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Survey of Classic Chinese Culture

By Steven Watkins,2014-05-22 21:24
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Survey of Classic Chinese Culture

    课程名称:

    命题教师:

    适用班级: 所有选修课学生全部

    考试(考查) 2008 1 10 8

     题号 总分 评阅(统分)教师 线

    得分

    1 满分100分。要求卷面整洁、字迹工整、无错别字。

    2 考生必须将姓名、班级、学号完整、准确、清楚地填写在试卷规定的地方,否

    则视为废卷。

    3 考生必须在签到单上签到,若出现遗漏,后果自负。

    4 如有答题纸,答案请全部写在答题纸上,否则不给分;考完请将试卷和答题卷

    分别一同交回,否则不给分。

     Examination Paper

     得分 评阅教师

    1. When and where did Chinese civilization begin earliest

    according to the archeological findings? (5 points)

    得分 评阅教师

    2. What can be considered the representative cultural sign of Xia

    Dynasty? (5 points)

    

     得分 评阅教师

    3. Give a brief definition to A Hundred Schools in Strife. (5

     线

points)

     得分 评阅教师

    4. What is the Peaceful Order of Zhenguan Reign Period? (5 points)

    得分 评阅教师

    5. What is the significance of the Great Canal? (5points)

    得分 评阅教师

     6. Retell the major achievements of the First Emperor of Qin Dynasty in terms of unifying the first empire in China. (15 points)

     得分 评阅教师

    7. Why has Chinese square script circulated through over three

    millenniums, whereas the Egyptian hieroglyphics, the Sumerian cuneiform,

    though they came into the world earlier than the Chinese counterpart, had

    faded away rather early ten centuries B.C? (15 points)

得分 评阅教师 8. Why did Tang Poetry flourish in Tang Dynasty? (15 points)

得分 评阅教师

9. How can you evaluate the civil service examination? (15 points)

得分 评阅教师

10. What can you think of in terms of Chinese science and technology except the four great inventions? Can you tell how advanced the Chinese

inventions or technologies were in the ancient world? (15 points)

     线

    

     得分 评阅教师

    得分 评阅教师

     线

    Keys to the Examination Paper

    1. Key: The earliest part of Chinese civilization began around 5000

    years ago at Hongshan area in what is Liaonin Province today in the

    northeast China.

     2. Key: Erlitou cultural site is surely confirmed to be the representative cultural sign of Xia Dynasty, the first dynasty in ancient

    China. The site at Erligou is located in what is Henan Province in the

    modern days.

     3. Key: A Hundred Schools in Strife refers to the huge group of schools in philosophy, politics, education, economics, social ethics, and thrdso on, which arose between 6 century B.C and 3 century B.C in ancient

    China as the pioneer of Chinese thinking besides the Book of Changes which

    appeared far earlier than A Hundred Schools in Strife. The chief schools

    include such as Confucianism, Legalism, Moistism, Taoism (composed of

    Lao-Zhuang School and Huang-Lao School), Yin-Yang School, Five-elements

    School.

    4. Key: The Peaceful Order of Zhenguan Reign Period is referred to as the years in which Emperor Tai of Tang Dynasty held his crown between

    625 A.D and 649 A.D, and in which Chinese society began to evolve into

    a peaceful, stable and powerful empire politically, militarily,

    territorially, economically and culturally.

    5. Key: The Great Canal was constructed in Sui Dynasty in the late thth6 century and the early 7 century, as connected the north China and the

    central China at first, then connected the north and the south at the

    Yangtze Delta, a great incentive to promoting Chinese economy as well as

    transportation.

     6. Key:

    Yin Zhen, the First Emperor of Qin Dynasty, established his empire

    in 221 B.C, thus unifying the whole Chinese territory for the first time

    in history. To consolidate the great empire, he carried on the following

    chief measures:

    1) Building up the Great Wall. In fact, some sections of the Wall had

    existed before. In the purpose of protecting China from the invasion of

    Huns in the north border, the First Emperor ordered that all the sections

    of the former states be connected as a complete military defense work,

    as ranged from the east at Shanhai Pass to the west at Jiayu Pass, covering

a distance of over 5000 kilometers.

    2) Writing the same script. Before the birth of the empire, the

    different states employed their own scripts with sharp distinctions, as

    has hindered the mutual communication. Upon sanding the crown, the First

    Emperor ordered that the only one script, the Small Seal Script prevailing

    in the former Qin state, adopted as the official writing instrument, which,

    objectively, forged the unified Chinese writing script.

    3) The unified carriage track width was adopted nationwide while the

    old criterion was to be abandoned. Meanwhile, Chidao, the ancient

    expressway as wide as the modern motorway was under way, first from the

    border in the north to the capital in Changan, then from the capital to many a prefecture.

    4) The unified measurement system was adopted throughout the empire

    while the other systems in the old days had to be prohibited; henceforth,

    the unified economical life in the country began.

    5) The last but not least, the First Emperor deployed thousands of

    hundreds of laborers from all the nation in undertaking a colossal

    architectural work---his mausoleum near the capital, which, at that time,

    was an extravagance and a huge cost of laborers lives, and which has

    remained as a wonder and mystery in the world. The unearthed Terra-cotta

    Worriers on display today in Xian, the old capital Changan, affirm its grandeur and unrivalled glory.

