Question 1 Develop a marketing strategy for Revlon to enter the

By Ralph Patterson,2014-05-12 20:25
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Question 1 Develop a marketing strategy for Revlon to enter the

CMGB 6301 Consumer Behavior Revlon for Men?

    Question 1

     Develop a marketing strategy for Revlon to enter the men’s cosmetics market with a

    complete product line.

    Revlon is a world leader in cosmetics, skin care, fragrance and personal care and is a

    leading mass market cosmetics brand, alongside L’Oreal’s Maybelline and Procter & Gamble's

    Cover Girl. Their vision is to provide glamour, excitement and innovation through quality

    products at affordable prices. They have developed a long-standing reputation as a trendsetter

    in the world of cosmetics, skin care, fragrance, and personal care.

Product Strategy

    Consumers buy motive satisfaction or problem solutions NOT product. In the case of

    men’s cosmetics, career enhancement, ego booster, sense of competitiveness and attention

    and admiration from women are the motives behind the need for this type of cosmetics. The

    words of Charles Revlon (Former Head)…“In the factory we make cosmetics, in the store we

    sell hope”… show that Revlon is in the right track. Tying these existing needs for affiliation (belongingness) and esteem to men’s cosmetics will create demand for the brand.

    Subtleness and convenience are some of the product attributes that researchers found

    to be important to male consumers in buying and experiment with cosmetics.

    Complete Product Line include convenient combo of a natural smelling three-step skin care

    (facial soap, cleanser & moisturizer); Shaving products, deodorants, skin clearing & treatment

    products designed to hide dark circle, age spots, razor burn and reduce appearance of fine lines

    and wrinkles (example: concealer, eye treatment formula, skin toner) .

Communication Strategy (Media, Advertisement and Packaging)

    Cosmetics are high-involvement products. Revlon men’s cosmetics ads should be

    placed in media outlets that are relevant to men. Specialized media such as Maxim, National

    Geographic, and Men Health tend to be highly effective. Cooperating with one of the specialized

    magazines to create a onetime mini-magazine is one other way to communicate with potential

    consumers. By flipping through it, readers can find various brand mention and Revlon men’s


    Revlon has to change the cognitive component of general consumers’ attitude, which

    basically entails changing the belief that cosmetic products are for feminine in nature. They

    must educate consumers and this can be done by communicating their brand personality


CMGB 6301 Consumer Behavior Revlon for Men?

    through mass media (print, television and web site). The basis of the campaign is that cosmetics

    are for those who dare to challenge the norm, the free-spirited; “men who chafe against the

    restrictions" of traditional male roles and who do not care whether some people might consider

    their actions unmanly. This can be done through matching celebrity endorsers with the desired

    brand personality. Current Revlon ads featured a number of different well-known actresses

    including Halle Berry, Eva Mendes and Jessica Alba. In the case of Revlon for Men, David

    Beckham, Brad Pitt and Gerard Butler are some viable candidates.

    Revlon Web site must also be effective, reliable, consistent and interesting in promoting its

    products to men. Packaging design must clearly convey a look and feel unique to men’s

    products. The packaging components that are purely masculine include large tubes and metal

    canisters without frills with darker masculine colours.

    Distribution Strategy

    Currently, Revlon serves mass volume retailers; chain drug and food stores; department stores; other specialty stores. These readily available distribution channels are proven effective

    to reach target customers. Strategic shelf position and highly visible point-of purchase displays

    can help customers in allocating your brand among those available in the market. Cross-

    promotions in promoting complementary products available in the Complete Men Product Line

    can be adopted throughout their distribution channels. Availability of the promoted products in

    all distribution channels is also imperative.

    Studies show that men do not feel at ease in the cosmetic section of a department store. In the

    hopes to make men feel more comfortable, Revlon ought to customize the area with dark

    hardwood flooring and employ sales people specifically trained in men's skin care. Online

    cosmetic retailers such as and are also popular channels

    because they offer an ideal way for customers to learn more information about products in a

    personalized and discreet way.

