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Central European Politics

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Central European Politics ...

    Central European Politics

    M.A. course in Political Science

    Fall semester, 2007.

    András Bozóki

    Professor of Political Science, CEU

    Office: Faculty Tower #907. Office hours: TBA

    bozokia@ceu.hu

    This course will focus on political developments in Central Europe in the past decades from dictatorship to multiparty democracy. In the first part of the course we discuss the nature of the previous, non-democratic regime; in the second part we focus on issues in transitions to democracy and democratic consolidation; finally, in the third part, some specific features of democratic politics (party system, the characteristics of Left and Right forces, elite change, symbolic politics, the challenges of European integration) will be discussed.

    Special attention is paid to the transformation of the so-called Visegrád countries, i. e. Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia (formerly known as Czechoslovakia), plus East Germany (formerly known as GDR). Besides the discussion of individual cases, we will also focus on intra-regional comparisons especially with Romania, Bulgaria. (Two special classes will be dedicated to student presentations on the political systems of Bulgaria, Croatia, Serbia, and Ukraine in order to broaden the comparative perspective.)

    Students are expected to attend classes regularly, to be active in classes, and to write position papers about every second week. Secondly, they should participate in a small group presentation on a selected country. Thirdly, as last requirement, there will be an in-class, open book test, as final exam, last week.

    Evaluation: Activity and position papers 35%, Presentation 25%, Final exam 40%

    General books General books

    The general books, listed below, do not belong to the mandatory readings, which are collected in the reader. However, these books are useful for any serious students of Central European politics. (For those, who are particularly interested in Hungarian politics, I inserted three specific books into the list as well.)

Joseph Held ed. (1992), The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century. New

    York: Columbia University Press

    Gale Stokes ed. (1994), From Stalinism to Pluralism: A Documentary History of Eastern Europe since 1945. New York: Oxford University Press

Peter F. Sugar ed. (1995), Eastern European Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. Washington

    D. C.: The American University Press

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    Grzegorz Ekiert (1996), The State Against Society: Political Crises and Their Aftermath in East Central Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press

    Karen Dawisha & Bruce Parrott (1997), Democratization and Authoritarianism in Postcommunist Societies. 4 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

    Jon Elster, Claus Offe, Ulrich K. Preuss et al. (1998), Institutional Design in Post-Communist Societies: Rebuilding the Ship at Sea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Vladimir Tismaneanu ed. (1999), The Revolutions of 1989. London: Routledge

Ignác Romsics (1999), Hungary in the Twentieth Century. Budapest: Corvina and Osiris

András Körösényi (1999), Government and Politics in Hungary. Budapest: CEU Press

    Andrew C. Janos (2000), East Central Europe in the Modern World: The Politics of the Borderlands from Pre- to Postcommunism. Stanford: Stanford University Press

András Bozóki ed. (2002), The Roundtable Talks of 1989: The Genesis of Hungarian

    Democracy. Budapest-New York: CEU Press

    Stephen White, Judy Batt, & Paul G. Lewis eds. (2003), Developments in Central and East European Politics 3. Durham: Duke University Press

     Topics and Readings

WEEK 1. (September 24, 26.) Totalitarianism, Post-Totalitarianism, and Other

    Historical Legacies

Mandatory reading:

George Schöpflin (1993), Politics in Eastern Europe. Oxford: Blackwell. Chapter 4. ?Stalinism”

    75-103.

    Andrew C. Janos (1996), ?What Was Communism: A Retrospective in Comparative Analysis” Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Vol. 29. No. 1. 1-24.

Jon Elster, Claus Offe, Ulrich K. Preuss et al. (1998), ?Mapping Eastern Europe” in Institutional

    Design in Post-Communist Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 35-62.

Ken Jowitt (1992), “The Leninist Legacy” in Ivo Banac (eds.), Eastern Europe in Revolution.

    Ithaca-London: Cornell University Press, 207-224.

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Suggested readings

    Hannah Arendt (1963) The Origins of Totalitarianism. Westport: Greenwood Press Carl J. Friedrich & Zbigniew K. Brzezinski (1956), Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy.

