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Short-Term Memory and Interpreting

By Maurice West,2014-01-06 21:02
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Short-Term Memory and Interpreting

    

    CHANGSHA UNIVERSITY

    毕业设计;论文;资料

    Short-Term Memory and

    设计;论文;题目?

    Interpreting

     部? 业? 英语本科 名?

     级? 06英本2 学号 2006071234 指导教师姓名? 廖越英 职称 讲师 最终评定成绩

    长沙学院教务处

    二??九年十月制

    

    第一部分 毕业论文 一、毕业论文

    第二部分 过程管理资料 一、 毕业设计;论文~课题任务书

    二、 本科毕业设计;论文~开题报告 三、 本科毕业设计;论文~中期报告 四、 毕业设计;论文~指导教师评阅表 五、 毕业设计;论文~评阅教师评阅表 六、 毕业设计;论文~答辩评审表

20 10

本科生毕业设计;论文~资料

第一部分 毕业论文

     2010届~

     本科生毕业论文

    Short-Term Memory and Interpreting

     部? 业? 英语本科 名? 级? 06英本2 学号 2006071234 指导教师姓名? 廖越英 职称 讲师 最终评定成绩

    2010 04

    Short-Term Memory and Interpreting

    By Yuwei Yuan

    A thesis

    Submitted to the Department of Foreign Languages of

    Changsha University

    In partial fulfillment of the requirements

    For the degree of

    Bachelor of Arts

    Supervised by

    Liao Yueying

    May 2010

     长沙学院毕业设计(论文)

    短时记忆与口译

    作者?袁雨薇

    导师?廖越英

    

    口译是一种语言处理形式。 口译是为了帮助无法沟通的人们理解对方。探索大脑和记忆机制的奥秘有助于人们理解领悟语言信息处理过程。研究记忆?尤其是短时记忆的重要性能促进口译员的训练?从而培养出高素质的口译员架起沟通的桥梁。由于人类大脑是如此复杂?又是如此精妙?研究工作十分困难?要研究人的记忆也同样的困难。尽管研究科学家已经就此课题做了很多实验?人类大脑以及记忆还有很多未知区域。部分结论仅是根据个人经验或是理论论述?但是这些结论不一定完全错误。本论文是根据科学家们和口译员们的研究而写的。部分论据是科学家们及口译员们的个人经历及经验?其余都是实验结论。

    本论文分为三部分?介绍、主体及结论。论文主体部分又分为三部分。第一部分通对大脑的剖析及讲述记忆的形成过程?介绍记忆种类尤其是短时记忆。第二部分主要通过“精力分配模式”阐述短时记忆在口译中的重要性。第三部分介绍提高短时记忆的方法?在口译训练中该类方法已被采用。

    关键词?大脑,记忆,短时记忆,口译,精力分配,短时记忆训练

     I

     长沙学院毕业设计(论文)

    Short-Term Memory and Interpreting

    Author: YUAN Yuwei

    Supervisor: LIAO Yueying

    ABSTRACT

    Interpreting is a form of language processing. It helps people who cannot understand each other communicate. Uncovering the mystery of the brain and memory mechanisms will help us understand the cognitive and psychological processing of linguistic information. Exploring the importance of memory, especially short-term memory will help to train interpreters. This will create more high-quality interpreters to bridge the people. As the human brain is so complicated and delicate, it has been difficult to study the brain. Memory is also difficult to study. Although many researchers have done experiments on the topic, there are still many unknown things about it. There has also been research on the topic but are confined to personal experiences or theoretical expositions. But the result from this research is not necessarily wrong. This thesis is based on the result of research done by scientists and interpreters. Some are their personal experiences; some are experimental results.

    This thesis is divided into three parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. The body of the thesis is consisted of three sections. In section one it talks about short-term memory. It starts with mechanism of memory and mechanic system of brain works. It briefs on physically how different parts of brain help with memory, and how memory is created. Then the thesis talks about the categories of memory and the definition of short-term memory. Part two details on the relationship of short-term memory and interpreting through effort model. The last part of the body talks about the possible methods of enhancing short-term memory. Some of the methods have already been used in interpreting training.

