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Chapter C Access to education, participation and progression

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Chapter C Access to education, participation and progression

    Annex 3 EAG 2007

    EDUCATION AT A GLANCE

    OECD INDICATORS 2007

    ANNEX 3: SOURCES, METHODS AND TECHNICAL NOTES

    Chapter C: Access to Education, Participation and Progression

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    Annex 3 EAG 2007

    CHAPTER C: ACCESS TO EDUCATION, PARTICIPATION AND PROGRESSION .............................. 6 INDICATOR C1: HOW PREVALENT ARE VOCATIONAL PROGRAMMES?............................................................... 6 ? Table C1.1. Upper secondary enrolment patterns (2005) ...................................................................... 6 ? Table C1.2. Annual expenditure on educational institutions per student for all services, by type of

    programme (2004) .......................................................................................................................................... 6 ? Table C1.3, C1.4, C1.5 PISA (2003) ...................................................................................................... 6 INDICATOR C2: WHO PARTICIPATES IN EDUCATION? ....................................................................................... 7 ? General notes ......................................................................................................................................... 7 ? Table C2.1. Enrolment rates, by age (2005) .......................................................................................... 8 ? Table C2.2. Trends in enrolment rates, by age (1995-2005) .............................. 6 ? Table C2.3. Transition characteristics from age 15 to 20 (2005) ........................................................ 10 ? Table C2.4. Entry rates into tertiary education and age distribution of new entrants (2005) ............. 10 ? Table C2.5. Trends in entry rates at tertiary level (1995-2005)........................................................... 11 ? Tables C2.6 and C2.9: Students in tertiary education or in primary and secondary education by type

    of institution or mode of study (2005) ........................................................................................................... 11 ? Table C2.7. Education expectancy (2005)............................................................................................ 12 ? Table C2.8. Expected years in tertiary (2005) ..................................................................................... 14 INDICATOR C3: WHO STUDIES ABROAD AND WHERE? .................................................................................... 14 ? General notes ....................................................................................................................................... 14 ? Table C3.1 Student mobility and foreign students in tertiary education (2000, 2005) ......................... 15 ? Table C3.2 Distribution of international and foreign students in tertiary education by country of

    origin (2005) ................................................................................................................................................. 20 ? Table C3.3 Citizens studying abroad in tertiary education, by country of destination (2005) ............. 23 ? Table C3.4 Distribution of international and foreign students in tertiary education, by level and type

    of tertiary education (2005) .......................................................................................................................... 24 ? Table C3.5 Distribution of international and foreign students in tertiary education, by field of

    education (2005) ........................................................................................................................................... 25 ? Table C3.7 Percentage of tertiary qualifications awarded to international and foreign students, by

    type of tertiary education (2005)................................................................................................................... 27 ? Table C3.8 Number of foreign students in tertiary education, by country of origin and destination

    (2005) and market shares in international education (2000, 2005).............................................................. 27 ? Additional data ..................................................................................................................................... 27 INDICATOR C4: HOW SUCCESSFUL ARE STUDENTS IN MOVING FROM EDUCATION TO WORK? ........................ 27 ? General notes ....................................................................................................................................... 27 ? Tables C4.1a C4.1b (web), C4.2a, C4.2b (web), C4.2c (web), C4.3, C4.4a, C4.4b (web) and C4.4c

    (web) ............................................................................................................................................................. 27 INDICATOR C5: DO ADULTS PARTICIPATE IN TRAINING AND EDUCATION AT WORK?...................................... 30 ? General notes ....................................................................................................................................... 30

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methodology

    methodology

    Annex 3 EAG 2007 methodology

    methodology

    methodology Table: Specific notes by country in the different indicators

    methodology C1 C2

    C1.3 C1.1-to C2.1-C2.6-methodology C1.2 C1.5C2.2 C2.3 C2.4 C2.5 C2.9 C2.7 C2.8

    methodology

    methodology

     Australia AUS Austria AUT AUTAUT

     BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BELBELBelgium

     Canada CAN Czech Republic Denmark England

     FINFinland

     France FRA FRA Germany GER GERGERGER

     Greece Hungary HUN HUN HUN HUN Iceland

     IREIREIreland

     ITA ,

     ITA2 ITAItaly

     Japan Korea KOR Luxembourg LUXLUXLUXLUX LUX Mexico Netherlands NET New Zealand Norway Poland POL Portugal

