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Kids Design Challenge 2

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Kids Design Challenge 2

     -

    KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz

    Pushcarts to go…

    The Design Challenge

    Pushcarts have provided many hours of enjoyment for children. A pushcart is a billycart that is designed to be pushed

    by one person and steered by another person seated in it. As with many products, science and technology have

    contributed to the evolution of the pushcart. Today pushcarts are built using a variety of materials; in all sorts of

    shapes, and with a focus on safety.

    Design Brief: Your task is to design and construct a pushcart and participate in a series of performance challenges.

    The project will also involve teams producing a class fitness program, safety guidelines and

    promotional materials to be presented at the KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge event.

Acknowledgement

    This material has been developed as a part of the Australian School Innovation in Science, Technology and Mathematics Project funded by the Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training as part of the Boosting Innovation in Science, Technology and Mathematics Teaching (BISTMT) Programme.

Design requirements

    1) Pushcart specifications 2) KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge Event

    Requirements for the celebration events are also set out in the DESIGN Detailed specifications for the pushcart are provided in the attached DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS document. SPECIFICATIONS document. Events include: All pushcarts must meet the specifications in order to participate in the KDC-? Assembly of carts on arrival NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge Event. ? Safety check and vehicle registration for trials Specifications relate to: Performance stations: ? General requirements ? Design and construction presentation ? Materials used - encouraging use of reused or recycled materials ? Obstacle course ? Brakes ? Braking trial ? Wheels ? Steering Performance trials: ? Safety ? Sprint relay ? Seat belts ? Endurance trial ? Equipment and clothing ? Stability

Teams and assistance

    Ensuring gender equity*: Community assistance To ensure activities are distributed in equitable ways across the class it is While students will be responsible for overall design and construction, teams recommended that, throughout the Challenge, teams are composed of both are encouraged to work with school communities in the development of the boys and girls. pushcart. This may include other students, parents, friends, local tradespeople,

     community groups, etc. At the KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge event Teams of eight students are required for all KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz All outside assistance must be fully acknowledged in the students’ Challenge events: design presentation, obstacle course, braking trial, sprint presentation. race and endurance race. Different teams of eight students may participate in

    each Challenge event as long as the following requirements* are met: To assist your school in engaging in this project there may be opportunities to ? Assembly team: at least 4 girls partner with or gain support from the local business community.

     ? Riders/drivers in obstacle, sprint and endurance events: each team of

    If this support presents as a sponsorship opportunity refer to the DET riders/drivers must include at least 4 girls

    Sponsorship of School and Departmental Activities Policy Statement and ? Presentation team: at least 4 boys Guidelines For Implementation, or equivalent guidelines applicable in your

    school. * Single sex schools are exempt

Suggested teaching and learning activities

    These materials present ONE possible set of activities - one possible way of arriving at a design solution to meet the requirements of the Kids’ Design Challenge. It is not a mandatory sequence. You may utilise any variation of the learning processes that enables students to successfully create a solution.

Learning outcomes

    The KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge: Pushcarts to go … addresses Science and Technology K-6 syllabus outcomes:

    Physical Phenomena (PP S2.4; PP S3.4) Designing and making (DM S2.8; DM S3.8)

    Investigating (INV S2.7; INV S3.7) Using technology (UT S2.9; UT S3.9)

Foundation Statements and Big Ideas (Appendix A)

    The teaching and learning activities in this unit are informed by:

    ? NSW Primary Curriculum Foundation Statements developed by the ? the Big ideas developed as part of the Supporting SciTech in the

    Board of Studies, NSW and recently distributed to schools primary classroom

    http://k6.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/foundation_statements/ http://10ss.qtp.nsw.edu.au/supporting_scitech/index.html

Reflection

    It is important to allocate time throughout the process for students to reflect on what they have learnt, and how well they have planned for/or achieved their goals. This strategy allows students to develop better understanding of the investigating and design processes. Provide time for student discussions, followed by quiet recording time and some sharing of reflections.

    Prompts for reflections at the completion of each step of the Challenge are located on the Kids' Design Challenge web site (? Pushcart Challenge\Step-by-step).

