In the case of: as far as--- is concerned.
e.g. In the case of Russia, they had succeeded at last. e.g. The rise in interest rate will be disastrous in the case of
Stand / get / be in the way: prevent from doing sth. e.g. Many teachers complain they can’t make any
improvement in teaching methods as the existing exam
system in the way.
e.g. I don’t think kids have as much fun as we used to. Fierce
competition keeps getting in the way of their
Defender: n, 1.a person who cares for persons or property
2. a fighter who holds out against attack
e.g. For the Russian people, the winter was an icy defender
Emperor: n, the ruler of an empire. Empress, king, queen,
Homeland: n, one’s native country. Hometown, homemade,
Devastating: a, causing great destruction
e.g. The devastating storm forced thousands to leave their homes.
Raw: a, cold ; not cooked, processed organized or analyzed
e.g. The events took place on a raw Feb morning.
e.g. This cutting board is only used to cut raw meat. Bleak: a, cold and miserable; depressing. Sad, chilly.
e.g. The future of a firm will be bleak indeed, if it can’t devise
Launch: vt, start; send ( something) on its course.
e.g. Beginning in the early 1960s, humans launched probes
to explore other planets.
e.g. The ship princess will be launched on the first of this
Unequaled: a, superior to all others.
e.g. This is a book, which I dare say, is unequaled as far as
translation practice is concerned
Campaign: n, a series of military operations or planned
activities with a particular aim.
e.g. Hitler’s advisers tries to persuade him to avoid the risks
of a winter campaign in the Soviet Union and wait until
e.g. Some people complain that too much money had been
spent on political campaign.
Border: n, the line dividing two countries or areas; the land
near this line. Frontier. Boundary.
Efficient: a, able to work well or producing a satisfactory result
without wasting time or resources.
e.g. The new secretary is a quick, efficient worker, and boss
is quite satisfied with him.
e.g. This new copy machine is more efficient than the old
Conquest: n, conquering, defeat.
e.g. Hitler badly miscalculated when he assumed the
conquest of the USSE would be simple.
Decisive: a, producing a definite result or conclusion; having or
showing the ability to decide quickly.
e.g. Most of the decisive land campaigns of World War I
occurred on the continent of Europe.
e.g. Lincoln took decisive measures to end slavery. Retreat: vi, move back or withdraw when faced with danger or
e.g. After a fierce battle, the troops retreated southland.
e.g. We adopted the following strategies: when the enemy
advances, we retreat; when they retreat; we pursue. Bog: v, ( cause to ) become stuck and unable to make
Be / get bogged down: be unable to make progress.
e.g. The tank got bogged down in the mud.
e.g. The local government got bogged down in problems of
how to handle re-employer.
Engage: v, begin fighting with sb; ( cause to ) take part in or do;
occupy or attract sb’s interest, etc.
e.g. The commander ordered the soldiers to engage the
e.g. I have no time to engage in gossip.
Engage somebody in something: ( cause t ) take part in
e.g. The teacher tried to engage the shy boy in conversation. Be faced with: have to deal with.
e.g. The librarians were faced with huge task of listing all the
e.g. We are often faced with challenge.
Crucial: a, very important: followed by to or for.
e.g. Getting this contract is crucial to the future of our
e.g. Our soccer team won the victory in the crucial final
e.g. Improved consumer confidence is crucial to economic
Gamble: n, a thing one does with a risk of loss and a chance of
e.g. Invested in stock is a kind of gamble.
Take a gamble: take a risk
e.g. The company took a gamble by cutting the price of the
Press on / ahead : continue doing sth, in a determined way.
e.g. The firm is pressing ahead with the modernization plan
e.g. Our school authorities are keen to press on with
Nightfall: n, dusk.
Occupation: n, the seizure and control of a country or areas;
( one’s ) trade, profession, or business.
e.g. During the Japanese occupation of China, millions of
innocent Chinese people were killed by Japanese
e.g. When we fill in a form, we will usually write down our
name, address, age, occupation etc.
Truce: n, an agreement to stop fighting.
Bide : v, ( arch ) wait.
Bide one’s time; wait patiently for a chance.
e.g. We are biding our time.
e.g. He bided his time until Harvard University offered him a
Hit- and – run: a, hitting and then escaping.