     Scotland Slovak Republic Spain SPA SPA SPA SPA SPA SPA Sweden

     SWI Switzerland Turkey TUR TUR TUR TUR UKM UKMUnited Kingdom UKM United States USA USA Brazil Chile CHL CHL Estonia Israel ISR ISR Russian Federation Slovenia

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methodology

    methodology

    methodology

    methodology Annex 3 EAG 2007 Coverage

    Coverage

Definition Table (continuing): Specific notes by country in the different indicators

     Coverage C5C3 C4 methodology C3.1 C3.2 C3.3 C3.4 C3.5 C3.7 C3.8 Coverage

    methodology

     AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS Australia AUT AUT AUT AUTAUTAUTAustria Belgium BELBELBELBELBELBEL BELCAN Canada CAN CAN CAN CZC CZC CZCCZCCzech Republic Denmark DNK DNK England

     Finland FIN FIN FIN FINFINFIN France FRA FRA FRA FRAFRA Germany GER GER GER GER GER GER Greece GRE GRE GREGRE Hungary HUN HUN HUN Iceland ICE ICE ICEICEICE Ireland IRE IRE IRE IRE Italy ITA ITAITAITA Japan JPN JPN Korea KOR KOR Luxembourg

     Mexico

     Netherlands NET NET NET NET NET NET NET NET New Zealand NZL NZLNZLNZL

     NOR , Norway NOR NORNOR2 Poland POL POL POLPOL Portugal POR Scotland

     Slovak Republic SVK SVKSVK SPA SPA SPA SPA SPA SPASPASpain SWE , Sweden SWE SWE SWESWE2

    Switzerland SWI SWI SWI SWI SWI SWI Turkey TUR TUR TURTUR

     UKM , United Kingdom UKM UKMUKMUKM2 USA United States USA USAUSA

     Brazil BRA BRA BRABRA Chile CHL CHL Estonia EST ESTEST Israel ISR

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Annex 3 EAG 2007

Russian Federation RUS RUS RUSRUS Slovenia SVN SVN

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    Annex 3 EAG 2007 CHAPTER C: ACCESS TO EDUCATION, PARTICIPATION AND PROGRESSION INDICATOR C1: How prevalent are vocational programmes?

    ? Table C1.1. Upper secondary enrolment patterns (2005)

    Notes on specific countries

    Belgium: Data on the German-speaking Community are not integrated in the data for Belgium in the

    UOE data collection 2006. Data on independent private institutions are not available.Back_to_Table1 Hungary: The data in Tables C1.1 and C1.2 use the 2005 revision of the ISCED classification

    (implemented in tables from school year 2003/2004 onwards), whereas Tables C1.3, C1.4, C1.5 refer

    to the ISCED classification prior to the 2005 revision. In the revised ISCED classification, vocational

    secondary programmes in Grade 9-12 (formerly ISCED 3AP) have been reclassified partly as ISCED

    3AG (since the greater part of vocational training were shifted to Grade 13(14), i.e. ISCED 4) and partly as vocational (3AV) programmes. The latter refer to arts, music and sports vocational

    schools.Back_to_Table1

    United Kingdom: In the United Kingdom, 60% or more of upper secondary students are enrolled in

    vocational programmes. This includes enrolments in ISCED3 provision at any age, not only at the

    typical age of full-time upper secondary education (14-to-18-year-olds).Back_to_Table1

    ? Table C1.2. Annual expenditure on educational institutions per student for all services,

    by type of programme (2004)

    See notes for table C1.1.

    ? Table C1.3, C1.4, C1.5 PISA (2003)

    For additional information, please refer to the PISA website: www.pisa.oecd.org.Back_to_Table1

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    Annex 3 EAG 2007

    Notes on specific countries

    Hungary: The data for Tables C1.1 and C1.2 uses the revised ISCED classification that was made in

    2005, whereas the data for Tables C1.3, C1.4, and C1.5 refer to the ISCED classification prior to 2005.

    In the revised ISCED classification, vocational secondary programmes in Grade 9-12 (formerly

    ISCED 3AP) have been reclassified partly as ISCED 3AG (as parts of vocational training were shifted

    to Grade 13(14), i.e. ISCED 4) and partly as pre-vocational programmes. Tables C1.3, C1.4 and C1.5

    include students who attended ISCED 2CP or ISCED 2CG programmes.Back_to_Table1

    INDICATOR C2: Who participates in education?

    ? General notes

    Methodology

    ? Reference dates

    Statistics that relate participation data to population data are published for the reference date that was

    used by national authorities for these statistics. The assumption is made that age references in the

    enrolment data refer to 1 January of the reference year. For Australia, 30 June is used as the reference

    date for both enrolments and population data. For Japan, 1 October is used as the reference date for

    population data and 1 May is used as the reference date for enrolments.