Key to symbols used in this section:

    ? Strategy symbol: strategies that could be used to complete the activity.

    A Assessment point: activity or point in unit, suitable for gathering assessment information.

    ? KLA link: suggested integrated teaching and learning activities in other KLAs

    P Presentation Item: suggestions for the final submission or challenge event presentation.

     Teacher information: terminology; links to syllabus, SciTech CD-ROM, possible resources; advice or ideas. ? Link Hyperlinks: to references, resources, information about specific strategies, formats for activities, downloadable proformas etc.

** Additional resources are included in the Appendices attached to this document **

    ? 2006 Technology in Primary Schools (TiPS) KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge Pushcarts to go… page 2

    STEP 1: Engaging Students - Getting Started Term 1, Weeks 8 - 9

    Learning process ? Teacher information STEP 1: Learning activities Engaging students

    Defining the design P Remember to regularly take photos, collect work Quality Teaching: task (D&M) samples throughout each step in the project. BK: Students will explore specific characteristics of Antarctica which demonstrate the These will be included in the final presentation unique nature of the environment.

    E: Students will participate in a game to engage their attention and to encourage ? It is recommended that students keep a design discussion. journal (learning journal) of thoughts, ideas and M: Terminology relating to Antarctica and its nature will be discussed and explored.process, etc. Allocate time for reflection and

    recording in the journals as part of each lesson.

    1.1 Introduce the KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge

    ? Outline the major steps involved:

    - Finding out about pushcarts

    - Designing our pushcart

    - Preparing for the Challenge event.

    ? Introduce the learning journal to be used throughout the project

    DK DU PK HOT M SC EQC E HE SS SSR SD BK CK KI I C N

     ** Encourage the class to start collecting components/items that might be useful

    in building the pushcart

    - Wheels and items that may form the frame will be especially useful for investigative

    activities in Step 2.

     1.2 Building the context

    ? HSIE - Change and Continuity CCS3.1; ? Pose question “How have leisure activities changed over time?” ? HSIE link CCS2.2; Cultures CUS2.2

     ? If billycarts are not mentioned then add to ? Brainstorm and discuss activities that children participate in during their leisure time. It is

    brainstorm list. anticipated that bike riding, roller skating (activities involving movement on wheels) would be

    suggested amongst the range of activities. Teacher input may also be necessary ?

    ? Inspiration is a useful tool for developing mind ? Create a concept map ? to record and organise brainstorm responses. Each strand of the maps for recording brainstorms. mind map may be written and illustrated in a different colour. ? Example concept maps: see Supporting SciTech in the Primary School

    (Staffroom>Bookshelf>Assessment strategies)

    ? 2006 Technology in Primary Schools (TiPS) KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge Pushcarts to go… page 3

    Learning process ? Teacher information STEP 1: Learning activities Engaging students

     ? Read texts such as Wilfred Gordon MacDonald Partridge by Mem Fox; Papa and the Olden

     Days by Rachel Tonkin; My Place”, by Nadia Wheatley, (or similar texts dealing with life in ? Literacy Link visual literacy, inferential the past). comprehension

    ? Explain to students that interviewees are giving - Identify additional leisure activities and add to the class list. ? Literacy Link

    oral recounts of past events. Point out that this is called oral history in historical research, and ? Interview family and community members about leisure activities from their childhood. ? that it is a useful way of gaining information - suggested homework task. ? HSIE link about the past… It is important for students to

    ? Create a retrieval chart (and/or timeline). Classify activities as passive or active, and identify understand that the person giving information

    about an event may have a distinctive those that involve wheeled items. Identify variations within and between different cultural

    interpretation of what happened. groups, and similarities and differences between leisure activities enjoyed at different times and HSIE K-6 Syllabus. in different places. ? The exact time frame is not critical here. Leisure No. of Era / Time It is more important to establish that some Passive Active Wheels Setting Activity Wheels Frame leisure activities have continued into present day computer YES NO NO N/A present society, and that some are universal across games Grandparents Australia cultures. Others have changed or are culturally hopscotch NO YES NO N/A (1940s) to Scotland specific. present day India scooter NO YES YES 2 parents+ present Australia ? Billycarts near Rockhampton (Resources\ Web sites) ? Use the chart to write generalisations about leisure activities and how they have changed, e.g. For teacher enjoyment: All wheeled activities are active. There are more passive activities nowadays.” Read Clive James‟ Unreliable Memoirs for an

    account of 1950s billycart fun. ? Compare and contrast how leisure activities have changed over time and note cultural

    differences in the types of activities. Highlight how billycarts played a role in shaping the

    cultural identity of „the larrikin‟ from the 1930s onwards.