Minus: prep, below zero; made less by.
A, negative; slightly lower than the mark stated.
e.g. Tomorrow’s temperature will be as low as minus ten
e.g. 20 minus 10 is 10.
e.g. I got B minus in the final exam.
Drag on: move slowly and with effort; continue endlessly and
e.g. How much longer is the meeting going to drag on?
e.g. These compensation cases have already dragged on for
Swollen: adj, grown bigger, wider, etc, than usual; expanded. Stroke: n, any of a series of repeated movements.
e.g. He won a car in the lottery last week, that’s his first
stroke of good luck.
e.g. We have lunch on the stoke of twelve every day.
At the cost of: with the loss of.
e.g. The local government developed its economy but at the
cost of environment.
e.g. The soldier saved the student at the cost of his own life. Tattered: a, wearing torn and ragged clothes.
Limp: vi, walk with difficulty, esp, when one foot or leg is hurt.
e.g. I hurt my ankle and had to limp.
e.g. That dog must be hurt, it is limping.
Weaken: v, ( cause to ) become weak or weaker.
e.g. The Asian financial crisis severely weakened some
Alliance: n, a union or an association formed for mutual benefit,
esp between countries or organizations.
e.g. Japan and Germany made their formal alliance in 1940. Straggler: n,
Abdicate: v, resign from being king, emperor,
Exile: n, the state of being sent away from one’s native country
or home, esp, for political reason; forced absence. Nazi: n, Nationalsozialismus Fascismo
Invasion: n, an entering or being entered by an attacking
e.g. The invasion of Poland began on Sept 1, 1939.
Declaration: n, formally announcing; a formal announcement.
e.g. The opening speeches sounded more like declaration of
war than offerings of peace.
e.g. The Japanese attacked the U.S navel base at Peal
Harbor Hawaii, on December 7, 1941 without a
declaration of war.
Mud; n, soft wet earth.
Lightning; a, very quick or sudden. N,
Tactic: n, usually plural a plan or method used to achieve
something often against an opponent.
Catch somebody off guard: take somebody by surprise.
e.g. The manager didn’t know what to say, It was clear that
my question had caught him off guard.
e.g. He caught her off guard and run away.
Instruct: vt, give orders or directions to somebody; teach. Used
in patterns: instructed sb to do sth; instruct sb that; instruct
sb with sth.
e.g. The professor instructed us to finish the project.
e.g. He instructed family members in nursing techniques.
e.g. He instructs a class in English.
Scorch: vt, burn and destroy; cause to become dry and brown,
esp, from the heat of the sun
Render: vt, cause somebody or something to be in a specified
e.g. Hundreds of people were rendered homeless by
e.g. The news rendered her speechless.
German: n, a, Germany
Casualty: n, a person who is killed or injured in war or in an
e.g. The precise number of casualties in yesterday’s bomb
explosion is not know.
Die from/ of: have as the cause of death.
Siege: n, a military operation in which an army tries to capture
a town, etc. by surrounding it and stopping the supply of
food, etc. to the people inside.
Bring to a halt: stop completely.
e.g. Our journey was brought to a halt by a storm. Offensive; n, aggressive action, attack. A, used for or
connected with attack; causing sb, to feel upset, or
annoyed; very unpleasant.
e.g. The Red Army brought its winter offensive to a
e.g. Faced with the invasion, they took immediately offensive
e.g. There is an offensive smell in the room.
e.g. The offensive joke made me blush.
Counterattack: n, attack made in response to an enemy’s
Troop: n, ( plural) ( a body of ) soldiers
Tide; n, a regular rise and fall in the level of the sea; a direction
in which opinion, events, luck, etc, seem to move. Turn the tide ( against ) change what looks like defeat into
victory ( over )
Thanks to: because of;
Heroic: a, having the characteristics of a hero; very brave. Region: n, area.
Reckon: v, count; consider; think
Be reckoned with: be taken into consideration
Underestimate: vt, set too low an estimate on of for. Severity: n, the quality of being severe; harshness. Toll: n, the number of people or animals killed or injured in
particular circumstances; money paid for the use of a
bridge or road.
Take its/ a toll: cause damage, injuries or deaths.