    Cambridge: Harvard University Press

    Thomas T. Hammond ed. (1975), The Anatomy of Communist Takeovers. New Haven: Yale

    University Press

    Jenő Szűcs (1988), ?Three Historical Regions of Europe” in John Keane (ed.), Civil Society and

    the State. New York - London: Verso, 1988. 291-332. Jacques Rupnik (1988), ?Totalitarianism Revisited” in John Keane (ed.), Civil Society and the

    State. New York-London: Verso, 1988. 263-289. István Bibó (1991 [1946]) ?The Distress of the East European Small States” in István Bibó:

    Democracy, Revolution, Self-Determination. Boulder: Social Science Monograph 13-86. Andrew Arato & Ferenc Fehér eds. (1991), Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe. New

    Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. Chapter by F. Feher, 481-512.

    Joseph Rothschild (1993), Return to Diversity: A Political History of East Central Europe Since

    World War II. New York: Oxford University Press 191-225. Norman Naimark & Leonid Gibianskii eds. (1997), The Establishment of Communist Regimes

    in Eastern Europe, 1944-49. Boulder: Westview Press

    Sabrina P. Ramet ed. (1998), Eastern Europe: Politics, Culture and Society Since 1939.

    Bloomington Indianapolis: Indiana University Press H. E. Chebabi & Juan J. Linz eds. (1998), Sultanistic Regimes. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins

    University Press

WEEK 2. (October 2, 4.) Preconditions of, and Transitions to Democracy

Mandatory readings Mandatory readings

Seymour Martin Lipset (1969), ?Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development

    and Political Legitimacy” In Charles F. Cnuddle & Deane E. Neubauer (eds.): Empirical Democratic Theory. Chicago: Markham, 151-192.

    Dankwart Rustow (1970), ?Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model” Comparative Politics, April 1970. 337-363.

Alfred Stepan (1986), ?Paths Toward Redemocratization: Theoretical and Comparative

    Considerations” In Guillermo O‟Donnell, Philippe C. Schmitter & Laurence Whitehead (eds.), Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives. Baltimore - London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986. 64-84.

    Samuel P. Huntington (1991), ?Democracy‟s Third Wave” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 2. No. 2. 12-34.

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    Claus Offe (1997), Varieties of Transition. Cambridge: M. I. T. Press, 29-49.

Suggested readings

    Rudolf L. Tőkés ed. (1979), Opposition in Eastern Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U. P. H. Gordon Skilling (1989), Samizdat and an Independent Society in Central and Eastern Europe.

    London: Macmillan

    George Schöpflin & Nancy Wood eds. (1989), In Search of Central Europe. Oxford: Polity Press Samuel P. Huntington (1991-2), ?How Countries Democratize” Political Science Quarterly, Vol.

    106. No. 4. 579-616.

    Larry Diamond (1992), ?Economic Development and Democracy Reconsidered” in Gary Marks

    & Larry Diamond (eds.), Reexamining Democracy. London: Sage, 93-139. Piotr Sztompka (1996), “Looking Back: The Year 1989 As a Cultural and Civilizational Break”

    Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Vol. 29. No. 2. 115-129.

    Gale Stokes (1997), Three Eras of Political Change in Eastern Europe. New York: Oxford U. P. Geoffrey Swain & Nigel Swain (1998), Eastern Europe Since 1945. London: Macmillan Guillermo O'Donnell & Philippe C. Schmitter (1986), Transitions from Authoritarian Rule:

    Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins

    University Press

    Adam Przeworski (1991), Democracy and the Market. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Jadwiga Staniszkis (1991), The Dynamics of Breakthrough in Eastern Europe. Berkeley:

    University of California Press

    Don Chull Shin (1994), “On the Third Wave of Democratization: A Synthesis and Evaluation of

    Recent Theory and Research” World Politics, Vol. 47. No. 1. October, 135-170. Grzegorz Ekiert & Jan Kubik (1999), Rebellious Civil Society: Popular Protest and Democratic

    Consolidation in Poland 1989-93. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press Lisa Anderson ed. (1999), Transitions to Democracy. New York: Columbia University Press Geoffrey Pridham (2000), The Dynamics of Democratization: A Comparative Approach.

    London: Continuum

    Krishan Kumar (2001), 1989: Revolutionary Ideas and Ideals. Minneapolis: University of

    Minnesota Press

    WEEK 3. (October 9, 11.) Old Regimes and Their Collapse: Democratic Change in

    Poland, Hungary and East Germany in Intra-Regional Comparison

Mandatory readings

    Z. A. Pelczynski (1988), ?Solidarity and the Rebirth of Civil Society in Poland 1976-81” in John Keane (ed.): Civil Society and the State. London-New York: Verso, 361-380.

