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Modbus Master Lib

By Walter Murphy,2014-04-21 16:41
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Modbus Master Lib

Using the Modbus Master Protocol Library

    STEP 7Micro/WIN Instruction Libraries makes communicating to Modbus slave devices easier by including pre-configured subroutines and interrupt routines that are specifically designed for Modbus communications. With the Modbus Master Protocol instructions, you can configure the S7-200 to act as a Modbus RTU master device and communicate to one or more Modbus slave devices.

The Modbus Master Protocol instructions can be installed into the Libraries folder of the STEP 7Micro/WIN

    instruction tree. These new instructions allow you to make the S7-200 act as a Modbus master. When you select a Modbus Master instruction, one or more associated subroutines are automatically added to your project to support the Modbus Master Protocol.

    Requirements for Using the Modbus Master Protocol

    The Modbus Master Protocol instructions use the following resources from the S7-200:

    ; Initializing the Modbus Master Protocol dedicates Port 0 for Modbus Master Protocol

    communications. When Port 0 is being used for Modbus Master Protocol communications, it

    cannot be used for any other purpose, including communications with STEP 7-Micro/WIN. The

    MBUS_CTRL instruction controls assignment of Port 0 to Modbus Master Protocol or PPI.

    ; The Modbus Master Protocol instructions affect all of the SM locations associated with Freeport

    communications on Port 0.

    ; The Modbus Master Protocol instructions use 3 subroutines and 1 interrupt routine.

    ; The Modbus Master Protocol instructions require about 1620 bytes of program space for the two

    Modbus Master instructions and the support routines.

    ; The variables for the Modbus Master Protocol instructions require a 284 byte block of V memory.

    The starting address for this block is assigned by the user and is reserved for Modbus variables.

    ; The S7-200 CPU must be firmware revision 2.00 or greater to support the Modbus Master Protocol

    Library (CPU MLFB 21x-2xx23-0XB0).

    ; The Modbus master library utilizes the user interrupts for some functions. The user interrupts must

    not be disabled by the user program.

    Note: To change the operation of Port 0 back to PPI so that you can communicate with STEP 7-

    Micro/WIN, set the Mode parameter of the MBUS_CTRL instruction to a zero (0).

    You can also set the mode switch on the S7-200 to the STOP mode position. Either of these

    methods will set the communication Port 0 to communicate with STEP 7-Micro/WIN.

Execution Time for the Modbus Master Protocol

    The Modbus Master Protocol requires a small amount of time every scan to execute the MBUS_CTRL instruction. The time will be about 1.11 milliseconds when the MBUS_CTRL is initializing the Modbus Master (first scan), and about 0.41 milliseconds on subsequent scans.

    The scan time is extended when the MBUS_MSG subroutine executes a request. Most of the time is spent calculating the Modbus CRC for the request and the response. The CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) insures the integrity of the communications message. The scan time is extended by about 1.85 milliseconds for each word in the request and in the response. A maximum request/response (read or write of 120 words) extends the scan time by approximately 222 milliseconds. A read request extends the scan mainly when the response is received from the slave, and to a lesser extent when request is sent. A write request extends the scan mainly when the data sent to the slave, and to a lesser extent when the response is received.

Modbus Addressing

    Modbus addresses are normally written as 5 character values containing the data type and the offset. The first character determines the data type, and the last four characters select the proper value within the data type. The Modbus Master instructions then map the addresses to the correct functions to send to the slave device. The following Modbus addresses are supported by the Modbus Master instructions:

    ; 00001 to 09999 are discrete outputs (coils)

    ; 10001 to 19999 are discrete inputs (contacts)

    ; 30001 to 39999 are input registers (generally analog inputs)

    ; 40001 to 49999 are holding registers

    All Modbus addresses are one-based, meaning that the first data value starts at address one. The range of valid addresses will depend on the slave device. Different slave devices will support different data types and address ranges.

Installing the Modbus Master Protocol Library

    Before you can use the Modbus Master Protocol Library, you must add the library to STEP 7-Micro/WIN.

    1. Copy the Modbus Master Protocol Library (modbus master.mwl) to your computer. The library can

    be placed anywhere on the computer, but the default location for STEP 7-Micro/WIN libraries is the

    directory:

    C:\Program Files\SIEMENS\Step 7-MicroWin V4.0\Lib\

    2. Select the File > Add/Remove Libraries… menu option. This will open the Add/Remove Libraries

    Dialog.

    3. Click on the Add button and go to the directory where you placed the Modbus Master Protocol

    Library file (modbus master.mwl).

    4. Click the Save button to install the library. There will now be a new folder under the Libraries entry

    in the Instruction Tree.