    Price Strategy

    Revlon’s vision “to provide glamour, excitement and innovation through quality products at affordable prices” means that they have to price their product "at the level that customers

    expect to pay for the quality delivered". Too high a price results in inability to compete in the

    market while consumers tend to perceive lower price to inferior quality. Therefore, "research


CMGB 6301 Consumer Behavior Revlon for Men?

    into customers' attitudes towards not just the product, but also how they will value it." Value is "a

    combination of price and perceived quality.

Question 2

     If Revlon were to enter the men’s cosmetics market, what branding strategy should it


    In order to leverage their strong existing brand name, Revlon should use the brand

    extension strategy. Revlon are considered as a brand that delivers superior performance, has

    impeccable social values with good reputation in cosmetics (Revlon sponsors and supports

    many events that raise awareness and money for women's health issues). Thus it is safe to

    assume that favorable aspects of the image associated with existing women’s cosmetics will

    apply to the men’s cosmetics.

    The connection between men’s and women’s cosmetics is obvious. The men’s

    cosmetics fit the original product on the transfer and image dimensions. Men in differentiating different brands available in the market will assume that the same exceptional manufacturing

    skills of the original Revlon’s cosmetics will be transferred to the new products and the men’s cosmetics share the key image component (glamour, excitement and innovation through quality

    products at affordable prices) with the existing Revlon products. However, cosmetics are

    generally perceived as unmanly in nature. The consensus is that men’s cosmetics must not

    smell too strong or draw too much attention. Thus, it is imperative that Revlon clearly

    differentiate the image of its men’s products in terms of subtleness, simplicity, convenience and

    packaging that specifically tailored to the assumption of masculinity.

    Based on the principal of stimulus generalization, Revlon can use the rub-off effect to

    differentiate their men’s cosmetics with their competitors’ and subsequently capture market

    share and enhance marketing efficiency.

    Clinique is the company that has already extended their brand to men’s cosmetics with the

    introduction of their Clinique three-step skin care process.


CMGB 6301 Consumer Behavior Revlon for Men?

    Question 3

     How, if at all, could Revlon use the following as the basis for its appeal for a men's

    cosmetic line?

a. Personality

    Consumers either choose products that fit their personality or they use products to alleviate an area of their personality. Thus, Revlon can help consumers, in this case male

    consumers to express their personality.

    Revlon for men, as a brand can acquire an image in terms of brand personality. Brand personalities can influence purchases and are often the basis in forging a long-term relationship

    with the brand. One of its dimensions that is suitable for this men’s cosmetic line is excitement

    which comprise of human characteristics such as daring, care-free, spirited, imaginative and up-

    to-date. As mentioned above, there is an inherent perception that cosmetics are feminine in

    nature. However, free-spirited and daring brand personalities work for Revlon for men due to the

    emergence of “metrosexuality” or one of its variant “ubersexual” waves. One research exploring

    the changing face of American males found "an emerging wave of men who chafe against the

    restrictions" of traditional male roles and who "do what they want, buy what they want, enjoy

    what they want; regardless of whether some people might consider these things unmanly."

    In order to communicate brand personality, Revlon can use the celebrity endorsers as their advertising tactic. Prime exemplar of metrosexual icon is David Beckham. However, the

    footballer is currently the endorser for other men’s grooming products such as dvb fragrance

    and Gillette. To avoid confusion and to better foster a distinctive brand personality, emerging

    icons such as Gerard Butler is more effective.

b. Emotion

    Emotions are linked to needs, motivation and personality. Unfulfilled needs for ego boosting and sense of competitiveness or unachieved motivation for career enhancement and

    admiration from women will yield negative emotions such as shame, sadness or powerless.

    However it is imperative to note that generally men are lower in affect intensity. In other words

    men are less influenced by emotional appeals or traumas.