    Krzysztof Jasiewicz (1992), ?From Solidarity to Fragmentation” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 3. No. 2. 55-69.

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András Körösényi (1992), ?The Decay of Communist Rule in Hungary” in András Bozóki, A.

    Körösényi & George Schöpflin (eds.), Post-Communist Transition: Emerging Pluralism in

    Hungary. London: Pinter, 1-12.

László Bruszt & David Stark (1992), ?Remaking the Political Field in Hungary: From the

    Politics of Confrontation to the Politics of Competition” In Ivo Banac (ed.): Eastern Europe in Revolution. Ithaca - London: Cornell University Press, 13-55.

Naimark, Norman N. (1992), ?‟Ich will hier raus‟: Emmigration and the Collapse of the German

    Democratic Republic” in Ivo Banac (ed.), Eastern Europe in Revolution. Ithaca-London: Cornell University Press, 72-95.

    Kurt-Henning Tvedt (2004), ?The East German Transition Game” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, Vol. 20. No. 2. June, 73-97.

Suggested readings

Jadwiga Staniszkis (1992), The Dynamics of the Breakthrough in Eastern Europe: The Polish

    Case. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Peter Hanak & Joseph Held (1992), ?Hungary on a Fixed Course: An Outline of Hungarian

    History” in Joseph Held (ed.), The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth

    Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 164-227. András Bozóki, András Körösényi & George Schöpflin eds. (1992), Post-Communist Transition:

    Emerging Pluralism in Hungary. London: Pinter, New York: St. Martin‟s Press

    András Bozóki (1993), ?Hungary‟s Road to Systemic Change: The Opposition Roundtable” East

    European Politics and Societies, Vol. 7. No. 2. 276-308.

    Josep M. Colomer & Margot Pascual (1994), ?The Polish Games of Transition” Communist and

    Post-Communist Studies, Vol. 27. No. 3. 275-294.

    Terry Cox & Andy Furlong eds.(1995), Hungary: The Politics of Transition. London: Frank Cass Béla K. Király & András Bozóki eds. (1995), Lawful Revolution in Hungary, 1989-94. Boulder:

    Social Science Monographs

    Christian Joppke (1995), East German Dissidents and the Revolution of 1989. New York: New

    York University Press

    Rudolf L. Tőkés (1996), Hungary‟s Negotiated Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P. Preuss, Ulrich K. (1996), ?The Roundtable Talks in the German Democratic Republic” in Jon

    Elster (ed.): The Roundtable Talks and the Breakdown of Communism. Chicago:

    University of Chicago Press, 99-134.

    Fulbrook, Mary (1997), Anatomy of a Dictatorship: Inside the GDR 1949-1989. Oxford: Oxford

    University Press

    Roger East & Jolyon Pontin (1997), Revolution and Change in Central and Eastern Europe.

    London: Pinter

    Brigitte H. Schulz (1998), ?The German Democratic Republic” in Sabrina P. Ramet (ed.),

    Eastern Europe: Politics, Culture, and Society Since 1939. Bloomington Indianapolis:

    Indiana University Press, 94-125.

    Jack Bielasiak (1998), ?Poland” in Sabrina P. Ramet (ed.), Eastern Europe: Politics, Culture, and

    Society Since 1939. Bloomington Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 126-158. Helena Flam (1998), Mosaic of Fear: Poland and East Germany Before 1989. Boulder: East

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    European Monographs

    David Stark & László Bruszt (1998), Postsocialist Pathways: Transforming Politics and Property

    in East Central Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

    László Kürti (1998), ?Hungary” in Sabrina P. Ramet (ed.), Eastern Europe: Politics, Culture, and

    Society Since 1939. Bloomington Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 71-93. Anton Pelinka (1999), Politics of the Lesser Evil: Leadership, Democracy and Jaruzelski's

    Poland. New Brunswick: Transaction

    Michael D. Kennedy (1999), ?Contingencies and the Alternatives of 1989: Toward a Theory

    and Practice of Negotiating Revolution” East European Politics and Societies, Vol. 13.

    No. 2. Spring, 293-302.

    Eric Stein (2000), Czecho / Slovakia: Ethnic Conflict, Constitutional Fissure, Negotiated

    Breakup. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press Katarzyna Zukrowska (2000), ?Poland: An Effective Strategy of Systemic Change” in Wojciech

    Kostecki, Katarzyna Zukrowska & Bogdan J. Goralczyk (eds.), Transformation of Post-

    Communist States. London: Macmillan, 168-184.