    7. Key:

    As a script of pictograph and ideograph, Chinese square script has

    circulated through over three millenniums, linguistically because

    Chinese ancestors, with unmatched wisdom, created or coined it in six

    methods, which appear distinct compared to other foreign scripts.

    The first method is the pictographic method such as (water) and(moon); the second is the indicative method such as (upper) and

    (down); the third is the associative method such as (armed force); the fourth is the pictographic-phonetic method such as (river) and

    (steel), which comprises over eighty percent of modern Chinese characters;

    the fifth is the phonetic-loan method such as 西(west) (linger); and the last is the referential method such as (old) (deceased father, examination). These six methods are effective in conveying any idea of

    concrete sense and abstract sense and linguistic functions, thus bringing

    about the time-honored glory of Chinese square script.

    On the other hand, Sumerian cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphics,

    though earlier or older than the Chinese counterpart in applying

    pictograms, did not demonstrate talent in developing a graphic system to

    handle abstract ideas and linguistic functions, had faded away

    approximately twenty and ten centuries respectively before Christ.

    Key: 8.

    Tang Poetry came into being on condition of the following factors:

    1) Politically, after the advent of Zhenguan Reign Period in 626, Tang Empire advanced into a stable flourishing community where people lived

    a peaceful life, a prerequisite for flourishing poems.

    2) Militarily, Tang Empire expanded the national territory as far as toward the Mongol Desert near the Balkal Lake in the north, toward the

    Bajchash Lake in the northwest, and to the east bank of Black Sea in the

    modern Uzebeckstan. By driving back the nomadic tribesmen, Tang grew into

    the most powerful empire in the world.

    3) Traditionally, Book of Poetry, Poetry of the South, the Yeufu Songs, and the Six-Dynasty poems all made contributions to the ascending of Tang

    Poetry.

    4) Literally, or institutionally, Emperor Taizong was so absorbed in poems and rhymed prose that the arts and poetry were remarkably promoted.

    The next emperor Gaozong carried on the tradition to the extent that poetry

    was taken into the civil service examination system.

    5) Materially or technically, the carved wood block printing provided access to the popularity of poems or verses.

    9. Key:

     The civil service examination in ancient China was inaugurated during the Sui Dynasty in the early 7th century. Its original form was

    in fact started as early as in the West Han Dynasty. The civil service

    examination comprised chiefly three or four stages: the first stage was

    termed the county or prefecture examination, and the passers were called

    秀才; the second the provincial one, and the passers 举人;the third the

    metropolitan one, and the passers 进士。The most successful candidates

    could be granted favor to enter the court examination whence the emperor

    would examine the best group of them, the top being 状元,the second place

    探花,and third place 榜眼.

    The examination system, for most part, triggered and promoted the cultural and social progress, and to some extent helped pacify the social

    conflicts in ancient China by furnishing a fair opportunity to all

    candidates from different strata.

    After Ming Dynasty, the examination changed to a rather stiff system, and the contents appeared something impractical to the society. So, at ththe turn of 20 century, it was cancelled.

    It is prized the first advanced system of governmental official ththemployment in the world; and in the 17 and 18 centuries, this examination

    system was ushered into England, then into other European and American

    countries, as being one of the cornerstones in the evolution of human

    civilization.

    However, the basic principles of the system have been inherited across

    the globe in the present-day times.

10.Key:

    Chinese people invented paper, printing, gunpowder and compass ndthbetween 2 century and 11 century, styled the great four inventions. In

    addition, they also invented or developed other sciences and technologies

    ahead of the other nations.

     Below are listed the items by which Chinese people took the lead in

    the world:

    1) Silkworm breeding and silk reeling and weaving, 1300 or 1600 years

    ahead of the world.

    2) Scull, the creative propelling tool both as a rudder and an oar,

    1100 ahead of the West.

    3) Advanced technology of building up sailing ships. 4) Square-pullet chain-pump, 1500 years ahead of the West. 5) Edge-runner mill with application of water power, 900 ahead of the

    West.

    6) Metallurgical blowing-engines, water power, 1100 ahead of the West. 7) Rotary fan and rotary minnowing machine, 1400 ahead of the West. 8) Piston-bellows, 1400 ahead of the West. 9) Wheelbarrow, 900 ahead of the West.

    10)Wagon-mill, 1200 ahead of the West.

    11)Cross-bow (as an individual arm), 300 ahead of the West.

    12)Kite, 1200 ahead of the West.

    13)Helicopter top (spun by cord), 1400 ahead of the West.

    14)Zoetrope (moved by ascending hot-air current), 1000 ahead of the

    West.

    15)Deep drilling, 1100 ahead of the West.

    16)Cast iron, 1000-1200 ahead of the West.

    17)Canal lock-gates, 700-1700 ahead of the West.

    18)Stern-post rudder, 400 ahead of the West.

    19)Gunpowder, 500-600 ahead of the West.

    20)Gunpowder used as war technique, 400 ahead of the West.

    21)Magnetic compass (lodestone spoon), 1100 ahead of the West.

    22)Magnetic compass with needle, 400 ahead of the West.

    23)Magnetic compass for navigation, 200 ahead of the West.

    24)Paper, 1000 ahead of the West.

    25)Printing (block), 600 ahead of the West.

    26)Printing (movable type), 400 ahead of the West.

    27)Printing (metal movable type), 100 ahead of the West.

    28)Porcelain, 1100-1300 ahead of the West.

    29)Draw loom, 400 ahead of the West.

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