SECTION 4 INSTALLATION OF APPLIANCES AND ACCESSORIES
The requirements of this Section apply to the selection and installation of appliances, accessories and other electrical equipment not covered in other Sections, to determine their compliance with Section 1. The requirements relate to the following:
(a) Protection against physical injury 物理伤害保护.
(b) Protection from thermal effects 热效应保护.
(c) Methods of connection to the electrical installation.
(d) External influences and environmental conditions.
(e) Adverse effects on the electrical installation and the supply.
(f) Isolation and switching devices.隔离和开关装置
(g) Protective devices.保护装置
(h) Special electrical installations for particular electrical equipment.特殊电气设备的专项安装
4.2 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT REQUIRING PROTECTION AGAINST INJURY FROM
MECHANICAL MOVEMENT 因机械移动伤害，电气设备需要的保护
4.2.1 Rotating machines (motors) 旋转电机？马达？
18.104.22.168 Devices for isolation and switching 隔离和开关装置
Electric motors shall be provided with suitable devices for starting and stopping, placed so as to be easily operated by the person in charge of the motor. In the event of a fault in a motor control circuit, the stopping device shall remain effective.
Arrangements for emergency stopping of motors shall comply with Clause 2.8.5.
In the case of electrical equipment that is remotely controlled, devices shall be provided for stopping the motors at all points where danger is likely to occur.
22.214.171.124 Protection against restarting or reversal 重起和反转的保护
Each electric motor shall be provided with a means to prevent automatic restarting after stopping due to a drop in voltage or the failure of the supply, where unexpected restarting of the motor might cause danger.
Where safety might be impaired by incorrect direction of rotation of a motor, suitable measures shall be taken to prevent danger from reversal of the direction of rotation.
NOTE: This applies particularly where reverse-current braking is used.
4.3 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT REQUIRING PROTECTION AGAINST THERMAL EFFECTS 需
The selection and installation of electrical equipment shall be such that the temperature characteristics of the electrical equipment, properly installed and operated, do not adversely affect the electrical equipment or the electrical installation itself, or any other installation, whether electrical or not.
Adequate ventilation shall be provided where heat is generated in normal operation, in order to maintain operating temperatures below the rated or specified limits.
NOTE: Account should be taken of the influence that temperature might have on the operational or characteristic values of the electrical equipment.
4.3.2 Prevention of fire hazard 火灾预防
126.96.36.199 Installation of electrical equipment 电气设备安装
Electrical equipment shall not be installed in a position where it might cause
a fire hazard.
Manufacturers’ installation instructions shall be observed in addition to the
requirements of this Clause 4.3.2.
188.8.131.52 Storage of flammable materials 易燃材料的存储
Where there is a likelihood that an area will be used to store flammable materials, measures shall be taken to prevent ignition of such materials by sparks or high temperature sources.
NOTE: See Clause 7.9 for requirements for hazardous areas.
184.108.40.206 High surface temperatures 表面高温
Where fixed electrical equipment could attain surface temperatures that would cause a fire hazard to adjacent materials, the electrical equipment shall be —
(a) mounted on or within materials that will withstand such temperatures and are of low thermal conductance; or
(b) screened from elements of building construction by materials that will withstand such temperatures and are of low thermal conductance; or
(c) mounted at a sufficient distance from any material on which such temperatures could have deleterious thermal effects, any means of support being of low thermal conductance, so as to allow safe dissipation of heat.
1 Tungsten filament lamps, ELV halogen lamps, radiant heaters and infra-red lamps are examples of high temperature sources.
2 Restriction of heat dissipation from electrical equipment can result in high temperatures in the electrical equipment itself.
Fixed electrical equipment causing a focussing or concentration of heat shall be at a sufficient distance from any fixed object or building element so that the object or element, in normal conditions, cannot be subjected to a dangerous temperature.
220.127.116.11 Emission of arcs or sparks 弧光或火花飞射
Where arcs or sparks might be emitted by permanently connected electrical equipment in normal service, the electrical equipment shall be —
(a) totally enclosed in arc-resistant material; or
(b) screened by arc-resistant material from building elements on which the arcs could have deleterious thermal effects; or
(c) mounted at a sufficient distance from building elements on which the arcs or sparks could have deleterious thermal effects, to allow safe extinction of the arcs or sparks.
18.104.22.168 Electrical equipment enclosures 电气设备外壳
The materials of enclosures of electrical equipment shall withstand the highest temperature likely to be produced by the electrical equipment.
Flammable or readily combustible materials shall not be used for the construction of enclosures.
