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    Rhode Island Adult Education Content Standards December 2007 CONVEY IDEAS IN WRITING

BENCHMARKS

    When exiting each level, adult learners are able to draw from the following sets of knowledge, skills, and strategies during the reading process:

STANDARD: Convey Ideas in Writing

     Adults are able to use a writing process that integrates knowledge, skills, and strategies in order to accomplish writing tasks in a variety of roles. To do so they: ? Determine the purpose and audience for communicating in writing.

    ? Organize and present information to serve the purpose, context, and audience.

    ? Pay attention to the conventions of English language usage, including grammar, spelling, and sentence structure to minimize barriers to readers’ comprehension ? Seek feedback and revise to enhance the effectiveness of communication

    1LEVEL DESCRIPTIONS:

    Adult learners exiting each level can:

    Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Beginning ABE Literacy Beginning ABE Low Intermediate ABE High Intermediate ABE Low ASE High ASE High Beginning ESL Low Intermediate ESL High Intermediate ESL Advanced ESL

    Adults performing at Adults performing at Adults performing at Adults performing at Adults performing at Adults performing at Level 1 can write Level 2 can write simple Level 3 can write a few Level 4 can write Level 5 can write a Level 6 can write a individual words, simple and a few compound short paragraphs and coherent steps or well-variety of texts that variety of sentences in phrases and a few very sentences, sometimes in steps/instructions with constructed paragraphs include more complex medium-length, detailed simple sentences slowly short paragraphs with some effort but with few easily and with few errors sentence structures and text and in a variety of and with some effort and some effort but with few errors. They can to independently multiple paragraphs easily rhetorical forms, easily some errors. They can errors to independently independently accomplish accomplish well defined and with few errors for a and with few errors, to independently accomplish accomplish simple, well well-defined and writing activities (such as wide variety of purposes independently accomplish simple, well defined, and defined, and structured structured writing stories, essays, simple (such as creative writing, complex writing activities highly structured writing writing activities for some activities for a growing business letters) for essays, business letters, (such as academic papers, activities for limited basic everyday purposes number of purposes and varied purposes (such as academic reports). They critical essays, extended everyday purposes (such (such as long lists, notes audiences (such as family for personal expression, can independently forms) in a variety of as short lists, simple and memos, basic stories, friendly letters, e-to inform, to persuade or accomplish fairly familiar and novel notes, very simple forms) personal narratives, short mail, applications) in a to complete a task) and complex writing in a settings. in a few comfortable and letters, forms) in a few range of comfortable and audiences in a range of variety of familiar and

    familiar settings. comfortable and familiar familiar settings. comfortable settings. some novel settings.

    settings.

    Strand 1: PLANNING

     1 Adapted from the Equipped for the Future Read With Understanding Performance Continuum (http://eff.cls.utk.edu/eff_docs/EFFReadPC1.doc).

    Rhode Island Adult Education Content Standards December 2007 CONVEY IDEAS IN WRITING

BENCHMARKS

    When exiting each level, adult learners are able to draw from the following sets of knowledge, skills, and strategies during the reading process:

    Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Beginning ABE Literacy Beginning ABE Low Intermediate ABE High Intermediate ABE Low ASE High ASE High Beginning ESL Low Intermediate ESL High Intermediate ESL Advanced ESL

    P.2.1.. Determine P.3.1 Determine the P.4.1 Determine the P.5.1 Determine the P.6.1 Determine the Purpose and audience

    P.1.1 Determine purpose purposes and audiences purpose and audience for purpose and audience for purpose and audience for purpose and audience for and audience for writing for communicating in communicating in writing communicating in writing communicating in writing communicating in writing with considerable writing with guidance. independently for some with some guidance. with little guidance. independently. guidance. simple tasks and with

    some guidance for more

    complex writing tasks

    P.2.2 Use a few simple P.3.2 Use one or more P.4.2 Use basic planning P.5.2 Use a variety of P.6.2 Select from and Strategies

    P.1.2 Use at least one pre-writing strategies to pre-writing strategies to and pre-writing strategies planning strategies to use a wide range of simple, guided, pre-generate and organize generate and organize to generate and organize generate and organize strategies to generate and writing strategy to ideas for writing (e.g., ideas for writing (e.g., ideas for writing (e.g., ideas for writing. (e.g., organize ideas for writing generate and organize brainstorming, simple free-writing, graphic free-writing, mapping, outlines, graphic ideas for writing (e.g., idea webs, grouping ideas organizers such as simple simple outlines, graphic organizers such as

    brainstorming with others by categories). maps or timelines) organizers such as Venn pro/con or cause/effect

    or dictating ideas to diagrams) charts)

    others).