    Elzbieta Matynia (2001), ?Furnishing Democracy at the End of the Century: The Polish Round

    Table and Others” East European Politics and Societies, Vol. 15. No. 2. 454-471.

    András Bozóki ed. (2002), The Roundtable Talks of 1989: The Genesis of Hungarian

    Democracy. New York Budapest: CEU Press

    András Bozóki (2002), ?Introduction: The Significance of the Roundtable Talks” in A. Bozóki

    ed. The Roundtable Talks of 1989: The Genesis of Hungarian Democracy. New York -

    Budapest: CEU Press, xv-xxxiv.

    Barbara Falk (2003), Dilemmas of Dissidence in Eastern Europe. Budapest-New York: CEU

    Press

    John W. Schiemann (2005), The Politics of Pact-Making: Hungary‟s Negotiated Transition to

    Democracy in Comparative Perspective. New York: Palgrave - Macmillan

    WEEK 4. (October 16, 18.) Types of Old Regimes and Their Collapse: Czechoslovakia

    Romania and Bulgaria

Mandatory readings

Tony R. Judt (1992), ?Metamorphosis: The Democratic Revolution in Czechoslovakia” In Ivo

    Banac (ed.), Eastern Europe in Revolution. Ithaca - London: Cornell University Press, 96-116.

    Sharon L. Wolchik (1998), ?Czechoslovakia” in Sabrina P. Ramet (ed.), Eastern Europe: Politics, Culture, and Society Since 1939. Bloomington Indianapolis: Indiana U. P. 35-70.

Eyal, Jonathan (1990), ?Why Romania Could Not Avoid Bloodshed” in Gwyn Prins (ed.):

    Spring in Winter: The 1989 Revolutions. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 140-160.

    William Crowther (1998), ?Romania” in Sabrina P. Ramet (ed.), Eastern Europe: Politics, Culture, and Society Since 1939. Bloomington Indianapolis: Indiana U. P. 190-223.

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    Spas T. Raikin (1998), ?Bulgaria” in Sabrina P. Ramet (ed.), Eastern Europe: Politics, Culture, and Society Since 1939. Bloomington Indianapolis: Indiana U. P. 224-250.

Suggested readings

Martin Bútora, Zora Bútorová & Tatiana Rosová (1991), ?The Hard Birth of Democracy in

    Slovakia” Journal of Communist Studies, Vol. 7. No. 4. 435-459. Bernard Wheaton & Zdenek Kavan (1992), The Velvet Revolution: Czechoslovakia, 1988-1991.

    Boulder - Oxford: Westview

    Sharon L. Wolchik (1992), ?Czechoslovakia” in Joseph Held (ed.), The Columbia History of

    Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century. New York: Columbia U. P., 119-163. Trond Gilberg (1992), ?The Multiple Legacies of History: Romania in the Year 1990” in Joseph

    Held (ed.), The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century. New York:

    Columbia University Press, 277-305.

    Katherine Verdery & Gail Kligman (1992), “Romania After Ceausescu: Post-Communist

    Communism” in Ivo Banac (ed.), Eastern Europe in Revolution. Ithaca London: Cornell

    University Press, 117-147.

    Marin Pundeff (1992), “Bulgaria” in Joseph Held (ed.), The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in

    the Twentieth Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 65-118. Maria N. Todorova (1992), “Improbable Maverick or Typical Conformist? Seven Thoughts on the

    New Bulgaria” in Ivo Banac (ed.): Eastern Europe in Revolution. Ithaca-London: Cornell

    University Press, 148-167.

    Jiri Musil (1992), ?Czechoslovakia in the Middle of Transition” Daedalus, Vol. 121. No. 2.

    Spring, 175-196.

    Daniel N. Nelson (1992), Romania After Tyranny. Boulder: Westview Press Sona Szomolányi & Grigorij Meseznikov eds. (1994), The Slovak Path of Transition - to

    Democracy? Bratislava: SPSA

    Katherine Verdery (1995), National Ideology under Socialism: Identity and Cultural Politics in

    Ceausescu`s Romania. Berkeley: University of California Press Milos Calda (1996), ?The Roundtable Talks in Czechoslovakia” in Jon Elster (ed.), The

    Roundtable Talks and the Breakdown of Communism. Chicago: University of Chicago

    Press, 135-177.