     1.3 Focus on pushcarts

    Establishing existing ? What do we know about pushcarts? ? At the end of the unit students will complete a understanding “What have I learnt?” activity. - Discuss students own experiences with billycarts (narratives). Encourage students to bring in

    billycarts if they have them. These will be useful for investigative activities in Step 2. ? Web sites, books and other resources are listed

     on the Kids' Design Challenge web site

    - Establish a KWL chart - to be added to as the unit progresses ? http://professionalteachers.nsw.edu.au/kidschallenge/K: what we Know W: What do we want to find out L: what have we Learnt (? Pushcart Challenge\Resources)

     To get ideas started, read: Terry’s Brrrmmm GT by Ted Greenwood Making a billycart by John D. Fitzgerald ? Begin research on pushcarts/billycarts. Include Internet, books, family photos, refer to family The Great Yackandandah Billy Cart Race by interviews, etc. This could be completed during Library or computing lessons. Materials could

    ? 2006 Technology in Primary Schools (TiPS) KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge Pushcarts to go… page 4

    Learning process ? Teacher information STEP 1: Learning activities Engaging students

    Wendy Orr be printed and used during reciprocal reading sessions. ? Literacy Link

     ? web site: Resources\Print resources - Create a class display to be built up throughout the unit.

     1.4 Introduce the Design scenario and briefDefining the design ? ? What is a design brief? task (D&M) ? Analysing the Design Brief? Highlight the major features and requirements. Resources\Learning processes

     - Clarify exactly what the brief is asking students to do. NB The class will work together in Steps 1-3 to ? Using highlighter pens, students identify the specific tasks involved in the challenge: investigate and design the pushcart. In Step 4 1. designing and constructing the pushcart teams are established to complete the four 2. devising a fitness schedule and safety plan related tasks. The tasks are designed to ensure 3. designing class/team identify and „look‟ that all students are involved in preparing for the

    4. developing a presentation of the class activities. KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge event.

     Clarifying the design ? In groups, brainstorm and list ideas, questions and thoughts related to building the pushcart. task (D&M) Record in journals and as a combined class list. Display for regular reference throughout the challenge.

     - As they arise, add questions to the “W: What do we want to find out” section of the KWL chart ? ? Glossary (see web site: Resources) ? Commence a class glossary of terms to be added to as the unit progresses. ? P

     ? Introduce and display the KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge Design specifications.

    - Discuss and identify essential elements: brake, wheels, steering, roll bar, safety features

     - Compare with and add to the class‟ (brainstorm) list to generate a overall description of the

    Negotiating criteria requirements for the pushcart, e.g. Our pushcart must have four or more wheels; a roll bar… (D&M)

    ? Consider other attributes that are desirable for a successful pushcart, e.g. must look good, be

    safe, be fast...

    - Add to class chart and frame these ideas into a set of criteria (statements) to be used to

    evaluate the finished pushcart, e.g.:

     Our pushcart will: 1. meet all design specifications

    2. be easy to drive

     3. look really cool

     4.

    ? 2006 Technology in Primary Schools (TiPS) KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge Pushcarts to go… page 5

Learning process ? Teacher information STEP 1: Learning activities Engaging students

    By the end of STEP 1 students will have established criteria or requirements for their design of the pushcart

    Please refer to the Teacher and Student reflection questions on the Step-by-Step section of the web site.