    P.2.3 Use personal P.3.3 Use personal P.4.3 Use personal P.5.3 Use personal P.6.3 Use personal Prior knowledge

    P.1.3 Use personal experience, interests, and experience, observations, experience, observations, experience, observations, experience, observations, experience, interests, and observations to generate reading, and ideas from reading, ideas from reading, ideas from reading, ideas from observations to generate content for writing others to generate content others, and contrasting others, contrasting others, contrasting content for writing for writing perspectives to generate perspectives, and simple perspectives, and research

     content for writing research to generate to generate content for

     content for writing writing

    P.2.4 Apply basic P.3.4 Apply P.4.4 Apply the writing P.5.4 Apply P.6.4 Apply the writing Process

    P.1.4 Apply basic understanding of understanding of the process to plan writing understanding that the use process and be able to awareness of writing as a components of the writing value and use of with the understanding of the writing process flexibly use that process process that includes a process (planning, components of the writing that multiple drafts, depends on the writing to plan writing for various planning what to write, drafting, revising, process (planning, revision and editing may purpose and context. purposes. writing a draft, revising editing). drafting, revising, be required.

    and editing. editing).

    Strand 2: GENERATING TEXT

    Rhode Island Adult Education Content Standards December 2007 CONVEY IDEAS IN WRITING

BENCHMARKS

    When exiting each level, adult learners are able to draw from the following sets of knowledge, skills, and strategies during the reading process:

    Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Beginning ABE Literacy Beginning ABE Low Intermediate ABE High Intermediate ABE Low ASE High ASE High Beginning ESL Low Intermediate ESL High Intermediate ESL Advanced ESL

    G.2.1 Use common G.3.1 Use vocabulary G.4.1 Use an expanded G.5.1 Select from an G.6.1 Select from a Vocabulary

    G.1.1 Use simple, vocabulary as well as related to topics of vocabulary related to a expanded vocabulary that broad vocabulary that familiar words that are vocabulary related to interest and the daily broad range of topics and allows expression of includes words needed for related to everyday personally relevant topics. demands of home, school, contexts and some basic detail and precise specialized, abstract, activities and needs. work, and community idioms meaning and/or academic topics

    G.2.2 Reading and G.3.2 Reading and G.4.2 Reading and G.5.2 Reading and G.6.2 Reading and R/W

    G.1.2 Reading and writing connections: writing connections: writing connections: writing connections. Read writing connections. Read writing connections: Draw ideas from texts for Integrate ideas from Summarize reading, most texts for adult and summarize key ideas Read written models, use new readers and use these reading with personal connect reading to audiences, summarize found in adult texts and models to copy text and in own writing with experience and personal experience and what is read, use multiple websites and conduct read back own written guidance. summarize ideas from use writing as a learning sources to conduct simple research using multiple texts (such as in language reading texts (such as by process. research, develop topics sources with minimal experience). writing one paragraph and subtopics, and use support.

     summaries and reports). texts as models for

    writing.

    G.2.3 Write a few types G.3.3 Write a variety of G.4.3 Write a range of GC.5.3 Write a range of G.6.3 Write a wide Range (incl formality)

    G.1.3 Write a couple of of simple texts to familiar simple texts (narratives, multiple paragraph texts coherent texts of varying range of coherent texts for types of simple text to audiences (basic short stories, one for varied purposes (e.g. length and for varied a wide range of purposes, self and familiar narratives, friendly letters, paragraph essays, short personal expression; to purposes, with the level including essays, work-audiences (notes, personal and simple instructions) summaries) for familiar inform, persuade, or of formality appropriate related correspondence, contact information, from models. and unfamiliar audiences analyze; to complete a to the purpose and pieces of creative writing, reminders on a calendar) with guidance and models task) for familiar and audience and research papers, with

     unfamiliar audiences appropriate tone, style,

    language, level of

    formality, and personal

    voice.

