life. Tattered: a, wearing torn and ragged clothes.

    Limp: vi, walk with difficulty, esp, when one foot or leg is hurt.

     e.g. I hurt my ankle and had to limp.

     e.g. That dog must be hurt, it is limping.

    Weaken: v, ( cause to ) become weak or weaker.

     e.g. The Asian financial crisis severely weakened some


    Alliance: n, a union or an association formed for mutual benefit,

    esp between countries or organizations.

     e.g. Japan and Germany made their formal alliance in 1940. Straggler: n,

    Abdicate: v, resign from being king, emperor,

    Exile: n, the state of being sent away from ones native country

    or home, esp, for political reason; forced absence. Nazi: n, Nationalsozialismus Fascismo

    Invasion: n, an entering or being entered by an attacking

    military force.

     e.g. The invasion of Poland began on Sept 1, 1939.

Empire: n,

    Declaration: n, formally announcing; a formal announcement.

     e.g. The opening speeches sounded more like declaration of

    war than offerings of peace.

     e.g. The Japanese attacked the U.S navel base at Peal

    Harbor Hawaii, on December 7, 1941 without a

    declaration of war.

    Mud; n, soft wet earth.

    Lightning; a, very quick or sudden. N,

    Tactic: n, usually plural a plan or method used to achieve

    something often against an opponent.

    Catch somebody off guard: take somebody by surprise.

     e.g. The manager didnt know what to say, It was clear that

    my question had caught him off guard.

     e.g. He caught her off guard and run away.

    Instruct: vt, give orders or directions to somebody; teach. Used

    in patterns: instructed sb to do sth; instruct sb that; instruct

    sb with sth.

     e.g. The professor instructed us to finish the project.

     e.g. He instructed family members in nursing techniques.

     e.g. He instructs a class in English.

    Scorch: vt, burn and destroy; cause to become dry and brown,

    esp, from the heat of the sun

    Render: vt, cause somebody or something to be in a specified


     e.g. Hundreds of people were rendered homeless by


     e.g. The news rendered her speechless.

    German: n, a, Germany

    Casualty: n, a person who is killed or injured in war or in an


     e.g. The precise number of casualties in yesterdays bomb

    explosion is not know.

    Die from/ of: have as the cause of death.

    Siege: n, a military operation in which an army tries to capture

    a town, etc. by surrounding it and stopping the supply of

    food, etc. to the people inside.

    Bring to a halt: stop completely.

     e.g. Our journey was brought to a halt by a storm. Offensive; n, aggressive action, attack. A, used for or

    connected with attack; causing sb, to feel upset, or

    annoyed; very unpleasant.

     e.g. The Red Army brought its winter offensive to a

    successful conclusion

    e.g. Faced with the invasion, they took immediately offensive


    e.g. There is an offensive smell in the room.

    e.g. The offensive joke made me blush.

    Counterattack: n, attack made in response to an enemys


    Troop: n, ( plural) ( a body of ) soldiers

    Tide; n, a regular rise and fall in the level of the sea; a direction

    in which opinion, events, luck, etc, seem to move. Turn the tide ( against ) change what looks like defeat into

    victory ( over )

    Thanks to: because of;

    Heroic: a, having the characteristics of a hero; very brave. Region: n, area.

    Reckon: v, count; consider; think

    Be reckoned with: be taken into consideration

    Underestimate: vt, set too low an estimate on of for. Severity: n, the quality of being severe; harshness. Toll: n, the number of people or animals killed or injured in

    particular circumstances; money paid for the use of a

    bridge or road.

    Take its/ a toll: cause damage, injuries or deaths.

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