    Keywords: Brain; Memory; Short-Term Memory; Interpreting; Effort Model; Short-Term Memory Training

     II

     长沙学院毕业设计(论文)

    Acknowledgements

    First and foremost, I would like to give my heartfelt thanks to my supervisor, Liao Yueying, a respectable, responsible teacher, who has provided me with valuable guidance in every stage of the writing of this thesis. Without her instruction, encouragement and patience, I could not have completed my thesis. Her effective advice, shrewd comments have kept the thesis in the right direction.

    My sincere gratitude also goes to all the teachers of Foreign Language Department in Changsha University who have taught me for four years. They provided me with everything I need to learn about English.

    Last but not least, I would like to thank Susan Johnson, Cindy Whiteman, Amanda Kilgore, Stella Li, Michael Billings, Martha Blachly-Cross, all the librarians who helped me order the 25 books I needed to write my thesis from universities all over Ohio, and my family and all my other friends who supported and encouraged me. Thank you all.

     III

     长沙学院毕业设计(论文)

    CONTENTS

     ................................................................................................................ I ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................... II 1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 1 2 Brief Views on Short-term Memory ............................................................. 3

    2.1 The Definition of Memory ......................................................................................... 3

    2.1.1 Mechanic System of Memory .......................................................................... 3

    2.1.2 Mechanic System of Brain Works .................................................................... 4

    2.1.3 The Category and Stages of Memory ............................................................... 6

    2.2 The Definition of Short-Term Memory ...................................................................... 6

    2.2.1 Immediate Memory and Working Memory....................................................... 7

    2.2.2 Memory Span .................................................................................................. 8

    2.2.3 Limited Ability ................................................................................................ 8

    2.2.4 Recency Effect ................................................................................................. 9

    2.3 The Difference between Short-term Memory and Long-term Memory ..................... 10 3 Short-Term Memory and Interpreting .......................................................... 11

    3.1 The Definition of Interpreting .................................................................................. 11

    3.2 The Relation of Short-Term Memory and Interpreting ............................................. 11

    3.2.1 Effort Model .................................................................................................. 12 4. Short-Term Memory Training ..................................................................... 14

    4.1 Visualizing Materials ............................................................................................... 14

    4.2 Comprehension and Logic Improvement ................................................................. 14

    4.2.1 Newspaper Article Retelling .......................................................................... 15

    4.3 Chunk Exercise ....................................................................................................... 15

    4.3.1 Jot Down Large Number of Random Numbers ............................................... 16

    4.4 Repetition ................................................................................................................ 16

    4.5 Attention and Concentration .................................................................................... 16

    4.6 Prepare Oneself for Interpreting............................................................................... 17 5 Conclusion .................................................................................................. 18 References ......................................................................................................... 19

     IV

     长沙学院毕业设计(论文)

    1 Introduction

    “I have a terrible memory.” How often have you heard that? It may not be rare to hear somebody joking about his memory. “My memory is awful. I managed to forget what I was going to tell my friend on the other end of the phone something that I remembered a moment ago.” Alan Baddeley, author of “Your Memory; A User‟s Guide”, is an expert in memory. He once almost forgot to appear at a call-in radio program on memory. Luckily, he was reminded of his mistake by reading the radio section of the newspaper. He arrived at the studio just in time to be asked by the anchor man for a few tips on improving your memory (Alan, 9). Pretty ironic, isn‟t it? But he believes that he has a good memory, and would argue that both his memory and everyone‟s memory exceeds that of the best computer in terms of capacity,

    flexibility and durability. Most people would agree that everyone‟s memory has the potential to be improved, regardless of one‟s present capability.

    Hermann Ebbinghaus, a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of

    memory, described the forgetting curve and the learning curve. According to stuff4educators.com the forgetting curve describes the exponential curve that illustrates how fast we tend to forget the information we had learned. The sharpest decline is in the first twenty minutes, then in the first hour, and then the curve evens off after about one day. It is closely related to strength of memory which refers to the durability that memory traces in the brain. The stronger the memory is, the longer period of time that a person is able to recall it. His forgetting curve and learning curve have been popular among language learners, since the appearance of the electronic dictionary with the additional function of words learning and reciting. Electronic dictionaries are programmed to tell users to repeat learning and reciting the words they just recited in a period of time, according to the forgetting curve. The word learning and reciting function is one of the practical uses of the forgetting curve and learning curve.

    The examples above have shown the relationship between humans and their memory. Every person in the world is enjoying or suffering from this memory. People with good memories are trying to enhance their memory further, so as to take advantage of it. People

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