Notes:

? 2006 Technology in Primary Schools (TiPS) KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge Pushcarts to go… page 6

Step 2: Investigating phase - Investigating to inform design Term 1 weeks 9-11

    Learning Process Step 2: Learning activities- Investigating to inform design Teacher information

     2.1 What’s the difference between a billycart and a pushcart? ? ? Photo gallery on the KDC web site for ? Compare features found on billycarts (especially if children have brought them in) and the examples of traditional billycarts, and pushcarts Establishing existing images of push carts ?. Identify similarities and differences. that meet the design specifications. understandings - Add to the KWL chart.

     ? Revise prior knowledge and understandings of energy and forces: pushes and pulls. Pose question: “How do things move?” Discuss. ? Refer to: Appendix A - Big ideas: Physical

    Phenomena PPS2.4 ? Encourage students to identify the source of energy required for each cart type ?.

    Ask “What makes it go?” NB there may be great variations in student‟s prior

    experiences with concepts such as movement - Billycarts rely on gravity and a steep incline to make them go [gravity provides the pull] energy, forces, gravity. - Pushcarts need people power [push] to move on a flat surface.

     2.2 Establishing investigations: “What do we need to find out about pushcarts?” Posing questions ? Building on ideas and questions recorded on the KWL chart (Steps 1.3, 1.4, 2.1) identify major (INV) components of the pushcart that need to be investigated, e.g. brakes, steering, wheels and axles, ? Maths Link MS3.1, DS3.1, SGS3.2a, SGS3.2b pushcart frame (materials and structure), push bar (force). ? Maths Link P ? Expert groupings (also known as jigsaw ? Establish Expert Groups to undertake focused investigations. ? technique [Aronson, 1978] or expert jigsaw) are

    used here to divide the investigative tasks - Each group takes responsibility for investigating one aspect of the pushcart components. between all members of the class. Each group of - By the end of Step 2 each expert group will make recommendations to the class regarding the students takes on responsibility for becoming preferred design for the pushcart component. „expert‟ in one aspect of the pushcart.

     Groups develop understandings of related ? A range of investigative activities will assist expert groups to develop and refine their scientific concepts and provide advice to the understandings: whole class on how the pushcart component

    1) observing and manipulating vehicles and wheeled toys (Step 2.3) should be designed.

    2) fair testing in response to questions generated from their observations (Step 2.4) Refer to: Appendix F -Strategies: Expert Jigsaw 3) further research using a range of references and resources (Step 2.5).

     ? The expert groups present their findings and recommendations to the class in Step 2.6 ?

    ? The class as a whole is the „home group‟. ? The results of the investigations will be used to inform the design decisions made in Step 3.

? 2006 Technology in Primary Schools (TiPS) KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge Pushcarts to go… page 7

    Learning Process Step 2: Learning activities- Investigating to inform design Teacher information

     2.3 Observing and exploring vehicles ? Students bring in a variety of vehicles and wheeled toys, e.g. bikes, infant ride-on toys, dinky, scooter, skateboard, billycarts, go-carts ...

    - Identify how each one moves, sources of energy (pushes and pulls). - Encourage each group to consider the materials used for their component. ? The purpose of this activity is to: a) identify the range of ways a component might Observing and ? Each expert group examines a range of vehicles, closely observing, drawing and describing work, extending students‟ thinking beyond the manipulating their particular components, i.e. brake group, steering group, etc. ? immediate (stereotypical) ideas about how the (INV) pushcart might be designed, and - Take digital photographs of different features. b) build understandings about forces and simple - Record observations on proforma (Appendix B.1) noting features. Suggest how the machines component works.??Literacy Link

    ?Literacy Link Information Reports , or explanations, e.g. how brakes work ? Alternative: have one or two groups complete an appraisal of a single vehicle; observing

    and exploring all components (Appendix B.2). This provides a different view, highlighting

    how the components work together. ? It may be necessary to introduce students to ? Within each expert group, students compare their results, classifying types of mechanism, e.g. categories of „simple machines‟(lever, inclined levers, wheel and axle. ? plane, wheel and axle, wedge and pulleys). Most

    braking systems and steering systems will use a - Identify pros/cons/interesting aspects of the various examples of the component. lever of some sort. ?Create database or spreadsheets to categorise, compare, contrast, component parts.