    5. Open the Modbus Master (v1.X) folder and you will see the Modbus Master instructions included in

    the library.

    Assigning V Memory to the Modbus Master Library

    The Modbus Master Protocol Library requires a block of V memory to operate the Modbus Master instructions. The user must specify the starting address for the block of memory needed by the Modbus Master Library.

    Go to the Instruction Tree and right-click on the Program Block entry. You will see the following:

Select the Library Memory… option to display the following dialog:

    This dialog tells you how much memory is required for the included version of the Modbus Master Library. Click on the Suggest Address button to have STEP 7-Micro/WIN suggest an address for the block of V memory, or type in the V memory address where you want to locate the block. The address must be a VB address.

    Using the Modbus Master Protocol Instructions

    To use the Modbus Master Protocol instructions in your S7-200 program, follow these steps:

    1. Install the Modbus Master Protocol Library. This was described in a prior section (Installing the

    Modbus Master Protocol Library).

    2. Insert the MBUS_CTRL instruction in your program and execute the MBUS_CTRL on every scan.

    You can use the MBUS_CTRL instruction either to initiate or to change the Modbus

    communications parameters. When you insert the MBUS_CTRL instruction, several protected

    subroutines and interrupt routines are automatically added to your program.

    3. Assign a starting address for the 284 bytes of consecutive V memory required for Modbus Master

    Protocol instructions as described in the previous section (Assigning V Memory to the Modbus

    Library).

    4. Place one or more MBUS_MSG instructions in your program. You can add as many MBUS_MSG

    instructions to your program as you require, but only one of these instructions can be active at a

    time.

    5. Connect a communications cable between Port 0 on the S7-200 CPU and the Modbus slave

    devices.

    Caution: Interconnecting equipment with different reference potentials can cause unwanted

    currents to flow through the interconnecting cable. These unwanted currents can cause

    communications errors or damage equipment.

    Ensure that all equipment that is connected with a communications cable either shares a

    common circuit reference or is isolated to prevent unwanted current flows.

    The Modbus Master protocol instructions utilize the Modbus functions shown in the table below to read or write a specific Modbus address. The Modbus slave device must support the Modbus function(s) required to read or write a particular Modbus address.

Table 1 Required Slave Function Support

    Modbus Read or Modbus Slave Function Required Address Write

    Read Function 1 00001 09999 Function 5 for a single output point discrete outputs Write Function 15 for multiple output points

    Read Function 2 10001 19999

    discrete inputs Write not possible

    Read Function 4 30001 39999

    input registers Write not possible

    Read Function 3 40001 49999 Function 6 for a single register holding registers Write Function 16 for multiple registers

Instructions for the Modbus Master Protocol

MBUS_CTRL Instruction

    The MBUS_CTRL instruction is used to initialize, monitor or to disable Modbus communications. Before the MBUS_MSG instruction can be used, the MBUS_CTRL instruction must be executed without errors. The instruction completes and the Done bit is set immediately before continuing to the next instruction. This instruction is executed on each scan when the EN input is on.

    The MBUS_CTRL instruction must be called every scan (including the first scan) to allow it to monitor the progress of any outstanding messages initiated with the MBUS_MSG instruction. The Modbus Master Protocol will not operate correctly unless MBUS_CTRL is called every scan.

The value for the Mode input selects the communications

    protocol. An input value of 1 assigns port 0 to Modbus protocol

    and enables the protocol. An input value of 0 assigns port 0 to

    PPI system protocol and disables Modbus protocol.

The parameter Baud sets the baud rate to 1200, 2400, 4800,

    9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, or 115200 baud.

The parameter Parity is set to match the parity of the Modbus

    slave device. All settings use one start bit and one stop bit. The

    allowed values are:

    ; 0 - no parity

    ; 1 - odd parity

    ; 2 - even parity

The parameter Timeout is set to the number of milliseconds to

    wait for the response from the slave. The Timeout value can be

    set anywhere in the range of 1 millisecond through 32767

    milliseconds. A typical value would be 1000 milliseconds (1

    second). The Timeout parameter should be set to a value large enough so that the slave device has time to respond at the selected baud rate.

    The Timeout parameter is used to determine if the Modbus slave device is responding to a request. The Timeout value determines how long the Modbus Master will wait for the first character of the response after the last character of the request has been sent. The Modbus Master will receive the entire response from the Modbus slave device if at least one character of the response is received within the Timeout time.