    Jaroslaw Krejci & Pavel Machonin: Czechoslovakia 1918-92: A Laboratory of Social Change.

    London: Macmillan, 1996.

    Rumyana Kolarova & Dimitr Dimitrov (1996), ?The Roundtable Talks in Bulgaria” in Jon Elster

    (ed.), The Roundtable Talks and the Breakdown of Communism. Chicago: University of

    Chicago Press, 178-212.

    Ion Bogdan Vasi (2004), ?The Fist of the Working Class: The Social Movements of Jiu Valley

    Miners in Post-Socialist Romania” East European Politics and Societies, Vol. 18. No. 1.

    132-157.

    WEEK 5. (October 25.) Post-Transition Settings: Institution-building, Constitutional

    Choices, Parliamentarism vs Presidentialism

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Mandatory readings

    Arend Lijphart (1992), ?Democratization and Constitutional Choices in Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland, 1989-1991” Journal of Theoretical Politics, Vol. 4. No. 2. 1992.

    Matthew S. Shugart (1993), ?Of Presidents and Parliaments” East European Constitutional Review, Vol. 2. No. 1. 30-32.

Ray Taras (2003), ?Executive Leadership: Presidents and Parliaments” in Stephen White, Judy

    Batt & Paul G. Lewis (eds.), Developments in Central and East European Politics 3. Durham:

    Duke University Press, 115-132.

    Petr Kopecky (2003), ?Structures of Representation: The New Parliaments of Central and Eastern Europe” in S. White, J. Batt & P. G. Lewis (eds.), Developments in Central and East European Politics. Durham: Duke University Press, 133-152.

Thomas A. Baylis (2007), ?Embattled Executives: Prime Ministerial Weakness in East Central

    Europe” Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Vol. 40. No. 1. March, 81-106.

Suggested readings

    Juan J. Linz (1990), ?The Perils of Presidentialism” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 1. No. 1. 51-69. Donald L. Horowitz (1990), ?Comparing Democratic Systems” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 1.

    No. 4. 73-79.

    Dick Howard ed. (1993), Constitution Making in Eastern Europe. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins

    University Press

    Juan J. Linz (1994), ?Presidential or Parliamentary Democracy: Does It Make a Difference?” in

    Juan J. Linz & Arturo Valenzuela (eds.), The Failure of Presidential Democracy.

    Baltimore-London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 3-87. Alfred Stepan & Cindy Skach (1994), ?Presidentialism and Parliamentarism in Comparative

    Perspective” In: Juan J. Linz & Arturo Valenzuela (eds.), The Failure of Presidential

    Democracy. Baltimore-London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 119-136.

    Jon Elster ed. (1996), The Roundtable Talks and the Breakdown of Communism. Chicago:

    University of Chicago Press

    Scott Mainwaring & Matthew S. Shugart (1997), “Juan Linz, Presidentialism and Democracy”

    Comparative Politics, Vol. 29. No. 4. July 1997. 449-471. Jon Elster, Claus Offe, Ulrich K. Preuss et al. (1998), Institutional Design in Post-Communist

    Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 63-108. Michael Bernhard (2000), ?Institutional Choice after Communism: A Critique of Theory-

    Building in an Empirical Wasteland” East European Politics and Societies, Vol. 14. No.

    316-347.

    Jean Blondel & Ferdinand Müller-Rommel eds. (2001), Cabinets in Eastern Europe.

    Basingstoke: Palgrave

    András Bozóki ed. (2002), The Roundtable Talks of 1989: The Genesis of Hungarian

    Democracy. Budapest New York: Central European University Press Sarah Birch, Frances Millard, Marina Popescu & Kieran Williams (2002), Embodying

    Democracy: Electoral System Design in Post-Communist Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave

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Klaus von Beyme (2003), ?Constitutional Engineering in Central and Eastern Europe” in

    Stephen White, Judy Batt & Paul G. Lewis (eds.), Developments in Central and East

    European Politics 3. Durham: Duke University Press, 190-210.

    WEEK 6. (October 30.) Theories of Democratic Consolidation

Mandatory readings

    Guillermo O‟Donnell (1994), ?Delegative Democracy” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 5. No. 1. 55-69.

Juan J. Linz & Alfred Stepan (1996), ?Democracy and Its Arenas” in Linz & Stepan: Problems

    of Democratic Transition and Consolidation. Baltimore - London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 3-15.