    G.2.4 Use simple and G.3.4 Use simple, G.4.4 Use a variety of G.5.4 Use a variety of G.6.4 Use a variety of Sentence structure

    G.1.4 Use simple compound sentences and compound (eg connected sentence types, including sentence types, including sentence types, including phrases and a few simple questions (using „and‟, with and, or, but, so), and complex sentences, complex sentences complex sentences sentences to convey ideas „but‟, and „or‟) some complex sentences containing phrases and containing long phrases containing long phrases, and info (using dependent clauses clauses, if appropriate. and clauses. clauses, and quotes.

    connected by when, after,

    Rhode Island Adult Education Content Standards December 2007 CONVEY IDEAS IN WRITING

BENCHMARKS

    When exiting each level, adult learners are able to draw from the following sets of knowledge, skills, and strategies during the reading process:

    Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Beginning ABE Literacy Beginning ABE Low Intermediate ABE High Intermediate ABE Low ASE High ASE High Beginning ESL Low Intermediate ESL High Intermediate ESL Advanced ESL

    before, while, because, if)

    G.2.5 Construct short, G.3.5 Construct one or G.4.5 Construct a multi-G.5.5 Construct multiple G.6.5 Construct multiple Org/length

    G.1.5 Construct short multi-sentence or multi-more paragraph paragraph text with a coherently-linked well-linked paragraphs sequences of words, item texts, organized by expository texts which discernable focus and paragraphs which develop and complex essays phrases, or sentences, chronological order or state, elaborate, and/or rhetorical structure (such and evaluate ideas, using which use a range of organized simply (e.g. in and using simple summarize a topic (with as compare/contrast, story a range of rhetorical rhetorical structures to lists, on forms, in short transitions (e.g. first, next, some supporting details, structures, business letter), structures (cause/effect, develop, analyze, narratives) to convey then) or by category (in a examples, or reasons) using signal words (e.g., to problem/soluation), synthesize and evaluate* meaning. list or simple two-column whom it may concern, on supporting details and complex ideas.

    type of chart: before/after, the other hand, signal words (e.g.

    here/there, pro/con , etc.). furthermore) to clarify although, therefore, in

    relationships among ideas summary) to establish the

     relationship among ideas.

    Strand 3: CONVENTIONS

    Grammar

    C.1.1 Use basic C.3.1 Use basic and C.2.1 Use basic C.4.1 Use some C.5.1 Use complex C.6.1 Use complex elements of English some complex grammar elements of English complex grammar grammar structures (e.g., grammar structures (e.g., grammar (e.g., simple structures (e.g. irregular grammar (e.g. structures (e.g. modals, perfect continuous tense, perfect continuous tense, tenses, past, present perfect, subject/verb agreement, adverbial clauses, passive constructions, passive constructions,

    singular and modals, conjunctions). subject pronouns, reported speech), embedded questions, embedded questions, plural nouns) and syntax complete sentences) and demonstrating awareness relative clauses). relative clauses) and (word order). syntax (word order) of how grammar choices make grammar choices

    affect meaning (e.g., appropriate to purpose

    past vs. past perfect). and formality of the task.

    C.3.2 Use conventions C.4.2 Use conventions C.5.2 Use conventions C.6.2 Use a wide range Punctuation/caps C.2.2

    C.1.2 Use conventions Use a few conventions of of grammar and of some complex of complex grammar and of conventions for of capitalization and basic basic grammar and punctuation grammar and punctuation punctuation (e.g., grammar, usage, and punctuation (e.g., end punctuation (e.g., use of commas to (e.g., commas to denote apostrophes, commas in punctuation (e.g., colons punctuation, capital letter (e.g., ,punctuation to end link series or to denote independent and some complex sentences, to signal lists, dashes, at beginning of a sentence sentences and link introductory phrases and dependent clauses,, quotation marks, footnote markers). and proper nouns) and compounds, clauses, contractions) in quotation mark). punctuation for citing

    punctuation related to contractions). longer sentences. simple texts).

    writing dates, names,

    Rhode Island Adult Education Content Standards December 2007 CONVEY IDEAS IN WRITING

BENCHMARKS

    When exiting each level, adult learners are able to draw from the following sets of knowledge, skills, and strategies during the reading process:

    Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Beginning ABE Literacy Beginning ABE Low Intermediate ABE High Intermediate ABE Low ASE High ASE High Beginning ESL Low Intermediate ESL High Intermediate ESL Advanced ESL

    prices, and phone

    numbers.

    C.2.3 Spell everyday, C.3.3 Spell everyday C.4.3 Spell familiar and C.5.3 Use conventions C.6.3 Use conventions Spelling

    C.1.3 Spell high personally significant and and more specialized unfamiliar words, using of spelling and awareness of spelling to spell single frequency words and familiar words, using words, using spelling spelling rules, knowledge of exceptions to spell and multi-syllabic words some phonetically regular knowledge of some strategies such as of syllable patterns, and words and identify and self-correct errors. words (e.g., hot, pot; sad, spelling rules (changing pronouncing words aloud simple roots, prefixes and common errors. mad). singular to plural). or mnemonic devices. suffixes, with some

     knowledge of syllable awareness of exceptions.

     patterns, and simple roots,

    prefixes and suffixes and

    spelling rules (change

    from singular to plural) to

    spell some more difficult

    words.