Table 3 Parameters for the MBUS_CTRL instruction

Inputs/Outputs Data Type Operands

    Mode BOOL I, Q,M, S, SM, T, C, V, L

    Baud DWORD VD, ID, QD, MD, SD, SMD, LD, AC, Constant, *VD, *AC, *LD

    Parity BYTE VB, IB, QB, MB, SB, SMB, LB, AC, Constant, *VD, *AC, *LD

    Baud DWORD VD, ID, QD, MD, SD, SMD, LD, AC, Constant, *VD, *AC, *LD

    VW, IW, QW, MW, SW, SMW, LW, AC, Constant, *VD, *AC, Timeout INT *LD

    Done BOOL I, Q,M, S, SM, T, C, V, L

    Error BYTE VB, IB, QB, MB, SB, SMB, LB, AC, *VD, *AC,*LD

When the MBUS_CTRL instruction completes, the Done output is turned on.

The Error output contains the result of executing the instruction. The following table defines the error

    conditions that could result from executing the MBUS_CTRL instruction.

Table 2 MBUS_CTRL Error Codes

    Error Code Description

    0 No error

    1 Parity selection is not valid

    2 Baud rate selection is not valid

    3 Timeout selection is not valid

    4 Mode selection is not valid

MBUS_MSG Instruction

The MBUS_MSG instruction is used to initiate a request to a Modbus slave and process the response.

The MBUS_MSG instruction initiates a request to a Modbus slave when the both the EN input and the First

    inputs are on. Sending the request, waiting for the response and processing the response usually requires

    several scans. The EN input must be on to enable the sending of the request, and should remain on until

    the Done bit is set.

    Note: Only one MBUS_MSG instruction can be active at a time. If there is more than one

    MBUS_MSG instruction enabled, the first MBUS_MSG instruction executed will be

    processed and all subsequent MBUS_MSG instructions will abort with an error code 6.

The parameter First should be on for only one scan when there

    is a new request to send. The First input should be pulsed on

    through an edge detection element (i.e. Positive Edge) which will

    cause the request to be transmitted one time. See the example

    program below.

The parameter Slave is the address of the Modbus slave device.

    The allowed range is 0 through 247. Address 0 is the broadcast

    address and can only be used for write requests. There is no

    response to a broadcast request to address 0. Not all slave

    devices will support the broadcast address. The S7-200

    Modbus Slave Library does not support the broadcast address.

The parameter RW specifies if this message is to be a read or a

    write. The following two values are allowed for RW.

    ; 0 Read

    ; 1 Write

Discrete outputs (coils) and holding registers support both read

    and write requests. Discrete inputs (contacts) and input registers only support read requests.

Table 4 Parameters for the MBUS_MSG instruction

Inputs/Outputs Data Type Operands

    I, Q,M, S, SM, T, C, V, L (Power flow conditioned by a First BOOL positive edge detection element)

    Slave BYTE VB, IB, QB, MB, SB, SMB, LB, AC, Constant, *VD, *AC, *LD

    RW BYTE VB, IB, QB, MB, SB, SMB, LB, AC, Constant, *VD, *AC, *LD

    Addr DWORD VD, ID, QD, MD, SD, SMD, LD, AC, Constant, *VD, *AC, *LD

    VW, IW, QW, MW, SW, SMW, LW, AC, Constant, *VD, *AC, Count INT *LD

    DataPtr DWORD &VB

    Done BOOL I, Q,M, S, SM, T, C, V, L

    Error BYTE VB, IB, QB, MB, SB, SMB, LB, AC, *VD, *AC, *LD

    The parameter Addr is the starting Modbus address. The following ranges of values are allowed:

    ; 00001 to 09999 for discrete outputs (coils)

    ; 10001 to 19999 for discrete inputs (contacts)

    ; 30001 to 39999 for input registers

    ; 40001 to 49999 for holding registers

    The specific range of values for Addr are based on the addresses that the Modbus slave device supports.

    The parameter Count specifies then number of data elements to read or write in this request. The Count will be the number of bits for the bit data types, and the number of words for the word data types.

    ; Address 0xxxx Count is the number of bits to read or write

    ; Address 1xxxx Count is the number of bits to read

    ; Address 3xxxx Count is the number of input register words to read

    ; Address 4xxxx Count is the number of holding register words to read or write

    The MBUS_MSG instruction will read or write a maximum of 120 words or 1920 bits (240 bytes of data). The actual limit on the value of Count will depend upon the limits in the Modbus slave device.

    The parameter DataPtr is an indirect address pointer which points to the V memory in the S7-200 CPU for the data associated with the read or write request. For a read request, DataPtr should point to the first CPU memory location used to store the data read from the Modbus slave. For a write request, DataPtr should point to the first CPU memory location of the data to be sent to the Modbus slave.