Philippe C. Schmitter & Nicolas Guilhot (2000), “From Transition to Consolidation: Extending

    the Concept of Democratization and the Practice of Democracy” in Michel Dobry (ed.),

    Democratic and Capitalist Transitions in Eastern Europe: Lessons for the Social Sciences.

    Dordrecht: Kluwer, 131-146.

    Guillermo O‟Donnell (1996), ?Illusions about Consolidation” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 7. No. 2. 34-51.

Herbert Kitschelt (2001), ?Divergent Paths of Postcommunist Democracies” in Larry Diamond

    & Richard Gunther (eds.), Political Parties and Democracy. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 299-323.

Suggested readings

Scott Mainwaring, Guillermo O'Donnell & J. Arturo Valenzuela eds. (1992), Issues in

    Democratic Consolidation. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press Philippe C. Schmitter (1995), ?The Consolidation of Political Democracies: Rhythms, Sequences

    and Types” In Geoffrey Pridham (ed.), Transitions to Democracy. Aldershot: Dartmouth,

    535-569.

    Iván Berend T. (1996), Central and Eastern Europe, 1944-1993: Detour from the Periphery

    to the Periphery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Richard Rose & William Mishler (1996), ?Testing the Churchill Hypothesis: Popular Support for

    Democracy and Its Alternatives” Journal of Public Policy, Vol. 16. No. 1. 29-58. Juan Linz & Alfred Stepan (1996), Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation.

    Baltimore - London: The Johns Hopkins University Press Adam Przeworski et al. (1996), ?What Makes Democracies Endure?” Journal of Democracy,

    Vol. 7. No.1. 39-55.

    Jon Elster, Claus Offe, Ulrich K. Preuss et al. (1998), ?Building and Consolidating Democracies”

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    in Institutional Design in Post-Communist Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University

    Press, 109-155.

    Richard Rose, W. Mishler & C. Haerpfer (1998), Democracy and Its Alternatives

    Understanding Post-Communist Societies. Oxford: Polity Press Larry Diamond (1999), Developing Democracy Toward Consolidation. Baltimore: The Johns

    Hopkins University Press

    John D. Nagle & Alison Mahr (1999), Democracy and Democratization: Post-Communist

    Europe in Comparative Perspective. London: Sage

    Andreas Schedler (2001), ?Measuring Democratic Consolidation” Studies in Comparative

    International Development, Vol. 36. No. 1. Spring, 66-92. Jan Zielonka ed. (2001), Democratic Consolidation in Eastern Europe. Vol. 1. Institutional

    Engineering. New York: Oxford University Press John Dryzek & Leslie Holmes (2002), Post-Communist Democratization: Political Discourses

    Across Thirteen Countries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Detlef Pollack, Jörg Jacobs, Olaf Müller & Gert Pickel eds. (2003), Political Culture in Post-

    Communist Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate

    Detlef Pollack, Jörg Jacobs, Olaf Müller & Gert Pickel eds. (2003), ?Introduction” in Political

    Culture in Post-Communist Europe: Attitudes in New Democracies. Aldershot: Ashgate,

    xiii-xxii

    WEEK 7. (November 6, 8.) The Emerging Multi-Party System: Left and Right in

    the Post-Communist Context

Mandatory readings

    Herbert Kitschelt (1992), ?Formation of Party Systems in East Central Europe” Politics and Society, Vol. 20. No. 1. 7-50.

John T. Ishiyama (1997), ?The Sickle or the Rose? Previous Regime Types and the Evolution of

    the Ex-Communist Parties in Post-Communist Politics” Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 30. No. 3. June, 299-330.

    Seán Hanley (2004), ?Getting the Right Right: Redefining the Centre-Right in Post-Communist Europe” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, Vol. 20. No. 3. September, 9-27.

    Shale Horowitz & Eric C. Browne (2005), ?Sources of Post-Communist Party System Consolidation: Ideology versus Institutions” Party Politics, Vol. 11. No. 6. November, 689-706.

Anna Grzymala-Busse (2006), ?Authoritarian Determinants of Democratic Party Competition:

    The Communist Successor Parties in East Central Europe” Party Politics, Vol. 12. No. 3. May, 415-437.

Suggested readings

Maurizio Cotta (1994), ?Building Party Systems after the Dictatorship: The East European Cases

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