    C.2.4 Produce C.3.4 Produce C.4.4 Produce neat, C.5.4 Produce C. 6.4 Produce Handwriting

    C.1.4 Based on handwritten letters, handwritten text in either legible handwritten text; handwritten text expertly handwritten text fluently practicing with models, numbers and other cursive or print. use computer for some with attention to neatness and with ease; use produce hand-written symbols legible to most writing tasks. and legibility; use computer to produce letters, numbers and basic readers. computer to produce extended written text. symbols in minimally extended written text. legible form.

    Strand 4: REVISION STRATEGIES

    R.2.1 Demonstrate R.3.1 Use strategies G.4.1 Use revision G.5.1 Use revision G.6.1 Use a variety of Revision

    R.1.1 Follow models or understanding of the (e.g. rereading text aloud, strategies (e.g., re-strategies and feedback revision strategies to guides for basic revisions. concept of revision and using revision checklists) reading, outlining, from others to make address audience needs

     make some content-to make revisions, resequencing the text, content revisions for and incorporate feedback

     related revisions at the including revisions of adding more details) to clarity, sense of voice, from others.

    word and sentence level. text organization, word clarify meaning. and consideration of

     choice and sentence audience.

     structure.

    R.2.2 Make simple edits R.3.2 Make edits by R.4.2 Make many edits R.5.2 Undertake multiple R.6.2 Undertake Editing

    R.1.2 Make simple edits of grammar (subject/verb reading text aloud and with the help of tools re-readings of text in multiple re-readings of

    Rhode Island Adult Education Content Standards December 2007 CONVEY IDEAS IN WRITING

BENCHMARKS

    When exiting each level, adult learners are able to draw from the following sets of knowledge, skills, and strategies during the reading process:

    Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Beginning ABE Literacy Beginning ABE Low Intermediate ABE High Intermediate ABE Low ASE High ASE High Beginning ESL Low Intermediate ESL High Intermediate ESL Advanced ESL

    of grammar, and agreement), punctuation, using tools such as such as dictionaries, order to edit for grammar, text in order to make punctuation. and spelling of familiar simplified dictionaries to grammar checklists, spelling, sentence comprehensive edits for

     words. check spelling, thesaurus graphic organizers, and structure, language usage, grammar, spelling,

     to select vocabulary, spell-check. and text structure; and use sentence structure,

    editing checklists. appropriate tools such as language usage, and text

    dictionaries, thesauruses, structure, use appropriate

    and grammar guides. editing tools as necessary.

* Analysis (identifying the parts of the whole and their relationships to each other), synthesis (identifying the relationships between two or more ideas or other textual

    elements) and evaluation (using critical reading and thinking skills to judge and assign meaning or importance to text elements, ideas, experiences or events)

    Rhode Island Adult Education Content Standards December 2007 CONVEY IDEAS IN WRITING

BENCHMARKS

    When exiting each level, adult learners are able to draw from the following sets of knowledge, skills, and strategies during the reading process:

    Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Beginning ABE Literacy Beginning ABE Low Intermediate ABE High Intermediate ABE Low ASE High ASE High Beginning ESL Low Intermediate ESL High Intermediate ESL Advanced ESL

    Examples Examples Examples Examples Examples Examples

    ? Makes a list for ? Writes a short friendly ? Writes directions for a ? Keeps a journal of ? Fills out an accident ? Writes a letter to the grocery shopping or a letter. recipe. personal experiences. report with attention to editor detailing events list of addresses and important details. and rationale to ? Writes an invitation. ? Writes simple driving ? Writes a short letter to

    phone numbers. support a community directions. a child’s school. ? Writes comprehensive ? Writes an excuse for

    cause. ? Writes appointment travel directions and ? Writes an invitation to ? Writes comprehensive absence from school.

    date and time on a plans for a class trip. ? Writes a reflective a class party. directions for using a ? Writes a short work

    calendar. essay on personal piece of equipment. ? Writes a business memos. ? Makes a list of work

    history and experience. ? Writes a very short report to get ready for experience to prepare ? Writes a formal memo ? Writes brief phone

    message on a greeting a presentation at work. ? Write an essay to self-for a resume. on a work- or school-messages.

    card. evaluate learning. related topic. ? Writes directions for a ? Writes a longer friendly ? Writes longer and more

    ? Fills in basic ? Writes an essay to more complicated letter using more ? Writes a short report detailed shopping lists.

    information on forms, recipe. compare and contrast complex sentence on a field trip. ? Writes longer sentences such as a contest entry, two choices for structure. ? Writes a letter to ? Writes a longer and short paragraphs change of address postsecondary express multiple, ? Writes a brief business narrative in response to to answer oral or form, or catalog order. education. detailed concerns to a letter. an essay question. written questions.