     2.4 Planning and conducting tests on pushcart components NB Investigations may be influenced by the ? Drawing on the explorations in Step 2.3, assist each expert group to generate questions they‟d items that have been brought in for possible Posing questions like to explore in preparation for designing the pushcart, e.g. ? use in the pushcart, e.g. if a number of wheels (INV) are brought in, investigation should be focussed - Wheels: Does the size of the wheels matter? Which tread is best? Is a wide tread better than on deciding which are to be used. narrow tread? Does the length of the axle make a difference? Does the position of the wheel stabilisers that keep the wheels on affect wheel wobble?

    ? This is sometimes referred to as a “learners‟ - Frame: What materials are strongest? - lightest? How can we make the frame strong? questions approach”. It is an excellent way of - Steering: Which is the best way to steer the cart? How far apart should the [ropes] be for easy engaging students in investigations that have steering? meaning for them and are purposeful in - Brakes: Is a long brake handle easier to use? Does it matter what the brake pad is made of? producing results that can be applied to the How big/thick should the brake pad be? overall Challenge task. - Reducing resistance: What shapes are aerodynamic? How can we reduce resistance? Students often need help in framing their ideas - Pushing: Does the angle of the push make the pushcart more manoeuvrable? as questions. NB These are sample questions only. The expert groups should be encouraged to identify

    their own questions.

    ? 2006 Technology in Primary Schools (TiPS) KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge Pushcarts to go… page 8

    Learning Process Step 2: Learning activities- Investigating to inform design Teacher information ? Refer to ? Introduce and discuss the need for scientific investigation that involves systematic testing of ? Appendix A- Big Ideas INV3.7; and aspects of the pushcart ?. Appendix B.3 - Investigating scientifically

    - Introduce or revise and clarify terminology such as „control‟, variables‟, „hypothesis‟ ? Syllabus teaching strategies: TS11 TS15. „prediction‟ „fair test‟ and methods of measurement and recording. ? What do we mean by “investigating ? If students are unfamiliar with fair testing, it may be necessary to model a simple scientifically”? available on the KDC web site experiment around familiar concepts to demonstrate how a controlled experiment or fair ? Resources\Learning processes\Investigating test works. Controlled experiments are also known as fair tests. Defining a problem ? Help students select questions that can be tested using „controlled experiments‟ or fair tests. ? that can be (refer to Appendix A- Big Ideas INV3.7) ? Fair testing is only applicable to some aspects of investigated investigating the pushcart components, e.g. scientifically ? Planning fair tests: the following steps provide a scaffold for planning a fair test. It can be ? when deciding between options (materials to (INV) used by individual, expert groups or the whole class to plan tests related to appropriate student be used for the brake pads, size/type of wheel) questions. ? determining optimal conditions (where to attached the steering rope, how long to make Scaffold for devising a fair test: the frame). Fair tests require the control of conditions so that 1) Identify questions or focus of the investigation one variable at a time can be measured. 2) Propose a hypothesis or prediction. ? Hypothesising and Predicting (INV) - Discuss with students how they could test their hypothesis. - ? Refer to Appendix B.3 for information on 3) Identify the variables that could affect the results of the test, formulating hypotheses and predictions. e.g. speed of cart, brake pad material, force applied to the lever. Identify variable to be controlled (kept the same), changed and measured.

     4) Identify what should be measured and how. ? Teachers should demonstrate all new equipment Discuss how to record and present the results, e.g. graphs, diagrams. to students and establish guidelines and safety 5) Determine how many times the investigation should be repeated to get reliable results. principles prior to use. Testing 6) Devise a procedure for conducting the test, outlining each step needed. understandings (INV)

    7) Record observations using tabulations, charts, etc.

     8) Repeat the investigation as required to generate consistent results, e.g. min 3 repetitions. 9) Compile results for analysis and presentation.

     - Students may graph results using either an electronic spreadsheet (e.g. MS Excel) or graph paper.Consider: What type of graph would best show the results? (bar, line) What information should be included? (labels on x, y axes, Title of graph, scale)

    ? 2006 Technology in Primary Schools (TiPS) KDC-NRMA TechnoKidz Challenge Pushcarts to go… page 9

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