4.3.3 Protection against burns 灼伤保护
Except for electrical equipment which complies with appropriate Standards which specify a limiting temperature, an accessible part of electrical equipment within arm’s reach shall not attain a temperature in excess of the appropriate limit stated in Table 4.1. Each such part of the electrical installation likely to attain under normal load conditions, even for a short period, a temperature exceeding the appropriate limit in Table 4.1 shall be guarded so as to prevent accidental contact.
NOTE: This requirement does not apply to items such as lamps.
TABLE 4.1 TEMPERATURE LIMITS IN NORMAL SERVICE FOR PARTS OF ELECTRICAL
EQUIPMENT WITHIN ARM'S REACH 臂长范围内电气设备部件正常工作时的温度限制
Accessible part Material of accessible surface Maximum temperature Oc
Hand-held means of operation
Metallic 70 Parts intended to be touched but not
hand-held Non-metallic 80
Metallic 80 Parts which need not be touched for
normal operation Non-metallic 90
4.3.4 Motors 马达
22.214.171.124 Protection against overload 过载保护
Unless incorporated in an item of electrical equipment that complies with an appropriate Standard, each electric motor having a rating exceeding 0.37 kW shall be provided with control equipment incorporating means of protection against overload of the motor.
126.96.36.199 Protection against overtemperature 过热保护
Except where not required in accordance with Clause 188.8.131.52.2, overtemperature protective devices complying with Clause 184.108.40.206.3 shall be provided for —
(a) motors that may be required to run unattended (see Note) and which have a rating greater than —
(i) for shaded-pole type motors ....... 480 V.A; or
(ii) for other unattended motors ....... 240 V.A; or
(b) other types of motors which have a rating greater than 2.25 kW.
NOTE: A continuously running motor or a motor under automatic control in a non-domestic premises, where no person is normally in attendance in the vicinity of the motor, is deemed to be unattended. Consideration should be given to the presence of a caretaker, or other person who may be responsible for the inspection of motors, in which case it may be appropriate not to regard motors as unattended.
Examples of unattended motors are as follows:
(i) Motors that drive refrigerators in shops.
(ii) Motors that are in a remote portion of a building, such as a drainage sump in a basement.
(iii) Motors that drive a communal refrigerator in a block of flats.
220.127.116.11.2 Protection not required 不要求保护
Overtemperature protection shall not be provided —
(a) for motors associated with emergency systems in accordance with Clause 18.104.22.168; or
(b) where the opening of the motor circuit could create a hazard.
Overtemperature protection need not be provided for unattended submersible pump motors, immersed in water, which have a rating not greater than 2.25 kW.
22.214.171.124.3 Overtemperature protective devices 过热保护设备
Overtemperature protective devices shall comply with the following:
(a) Protection Protection of motor windings against excessive temperatures shall be provided by thermal-overload protective devices complying with AS 1023.1 or by a device which affords an equivalent
degree of protection.
(b) Operation The protective device shall disconnect, directly or indirectly, not less than the following number of supply conductors to the motor:
(i) For d.c. motors supplied from a two-wire supply with one line earthed and single-phase a.c. motors ............... one.
(ii) For d.c. motors supplied from two unearthed lines and threephase a.c.
motors ................................. two.
(c) Additional requirements for unattended motors Where thermal protective devices for unattended motors are of the automatic reset type, the device shall protect the motor windings against attaining excessive temperatures under continued tripping conditions.
4.3.5 Room heaters室内加热器
126.96.36.199 General 概述
Where a permanently connected room heater or a number of permanently connected room heaters are installed in one room an individual functional switch, in accordance with Clause 2.8.6, and an individual isolating switch, in accordance with Clause 2.8.3, shall be provided for each room heater or for each group of room heaters.
188.8.131.52 Functional switch 功能开关
The functional switch shall be installed in a readily accessible position in the same room or immediately adjacent to an entrance to the room in which the heater or heaters are located.
The functional switch may be —
(a) a switch with an ‘off’ position incorporated with the room heater; or
(b) an isolating switch provided in accordance with Clause 184.108.40.206(a).
220.127.116.11 Isolating switch 隔离开关
The isolating switch shall be —
(a) installed in the room or immediately adjacent to an entrance to the room where the room heater is located; or
NOTE: The switch may be incorporated in a temperature control device provided that it has a definite ‘off’ position.
(b) installed on the switchboard at which the room heater final subcircuit originates.
Where a number of permanently connected room heaters are installed in one room and are supplied by the one final subcircuit, a single isolating switch may be used for the room heaters.
4.3.6 Lighting equipment and accessories 照明设备和附件
18.104.22.168 Luminaires 灯具
Luminaires and their associated ancillary gear shall be so installed as not to cause undue temperature rise, deterioration or ignition of the materials on which they are mounted.