    ? Writes short answers to teacher or principal. ? Writes an analysis of ? Writes a short 1-3 ? Writes a 2-4 paragraph ? Fills in longer, more oral or written the causes of a school ? Writes a short story. paragraph narrative persuasive letter to the complex forms. questions. problem and suggests about a personal editor. ? Writes a book report ? Writes a short narrative possible solutions. ? Copies simple experience. using considerable ? Takes notes while describing a personal ? Writes a research sentences containing detail ? Writes a short reading an article or experience. new vocabulary words. paper on possible paragraph listening to a ? Writes a short research career choices with ? Writes very short summarizing a story or presentation. paper with guidance

    benefits and drawbacks reminder notes to self. article written for adult ? Composes a short story ? Writes a short speech of each. ? Writes a very short learners. or poem. to commemorate a

    ? Writes a detailed note to a co-worker.. ? Provides a short special occasion. ? Creates a brochure incident report at work, description of an using multi-media. ? Keeps a job hunting which includes causes, opinion about a topic. journal with notes from effects, next steps. interviews. ? Creates a simple

    resume.

Rhode Island Adult Education Content Standards December 2007 CONVEY IDEAS IN WRITING

BENCHMARKS

    When exiting each level, adult learners are able to draw from the following sets of knowledge, skills, and strategies during the reading process:

About these standards and their connection to pre-literacy writing skills

    The Rhode Island Adult Education Content Standard, Convey Ideas in Writing, takes as its starting point, a skill level through which adults can encode words in

    writing (by hand) at a basic level. Adults at this level can “write individual words, simple phrases and a few very simple sentences slowly and with some effort and

    some errors. They can independently accomplish simple, well defined, and highly structured writing activities for limited everyday purposes (such as short lists, simple notes, very simple forms) in a few comfortable and familiar settings.” Please bear in mind that the benchmarks and level description describe what students can do when

    they exit the level. The notes below encompass the kinds of things to teach at the literacy level in order to bring learners to the exit benchmark. For practitioners working with adults who have not yet fully attained this level, (e.g. writers of non-roman alphabets or writers from cultures that have no written languages, or adults with fewer than four years of formal education), the following components are necessary to teach in order to prepare learners to be able to accomplish the tasks delineated throughout the benchmarks. Such components are detailed below, and would be integrated into and inform Literacy/ESOL practice for adults for whom these skills need to be strengthened:

    writing reading

    form letters from left to write read basic words from left to write

    write from top to bottom of a page read from top to bottom of a page

write the letters of the alphabet when dictated recognize and say the letters of the alphabet

    write and identify upper and lower case letters

utilize and recognize word boundaries by use of spaces between words

    utilize and recognize basic punctuation markers

working definitions

    nonliterate: learners who have no reading and writing skills in any language, but who speak one or more languages

    semiliterate: learners who have the equivalent of two to four years of formal education or possess minimal literacy skills in some language. These learners probably know the names of letters, can recognize some common words by sight, but usually can write only their names and addresses

    literate in a non-Roman alphabet: learners who are literate in their own languages, but need to learn the Roman alphabet and the sound-symbol relationships of English (MELT)

    beginning level ESOL learner profile - http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Swearer_Center/Literacy_Resources/standardsbeg.draft.html

    Factors to determine in order to assess learners‟ abilities:

    - previous education: formal education? how many years? where? (English-speaking country, non-English speaking country?)

    - literacy You learn to read once. If the learner has no literacy in any language, there will be an expectation of additional time needed to learn to crack the code Literacy in a non-Roman language: the learner understands the notion of sound/symbol // symbol/ meaning correspondence, but needs now to learn new symbols - dis/abilities hearing, sight, movement learning disabilities developmental disabilities - mobility - motor skills (need for adaptive materials? causes can include birth defects, trauma sustained since childhood, late onset mental illness)

    - direct instruction [seat time] frequency [how many times weekly?] intensity [ how many hours within a given period?] duration [class start/end dates] teaching/learning style match / mismatch teaching ability learning ability - innate ability, barriers and supports in place

    ancillary issues-- stressors or supports: - immigration status, marital status, living/economic situation, child care, transportation; support network -- community, family, social services - physical health - mental health; Access to needed other services // ability to obtain needed support and/or to learn what support is available.

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