    The DataPtr value is passed into MBUS_MSG as an indirect address pointer. For example, if the data to be written to a Modbus slave devices starts at address VW200 in the S7-200 CPU, the value for the DataPtr would be &VB200 (address of VB200). Pointers must always be a type VB even if they point to word data.

    Holding registers (address 4xxxx) and input registers (address 3xxxx) are word values (2 bytes or 16 bits). S7-200 CPU words are formatted the same as Modbus registers. The lower numbered V-memory address is the most significant byte of the register. The higher numbered V-memory address is the least significant byte of the register. Figure 1 below shows how the S7-200 byte and word addressing corresponds to the Modbus register format.

Figure 1 S7-200 CPU Memory and Holding Registers (data in hexadecimal)

    S7-200 CPU

    Memory with S7-200 CPU Memory with

    Byte Addressing Word Addressing Modbus Holding Registers

    VB200 12 VW200 12 34 40001 12 34

    VB201 34 VW202 56 78 40002 56 78

    VB202 56 VW204 9A BC 40003 9A BC

    VB203 78

    VB204 9A

     VB205 BC

    The bit data (addresses 0xxxx and 1xxxx) areas are read and written as packed bytes, that is, 8 bits are packed into each byte of data. The least significant bit of the first data byte is the addressed bit number (the parameter Addr). If only a single bit is written then the bit must be in the least significant bit of the byte pointed to by DataPtr.

Figure 2 Format for Packed Bytes (Discrete input addresses shown)

     Vx.7 Vx.0

     10008 10001

     10007 10002

     10006 10003

     10005 10004

    For bit data addresses that do not start on even byte boundaries, the bit corresponding to the starting address must be must be in the least significant bit of the byte. See Figure 3 for an example of the packed byte format for 3 bits starting at Modbus address 10004.

Figure 3 Format for Packed Bytes (Discrete input starting at address 10004)

     Vx.7 Vx.0

     0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

     10004

     10005

     10006

    When writing to the discrete output data type (coils), the user is responsible for placing the bits in the correct bit positions within the packed byte before the data is passed to the MBUS_MSG instruction via DataPtr.

    The Done output is off while a request is being sent and the response is being received. The Done output is on when the response is complete or when the MBUS_MSG instruction was aborted because of an error.

    The Error output is valid only when the Done output is on. Table 5 on the next page is a list of error codes returned by the MBUS_MSG instruction.

    The low numbered error codes (1 through 8) are errors that are detected by the MBUS_MSG instruction. These error codes generally indicate a problem with the input parameters of the MBUS_MSG instruction, or a problem receiving the response from the slave. Parity and CRC errors indicate that there was a response but that the data was not received correctly. This is usually caused by an electrical problem such as a bad connection or electrical noise.

    The high numbered error codes (starting with 101) are errors that are returned by the Modbus slave device. These errors indicate that the slave does not support the requested function or that the requested address (either data type or range of addresses) is not supported by the Modbus slave device.

    Table 5 MBUS_MSG Error Codes

    Error Code Description

    0 No error

    Parity error in response. This is only possible if even or odd parity is

    used. The transmission was disturbed and possibly incorrect data was 1 received. This error is usually caused by an electrical problem such as

    incorrect wiring or electrical noise affecting the communication.

    2 Not used

    Receive timeout. There was no response from the slave within the

    Timeout time. Some possible causes are: bad electrical connection to the 3 slave device, master and slave are set to different baud rates and/or parity

    settings, incorrect slave address.

    Error in request parameter. One or more of the input parameters (Slave, 4 RW, Addr, or Count ) is set to an illegal value. Check the documentation

    for allowed values for the input parameters.

    Modbus master not enabled. Call MBUS_CTRL on every scan prior to 5 calling MBUS_MSG.

    Modbus is busy with another request. Only one MBUS_MSG instruction 6 can be active at a time.

    Error in response. The response received does not correspond to the 7 request. This indicates some problem in the slave device or that the

    wrong slave device answered the request.

    CRC error in response. The transmission was disturbed and possibly

    incorrect data was received. This error is usually caused by an electrical 8 problem such as incorrect wiring or electrical noise affecting the

    communication.

    Slave does not support the requested function. See Table 1 for the 101 required slave function support needed for the requested address.

    Slave does not support the data address. The requested address range of 102 Addr plus Count is outside the allowed address range of the slave.

    Slave does not support the data type. The Addr type is not supported by 103 the slave device.

    104 Slave device failure.

    Slave accepted the message but the response is delayed. This is an error 105 for MBUS_MSG and the user program should resend the request at a later

    time.

    Slave is busy and rejected the message. You can try the same request 106 again to get a response.

    107 Slave rejected the message for an unknown reason.

    108 Slave memory parity error. There is an error in the slave device.

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