    Revlon for men can appeal as the brand that reduces the arousal of all the above unpleasant

    emotions. This cosmetic line must also emphasize anxiety reduction as a major benefit.


CMGB 6301 Consumer Behavior Revlon for Men?

    c. Self-concept

    Self-concept can be the basis for its appeal for men’s cosmetic line when that appeal

    matches the dominant type of self-concept held by the target market. In other words, consumers

    prefer brands that are similar to their self-concepts. In the case of men’s cosmetic line,

    independent self- concept that emphasizes personal goals, achievements (career enhancement)

    and desires (securing the attention and admiration from women) works best. Again the

    emergence of “metrosexuality” waves shows a significant overlap across age groups.

    Teenagers as young 15 year-old who are attempting to obtain their ideal self-concept and 40

    year-old successful professionals trying to maintain their actual self-concept.

     In terms of marketing ethics, Revlon can be criticized for focusing too much on beauty

    while other concepts in life such as family and relationships are being ignored. The narrow

    range of what is being considered as beautiful (slim and young) tends to pose ethic issues.

Question 4

    Design an ad for a line of men's skin care products by Revlon. Explain how it will work at each stage of the perception process.

    Perception constitutes three of the four major steps in the information-processing model; exposure, attention and interpretation. While both exposure and attention are highly selective in

    nature, interpretation can be a highly subjective process. In ensuring maximum exposure,

    Revlon men’s skin care products ads must be placed within the men’s relevant environment.

    Again the issue here is the selective nature of consumer behavior. This brings us back to

    placing ads in various media especially specialized media such as Maxim, National Geographic,

    and Men Health, existing Revlon Web site as well as the cosmetic section of a department store.

    Online cosmetic retailers such as and and television slot during

    news or sports program are other media outlets to be considered. Consumers will seek

    information when they think certain products can help them achieve their goals (voluntary

    exposure). Revlon must break the taboo and double their efforts to educate the consumers in

    viewing cosmetics as suitable and necessary to both women and men.

    In order to catch the attention of male consumers, the stimulus, individual and situation factors of the ads have to be catered to suit their requirements. As for the stimulus factors,

    attractive visuals, colors and movement in the ads must be of masculine in nature. Bright colors


CMGB 6301 Consumer Behavior Revlon for Men?

    with “unmanly” visuals can deter the attention of men. Even though the waves of “metrosexual”

    have continuously emerged, the concepts that attract men remain the same.

    Position and isolation factors or stimulus have already been discussed earlier. Strategic

    shelf position, highly visible point-of purchase displays, cross-promotions and availability will all

    increase the chance of attracting male consumers. However, as to cater to situation al factors of

    attention, cluttering the environment with too many point-of-purchases is not the answer.

    Meanwhile a straightforward presentation of the ads is more suitable for Revlon for men. As

    being suggested by the adaptation level theory, the stimulus characteristics such as color, size

    and endorser have to be changed overtime and be made interesting to avoid repetitiveness and

    the decline of attention grabbing effectiveness. The right amount of information can guarantee

    the quality generated by the male consumers from the ads. It’s quality, not quantity that ensures

    the success of grabbing consumers’ attention.

    Consumer motivation and ability are the main individual factors that affect attention. For

    a line of men’s skin care products by Revlon, the motivations (career enhancement, ego booster,

    sense of competitiveness and attention and admiration from women) have already been

    discussed earlier. When consumers are familiar with Revlon as the brand to go to for men’s skin care products, their ability to process any information will be much easier. In order to achieve

    this, Revlon has to communicate brand image through well known celebrity endorsers and

    increase wide media coverage. Revlon can also use briefly presented visual stimuli or hidden

    sexual imagery or words in print ads to attract attention.

    Stimulations in Revlon ads must convey the existing meaning of Revlon as world

    renowned cosmetics brand. Other than cognitive interpretation, using emotional or feeling such

    as “proud to be a metrosexual guy” or “I am brave enough to break free” in Revlon ads can be

    very effective. However as previously mentioned, men tend to have lower level of affect intensity.