1 Account should be taken of the highest rating of the lamp likely to be used.
2 Attention is drawn to the high temperatures that can be generated in luminaires. Cables with suitable insulation temperature ratings should be selected.
Luminaires shall be suitable for the highest temperatures to which they are likely to be subjected by external influences.
22.214.171.124 Lamps near flammable materials 易燃材料附近的灯具
Every lamp that is near flammable material shall be suitably shielded by a shade, reflector, guard or enclosure.
Flammable shades shall not be installed where they are liable to come in contact with any lamp.
The distance separating incandescent lamps of spotlights and objects, illuminated by them, which are made of flammable material shall be not less than the following values:
NOTE: Attention should be given to the need for adequate ventilation where extra-low voltage (e.g. 12 V) spotlights are used. Installers should also note that the values of current at ELV can be very high (as much as twenty times higher than those at normal low voltage (230/240 V)) and the wiring needs to be rated accordingly.
126.96.36.199 Lamps and luminaires near thermal insulating material 隔热材料附近的灯具和照明设
Thermal insulating material shall not prevent free air flow around or through luminaires and their associated ancillary gear, and shall be separated by not less than —
(a) 25 mm from low voltage lamps or luminaires; or
(b) 50 mm from extra-low voltage dichroic lamps or luminaires or associated transformers.
Where the thermal insulation is of the loose fill type, fire resistant barriers shall be provided to maintain the separation.
4.3.7 Electric duct heaters 电热导管
The electrical portion of any electric duct heater installation shall comply with the requirements of this Standard.
NOTE: Attention is drawn to the fact that —
(a) such installations are within the scope of AS/NZS 1668.1; and
(b) safety requirements are contained in AS 3102; and
(c) compliance therewith may be required by the relevant regulatory authorities.
4.3.8 Electric heating cable systems 电加热电缆系统
Cables for electric heating systems shall be of a type specifically designed for the purpose. The heating equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
188.8.131.52 Heating cables 加热电缆
Heating cables shall be so installed that they —
(a) are not in contact with flammable materials; and
(b) are completely and adequately embedded in the substance they are intended to heat; and
(c) do not suffer any detrimental effect due to flexing or movement of the substance in which they are embedded.
184.108.40.206 Functional switch 功能开关
Cables or groups of cables that comprise the heating system shall be provided with an individual functional switch in accordance with Clause 2.8.6.
Where the heating system is provided for floor warming the functional switch shall be installed in a readily accessible position in the room or area, or immediately adjacent to an entrance to the room or area, in which the heating system is located.
The functional switch may be an isolating switch provided in accordance with Clause 220.127.116.11(a).
18.104.22.168 Isolating switch 隔离开关
Cables or groups of cables that comprise the heating system shall be provided with an isolating switch in accordance with Clause 2.8.3.
Where the heating system is provided for floor warming the isolating switch shall be installed —
(a) in the room or area, or immediately adjacent to an entrance to the room or area, in which the heating system is located; or
NOTE: The switch may be incorporated in a temperature control device provided that it has a definite ‘off’ position.
(b) on the switchboard at which the heating system final subcircuit originates.
22.214.171.124 Additional protection 附加保护
Where heating cables or tapes are not provided with double insulation, or equivalent, they shall be —
(a) provided with adequate mechanical protection to prevent damage; or
(b) provided with an earthed metallic armouring, screen, covering or enclosure; or
(c) protected by an RCD with a maximum rated residual current of 30 mA.
126.96.36.199 Signs 符号
Where heating cables are installed suitable signs drawing attention to their existence shall be provided in each location. Signs warning of the danger of covering embedded heating equipment with furnishings or building materials that might cause excessive temperatures, shall be provided, where appropriate.
4.3.9 Appliances producing hot water or steam 产生热水和蒸汽的电气设备
188.8.131.52 General 概述
All appliances producing hot water or steam shall be protected by design or installation against overheating in all service conditions.
Unless the appliances comply as a whole with an appropriate Standard, the protection shall be by means of an appropriate non-selfresetting device, functioning independently of the thermostat.
If an appliance has no free outlet, it shall also be provided with a device that limits the water pressure.
184.108.40.206 Water heaters 热水器
220.127.116.11.1 Access 入口
Every unvented water heater shall be installed so that the following are readily available for operation, inspection and adjustment:
(a) Easing equipment of pressure-relief devices.
(b) All terminals of the protective devices.
NOTE: An unvented water heater is one which is intended to operate at the pressure of the water system and the flow of the water being controlled by one or more valves in the outlet system.
18.104.22.168.2 Operation of protective devices 保护装置操作
Overtemperature cutouts and similar protective devices fitted to unvented water heaters shall —
(a) operate directly in the circuit wiring to the heater elements; and
(b) not be arranged for control through relays or contactors.