    The dates or periods at which students, educational staff and educational institutions were counted

    have not been provided to the Secretariat by all countries. Some countries collect these statistics

    through surveys or administrative records at the beginning of the school year while others collect them

    during the school year, and yet others at the end of the school year or at multiple points during the

    school year. It should be noted that differences in the reference dates between, for example, enrolment

    data and population data can lead to over- or under- estimated figure (for instance, net enrolment rates

    exceeding 100 per cent) where there is a significant decrease or increase over time in any of the

    variables involved. If the reference date for students’ ages used in the enrolment data differs from the

    reference date for the population data (usually 1 January of the reference year), this can be a further

    source of error in enrolment rates.

    Sources: For OECD countries see Indicator B1: Sources.

    Notes on specific countries

    Hungary: The data in Tables C1.1 and C1.2 use the 2005 revision of the ISCED classification

    (implemented in tables from school year 2003/2004 onwards), whereas Tables C1.3, C1.4, C1.5 refer

    to the ISCED classification prior to the 2005 revision. In the revised ISCED classification, vocational

    secondary programmes in Grade 9-12 (formerly ISCED 3AP) have been reclassified partly as ISCED

    3AG (since the greater part of vocational training were shifted to Grade 13(14), i.e. ISCED 4) and

    partly as vocational (3AV) programmes. The latter refer to arts, music and sports vocational schools.

    Back_to_Table1

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    Annex 3 EAG 2007

    ? Table C2.1. Enrolment rates, by age (2005)

    Notes on specific countries

    Belgium: Data on the German-speaking Community are not integrated in the data for Belgium in the

    UOE data collection 2006. Data on independent private institutions are not available.Back_to_Table1

    Belgium, France and Italy: The enrolment rates for 3-to-4-year-olds exceed 100%. This is due to the

    fact that a large number of children below the age of 3 are enrolled in formal education and are

    included in Table C2.1 (between 15 and 25% of the total number of children are enrolled under the

    age of 4).Back_to_Table1

    Canada: The ending age of compulsory education is 16 except in the case of New Brunswick (18

    since 1999).Back_to_Table1

    Germany: Full-time education is compulsory until age 16; for 16-to-18-year-olds, part-time education

    is compulsory.Back_to_Table1

    Korea: Children enrolled in children’s centres, which cover many children under the age of 5 and

    provide educational services besides care, are excluded due to the data source. Back_to_Table1

    Ireland: In Ireland, the end-age of compulsory schooling was increased to 16 in 2002. The enrolment

    rate for 3-and-4-year-olds in Ireland is low because Ireland has no official provision of early childhood

    education. Many children attend some form of early childhood education, but provision is private and

    data are, for the most part, missing. Back_to_Table1

    Italy: Participation and school expectancy increase in Italy is largely due to the fact that compulsory schooling was extended to the age of 15 in the 1999-2000 school year. Legislation on compulsory

    schooling has progressively changed since then. Italy has moved away from the concept of

    compulsory school attendance until a required age to the principle of the right and obligation to

    receive education or training until the age of 18. This principle has been fully enforced since 2003.

    Back_to_Table1

    Luxembourg: A significant proportion of the youth cohort study in neighbouring countries. Nearly all students in tertiary education have to study outside the country. Back_to_Table1 The Netherlands: The lower enrolment rate for 3-and-4-year-olds in the Netherlands, as compared to

    2002, has been caused by a change of reference date. In the Netherlands, children can enrol in group 1

    of pre-primary education from the moment that they are 4 years of age, on every day of the

    school year. From 2003 on, the reference date for the number of pupils changes from 31 December to

    1 October of the school year, subsequently leading to a decrease in the number of 4-year-olds

    counted in pre-primary education. Participation in education drops below 90% for students aged 17

    and 18 since part-time enrolment is allowed. Indeed, compulsory education ends late in the

    Netherlands, but beyond age 16 the compulsion is partial. Back_to_Table1

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    Annex 3 EAG 2007 Poland: Full-time compulsory education normally continues until pupils are 16 years old (i.e. the age of the completion of the lower secondary level (gymnasium). Part-time compulsory education,

    however, in schools or out-of school forms, lasts until 18 years of age (based on the constitution of the

