Chemistry final test review
(1)Major similarities and differences between organic & biological compoundsSilimarities: all contain carbons. Difference: organic com. Is general compound. Bio is living organ compound. Bio is included in organic. Draw the graph.Ps.bio com is produced by living organs but itself doesn’t need to be alive.
(2)Reasons for IUPAC naming system
Sixteen million different isomers and too many types of compounds.To show structural formula in details.
(3)Categorize carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids
Carbohydrates: organic compound that contains hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen and can be broken down to release energy in the body. Polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones
-------monosaccharides: simple sugars which have one polydroxy aldehyde or ketones
/ex: plant sugar,glucose, fructose
-------disaccharides: 2 monosaccharide units/ex: lactose and milk sugar, maltose, sucrose-------polysaccharides: many sugar units (starches)/ ex: potato, pasta,wheat,grains,starchProteins: amino acids
---------- 20 of them. Body only produces 12/20
------------essential amino acids/ got from food 8/20
------------needed for brain functional/ex: titin, albumin, hemoglobin.Lipids: fats
--------solid at room temperature 23C
Ex:crysco/ animal fat
--------liquid at room temperature
Ex: vegetable oil
(4)reasons why carbon atoms are good at bonding
----------carbon has four valence electrons, requiring four bonds to obtain an octet.----------carbon forms strong chemical bonds with other carbon atoms
----------carbon forms stable,essentially nonpolar bonds with hydrogen. The electronegativity difference
between carbon and hydrogen is small, making it unreactive
----------carbon atoms could bond with a wide variety of atoms, including H.P.O.N.S.He.
-----------20 of them/ body produce 12/20.
------------essential amino acid needed to get from food 8/2o
----------needed for brain function ex: titin, albumin.hemogolobin
-----------building blocks of protein.
(6)Contrast Chemical and structural formulas
Similarities: both tell what kind of atoms form the molecules.and how manyDifferences: structural formula shows the exact structure
Ex: C2H6 graph:
(7)Structural Isomer: same chemical formula but different structural formulasEx: graphed:
(8)Bioethical issue (define and explain)
----- definition: immoral legal topics with life. The morality of how human interact with life --------ex: enthanazia/ cloing/ genetic engineering/ slaughtering animals/ enthanizing animals
(9)Contrast DNA and RNA
Similarities: copy of genetic code.
Differences: composed of different sugar
-------------DNA: master copy of the genetic code/ contains dexyribose as a sugar and thymine
RNA: disposable copy/ contains ribose as a sugar and Uracil
(10)Identify saturated and unsaturated fat
--------saturated is solid due to structural fitness at room temperature 23
Unsaturated is liquid at 23 due to structural unfitness
--------saturated: has a strong dispersion force and is solid at room temperature
Unsaturated: weak dispersion force. Liquid.
(11)The reason why human body is intolerant to some sugars.
-------enzymes are biological catalysts that break down sugars. Some people cannot produce the correct enzyme to break down certain sugars, such as people cannot break down lactose cz they don’t have enough of enzyme lactose. Lactose is a disaccharide and needs to be broken down with lactose before it could be absorbed.
(12)Identificate types of functional groups
(13) Pirre and marie curie experiment (graph it. Explain it)
Purpose: to prove the radiation has a positive and negative compounds
Results: divide radiation into three categories
!! graph!! Ex: a beam of radiation. Positive plate anode. Negative plate cathode.
!! the three types of radiation chart!!!
Explain: this experiment displays the charges and relativemasses of radioactiveproducts.positively charged alpha particles are attracted to the negative plate. Beta particles, with their negative charge and low mass, are attracted to a greater degree toward the positive plate. Gamma rays, having no charge or mass, are unaffected.
(14) Contrast powers of penetration.
!!graph!! ex: alpha paper. Beta glass. Gamma lead.
(15) Contrast the visibility of Gamma radiation VS radio radiation VS visible light Reason: the intensity of wave. The frequency of light. Gamma ray the highest. And carries more energy than a radio wave.
(16)Contrast fission and fusion
Similarities: all produce energy by nuclear reaction
Differences: fusion releases more energy than fission/ fusion needs more energy to start with/ fission starts at room temperature. More convenient.
----------fission: break a nucleus apart/ start with a large radioactive nucleus/ induce nuclear decay by bombarding the nucleus with neutrons/ the instable nucleus breaks apart and releases free neutrons/ break down strong nucleus force.
-----------fusion: joining 2 or more nucleus together/ start with several small nucleus (H),requires huge amount of energy/ smaller nuclei will fuse together to form a large nucleus (He)/ weak nucleus force.
-----an ongoing fission process that the neutrons produced by these reactions can, in turn, initiate more nuclear fission reaction, and so on.
------need control rod to stop: defi: substances to slow donw/ hold the nuclear chain reaction.
!! chart in textbook!!! Symptoms: fatigue/nausea/vomiting/diarrhea/death
(19) Nucleus stability
Defi: how well the strong nuclear form holds a nucleus together
Most stabe: for small atomic NO. P:N =1:1 / for heavy one: 1:1.5 or 2:3
(20) Half life: definition: the amount of time it takes for a substance to radioactively decay to
50 percent of its original mass/ everything has half life. Even H.
(21) Nucleus reactor
!!! graph!!!ex: ---core
----- control rod: made of cadminum/ slow down or stop the nucleus reaction
-----turbine: belt/ chain that reacts energy
------- water: less salt in the water,better reaction water heats, boils, then turn into steam
------neutron gun: shoots neutrons into start the reaction
Induced reaction: forcing nuclear decay to happen when we want it to.
Def: a myth. Fusion takes place at a low temperature/ reason why impossible: it takes several hundred degrees of heat to start the reaction
(23)Strong nuclear force
defiL: force that allows the nucleus to overcome the protons’ electrostatic repulsion/ hold the protons and neutrons together./ inter-nucleus force
Discovered by the observation: the fact that more than one positive charged protons bonded together.
(24) Long term biological effect
Ex: mutation.plants cannot grow. Sterilize people. Animals.plants
Water and food supplies were contaminated and since some of the radioactive substances have long half lives, health problem from the fallout (birth defects and cancer would continue for years.