22.214.171.124.3 Isolating switch 隔离开关
Every water heater shall be provided with an independent isolating switch or switches in accordance with Clause 2.8.3. Such switch or switches shall be —
(a) additional to any automatic switch incorporated in the heater structure; and
(b) grouped together; and
(c) installed on or adjacent to the water heater or on the switchboard at which the water heater final subcircuit originates.
126.96.36.199 Electrode-type boilers (including steam generators and water heaters having electrode elements)
Electrode-type boilers shall be installed only with the permission of the electricity distributor and shall comply with any requirements of the electricity distributor.
4.3.10 Electrical equipment containing liquid dielectrics 装有液态介质的电气设备
188.8.131.52 General 概述
Wherever electrical equipment such as oil-filled transformers or capacitors contains flammable liquid in significant quantity, precautions shall be taken to prevent burning liquid and the products of combustion of the liquid (flame, smoke, toxic gases) spreading to other parts of the premises.
184.108.40.206 Liquid dielectrics having a flashpoint not exceeding 250?C 闪点不超过250?C的液态
Where electrical equipment is filled with a liquid dielectric having a flashpoint not exceeding 250?C and has a total liquid capacity exceeding 50 L in any unit or group of adjacent units, precautions shall be taken to prevent the spread of fire.
Such precautions may include the provision of enclosures consisting of fireresisting dikes, bunds, curbed areas, basins, trenches filled with coarse crushed stone or, where necessary, trapped drains.
1 Examples of such precautions are —
(a) a drainage pit to collect leakages of liquid and ensure their extinction in the event of fire; or
(b) installation of the electrical equipment in a chamber of adequate fire resistance and the provision of sills or other means of preventing burning liquid spreading to other parts of the premises, such chamber being ventilated solely to the external atmosphere.
2 For less than 50 L, it is generally sufficient to take precautions to prevent the escape of liquid.
3 It may be desirable to switch off the supply to the electrical equipment automatically at the onset of a fire.
4.3.11 Cooking appliances烹饪电气具
220.127.116.11 Functional switch 功能开关
A circuit for a fixed or stationary cooking appliance incorporating an open cooking surface (e.g. cooktop, deep fat fryer, barbecue griddle or similar) shall be provided with a functional switch, operating in all active conductors, mounted near the appliance in a visible accessible position.
1 The switch should be mounted within 2 m of the cooking appliance, but not on the cooking appliance, in such a position that the user does not have to reach across the open cooking surface.
2 A single switch is permissible for the control of associated cooking appliances in the same room.
3 It is recommended that switches, particularly those in domestic installations, be marked to identify the appliance controlled.
4 This requirement is not intended to apply to enclosed cooking appliances such as wall ovens, microwave ovens and grills.
18.104.22.168 Connection by socket-outlet 插头和插座的连接
In New Zealand, a cooking appliance shall be connected to the electrical installation wiring by a socket-outlet, that has a suitable current rating, in accordance with Clause 4.11 (b).
This requirement need not apply to a fixed cooking appliance.
4.4 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT REQUIRING PROTECTION AGAINST EXPLOSION防爆电气设
The design, construction and installation of electrical equipment requiring protection against explosion in gas and dust atmospheres (hazardous areas) shall be in accordance with the appropriate parts of AS 2381 and Clause 7.9.
4.5 TRANSFORMERS 变压器
4.5.1 General 概述
Transformers shall be installed in accordance with Clauses 4.5.2 to 4.5.5.
The requirement need not apply to the following:
(a) An instrument transformer.
(b) An extra-low voltage transformer.
(c) A luminous discharge tube transformer.
(d) A transformer incorporated in a motor starter or other similar electrical equipment.
4.5.2 Secondary circuit 二次回路
22.214.171.124 General 概述
The wiring and electrical equipment connected to the secondary winding of a transformer shall comply with the requirements of this Standard for extralow, low or high voltage, as appropriate to the nominal secondary voltage.
126.96.36.199 Control and protection 控制和保护
Except where the conditions set out in Items (i) and (ii) apply, the conductors connected to the secondary windings of the transformer shall be —
(a) considered as submain or final subcircuit conductors, as appropriate; and
(b) protected and controlled in accordance with the appropriate requirements of Clauses 2.4 and 2.8.
The requirements for separate over-current protection of the secondary circuit conductors need not apply where —
(i) the transformer secondary winding supplies only one submain or final subcircuit; and
(ii) the secondary circuit conductors have a current-carrying capacity not less than the rated load current of the transformer primary winding multiplied by the ratio of the transformer primary voltage to the secondary voltage.
4.5.3 Low voltage transformer supply 低压变压器电源
188.8.131.52 Isolating transformers 隔离变压器