    Republic of Poland adopted in 1997). Back_to_Table1

Spain: Net enrolment rates exceed 100 in some cases. The reason lies partly in the nature of the

    population forecasts by the National Institute of Statistics, and partly in a possible over-reporting of

    enrolments by schools. Break series in 2003 school year due to the revision of the national population

    data. Back_to_Table1

Switzerland: Entrance age and enrolments in early childhood education vary considerably among

    Swiss cantons. The entrance itself is often left at the choice of parents. Back_to_Table1 Turkey: From the school year 1997-1998 a law was passed to extend the duration of primary

    education to eight years and the end of compulsory education was set at age 14. Back_to_Table1 United Kingdom: The figures can be misleading because of differing definitions of the end of

    compulsory schooling. For example, compulsory education in England and Wales finishes at the end

    of the academic year in which a pupil’s sixteenth birthday occurs. Pupils in the final year of

    compulsory education in England and Wales are aged 15 on 1 September and turn 16 during the

    academic year. Those in the first post-compulsory year are aged 16 on 1 September. Those among this

    group of post-compulsory 16-year-olds not participating are being reported as not enrolled, but they

    are not part of the relevant population. In Scotland if a pupil’s sixteenth birthday occurs between 1

    March and 30 September compulsory education ends on the 31 May between those two dates. If a

    pupil’s sixteenth birthday occurs between 1 October and 29 February compulsory education ends the

    day before the Christmas holidays before those two dates.

     Data cover enrolments in schools only. Therefore enrolments for 3-to-4-year-olds are

    underestimated.

     Since 2006, the United Kingdom has refined its methodology so that the data for this year and last

    year are not strictly comparable with that supplied prior to 2006. In particular:

    ? The new treatment of younger children allocated to ISCED level 1 (the 4- and rising 5-year-

    olds referred to above)

    ? The more accurate allocation of children outside the typical age range to the correct ISCED

    category

    ? The inclusion for the first time of students on apprenticeship courses. Back_to_Table1

United States: There is not a standard, federally determined age at which one can leave school in the

    U.S. Every state can choose the age, and in general it ranges from 15 to 17. Back_to_Table1 Chile: Data exclude participation in tertiary education therefore the enrolment rates of 15-to-19 and

    20-to-29-year-olds are underestimated. Back_to_Table1

    Israel: Israel has mandatory military service from ages 18 to 21 for men and 18 to 20 for women,

    which brings a postponement in the age of enrolment in post-secondary and tertiary education.

    Back_to_Table1

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    Annex 3 EAG 2007

    ? Table C2.3. Transition characteristics from age 15 to 20 (2005)

    Notes on specific countries

    Belgium: Data on the German-speaking Community are not integrated in the data for Belgium in the

    2006 UOE data collection. Data for age group 20, secondary and post-secondary non tertiary under

    evaluation since age 20 is part of a split (i.e. age 20-24 could not be divided by age). Back_to_Table1 Israel: Due to compulsory military service, enrolment rates are significantly low at ages 18 to 21 for

    men and 18 to 20 for women. Back_to_Table1

    Luxembourg: A significant proportion of the youth cohort study in neighbouring countries at the

    ISCED 3, 4, 5 and 6 levels. Back_to_Table1

    Spain: Break series in Education at a Glance 2005 due to the revision of the population data.

    Back_to_Table1

    ? Table C2.4. Entry rates into tertiary education and age distribution of new entrants

    (2005)

    Methodology

    ? Calculation of net entry rates

    The net entry rates given in Table C2.1 represent the proportion of persons of a synthetic age cohort

    who enter a certain level of tertiary education at one point during their lives. The net entry rate is

    defined as the sum of net entry rates for single ages. The total net entry rate is therefore the sum of the

    proportions of new entrants to tertiary-type A and B aged i to the total population aged i, at all ages. Since data by single year are only available for ages 15 to 29, the net entry rates for older students are

    estimated from data for five-year age bands.

    ? Calculation of gross entry rates

    In the case where no data on new entrants by age were provided, gross entry rates are calculated.

    Gross entry rates are the ratio of all entrants, regardless of their age, to the size of the population at the

    typical age of entry. Gross entry rates are more easily influenced by differences in the size of

    population by single year of age. Taking into account the effect of changing cohort sizes, all gross

    rates presented here were tested for possible error. The error is well below five percentage points.

    ? Calculation of age at the 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles

    The ages given for the 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles are linear approximations from data by single

    year of age. The i-th percentile is calculated as follows: let age k be the age at which less than i% of new entrants are younger than k years of age and equal or more than i per cent are younger than k+1. If

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