    Revlon has to always uphold it quality promise because once expectations have been

    established it is hard to change. Consistency is the key.

Question 5

     Evaluate Clinique’s men’s product line and branding strategy. Suggest changes where


     Clinique is known for its world’s first hypoallergenic, dermatologist-driven line for skin-

    care routine and it offers products to both women and men. Currently, Clinique is offering almost

    similar men’s product lines with its close competitors, L’Oreal Paris. Its men’s product lines

    consist of skin care, shaving, grooming and fragrance products.


CMGB 6301 Consumer Behavior Revlon for Men?

    For its men’s product branding strategies, Clinique clearly defines look and feel on its men’s

    products packaging that are unique to men’s products. As men would not want their beauty

    products to appear feminine in nature, Clinique’s has packaged its men’s products in black

    packaging, where the black color is usually associated with power, elegance, mystery and sexy.

     To enhance its brand equity in men’s beauty product line, we suggest Clinique to

    venture into specific sun-care product line for men to entice new niche target market with highly

    active outdoor lifestyle. As one of the renowned skin care specialists, Clinique could use its

    expertise and available resources to produce quality sun-care products that could match

    Coppertone’s or Nivea’s sun-care products.

     Also, Clinique could obtain celebrity endorsement for its men’s beauty products.

    Approval of a brand by celebrities fosters a sense of trust for that brand among the target

    audience. Celebrities also ensure attention of the target group by breaking the clutter of

    advertisements and making the ad and the brand more noticeable. For example, L’Oreal

    Malaysia currently uses famous local actor, Aaron Aziz, as a spokesperson for L'Oreal Paris'

    Men Expert, the brand’s beauty range catered for men.

Question 6

     What motives should Clinique appeal to in promoting its men’s line?

     An obstacle in the past has been the perception that cosmetics and toiletries products

    are too feminine.

     To address this, Clinique should appeal to the ego-defense motive - the need to defend

    men’s identity or ego, i.e. masculinity, rugged and so forth. With its black packaging, which

    signals power, elegance and so forth, Clinique’s men’s products are advertised to provide ego-

    defense that can help ease men’s fears about buying these products. The advertising also has

    to display male characters that are confident about using something ’feminine’ and can assure

    men that it won’t take anything away from their masculinity.

     Clinique also can appeal to the need for reinforcement motive - the need for men to use

    men’s beauty product because the rewards they would receive. For example, Clinique could

    design ad advertisement that shows a man using Clinique’s men’s beauty products would gain

    immediate attention, admiration and appreciation from women, due to his cleaner and healthier



CMGB 6301 Consumer Behavior Revlon for Men?

     If simplicity and humor can make men feel more comfortable with grooming, surely there are other ways packaging design can help ease men’s fears about buying these products and at the same time, help a brand stand apart on increasingly crowded shelves.

Question 7

     Persuading many men to use skin care products will require a significant attitude change.

    Which attitude change techniques would be most appropriate?

     Beauty companies can employ several attitude change techniques in order to persuade men to use skin care products.

     Change the Cognitive Component - to change the belief that beauty product is only within the women’s market realm. With the help of mass media, beauty companies can educate people and ultimately position men using beauty products and services as healthy, modern and trendy.

     Change the Affective Component - by creating advertisements that elicit positive response. If men like the advertisement, this generally increases the tendency to like and accept the new trend of men using beauty products as well as the brand.

     Change the Behavioral Component - by offering free samples to induce more product trials and offering coupons or price reductions for loyal customers to encourage repeated usages.

Questions 8

     What learning theories would you use to teach your target market to take proper care of their skin?

     In order to teach men to take proper care of their skin, we would suggest beauty companies to use vicarious learning or modeling theory, where behaviors are learned by watching the outcomes of others’ behaviors or by imagining the outcome of a potential behavior.

    For this learning theory, celebrity endorsers can be employed, where they become the spokesperson for the product. Target markets can see the outcome of using the skin care product by observing the endorser’s physical feature; in this case, the celebrity’s cleaner and smoother skin.


CMGB 6301 Consumer Behavior Revlon for Men?

     Another suggestion is that beauty companies could use operant conditioning in order to teach target market (men) to take proper care of their skin. Operant conditioning involves rewarding the purchases made by customers with positive outcomes that serve to reinforce the behavior (purchases). Beauty companies could send out direct mail or stimulate personal contact after a sale to congratulate men for making wise purchases. Also, they can offer extra reinforcement for purchasing the male beauty products, such as rebates, discount coupons and so forth.

Question 9

     Visit one of the Web sites listed below (Clinique). Is it effective at promoting its products to men? What behavior principles and assumptions does it rely on?

     The Clinique Web site is primarily focused on selling products to women. The home page features pictures of women and writing in pink. All with a feminine feel and expression. Nearly all of the tabs and links are for women’s products. Everything from “Expert Tips and Trends” to “Offers” feature products and advice for and about women. Only one tab labeled “Men’s” features men’s products. This tab is broken down into three areas; skin care, fragrance and gifts. Each sub tab has limited offerings although the look and feel of the pages under the men’s tab do change somewhat from the home page. The men’s tab is more masculine in color and design and features distinctly male products like shaving cream. The focus of the men’s site is on anti-aging, which is something both men and women share a desire to use.

     The products listed under the men’s tab also differ from the female version in terms of

    quantity and specialization. The women’s section has a complete line of products from makeup products, anti aging, basic skincare, lip care etc. The men’s line is very basic with few products.

    This is likely done for two reasons. First, the market for men’s products is much smaller so they would logically not have as large a product offering. But secondly, it may be kept simple with few products because although men might be interested in skin care, they may not be interested in the specialization that women do. Men likely want one or only a few products that accomplish what they need. Women are more likely to enjoy the shopping experience and therefore likely to by more products than they may actually want or need.

     The web page attacks men’s need to feel and look younger, this is the key behavior

    principle that Clinique tries to appeal to. Clinique appeals to a man’s need to stay looking

    younger through simple straightforward products. The products displayed also assume that men have some basic knowledge about skin care products by using terms like exfoliate. This


CMGB 6301 Consumer Behavior Revlon for Men?

    approach means they are going after the Ubersexual group that discusses these types of products with friends, both male and female.

Question 10

     Using the demographic and psychographic information provided in the case, describe the traits that would make the most desirable target market for a line of cosmetics by Revlon. Explain.

     The demographics are noticeably split with hair care products, facial cleansers and moisturizers/creams/lotions on one end of the spectrum and suncare products on the other end. Concerning the first three categories listed, the age demographic that would be the most desirable is the 18-34 age group. This age group has the largest interest in these products with the only slight exception among hair care products. The largest demographic is in the 18-24 year olds so they are a good market, however, the older age groups are also strongly interested in this product. This is expected and possibly should indicate a need to differentiate the marketing strategy within the hair care products area. The ethnic group area shows the strongest interest among Black, Asian and Hispanic, or to be summarized, the non-white ethnic group. Whites generally have a lower interest in these products. Last is income, among this group the lower incomes generally had more interest. With those earning $10,000 to $39,000 the largest groups.

     Among the suncare products the groups that would be most interested were nearly the exact opposite of those mentioned above for the other product lines. Those interested in suncare products tend to be middle aged, white and with higher income. This shows a great need for different marketing plans for this product separate from the others. The customer base is so different that it would be difficult to effectively market the suncare with the others.

     In terms of Psychographics, the Ubersexuals would be the most desirable market base. They have a strong income base to purchase the products and would be most willing to do so. They are confident in being a man and take pride in their appearance. Ubersexuals have no issues with women and aren’t concerned about using products that are associated with women. Their general age of 38 is also good because they are entering the age where anti aging and hair color products will be needed.


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