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Cause-and-effect

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Cause-and-effect ...

    Unit Seven

    Book 2

    Teaching Plan

?.Learning Objectives

    After learning this unit, students are supposed to be able to ---grasp the key words, expressions and structures in this unit. --- listening task--- Spot dictation

    ---reading skillstypes of reading comprehension questions ---writing skills--- general statement supported by examples ---Speaking task--- say sth. about Stress

?. Time Allocations

The 1st and 2nd periodsfor listening

    The 3rd and 4th periodsfor speaking

    The 5th and 6th periodsfor reading

    The 7th and 8th periodsfor exercises and quiz

?. Teaching Steps

    ---Background Information

---- Lead-in Activities

    ----Key Words and Their Collocations ----Language Points

    ---- Difficult Points

    ----Writing Skills

    ----Reading Skills

    ----Listening & Speaking

    ----Summary

?.Key Points

    A. Key Words and Expressions

    Spin title react excess attribute

    Delegate emphasis argument

    Stir recommend independent

     Stimulate priority viewpoint

    troublesome flee temper be out of control blow one’s top ,blow apart ,cut down ,keep sth. in mind

    B. Key Sentence Patterns

     So says Dr.Robert S.Eliot , author of a new book titled From

    Stress to Strength :How to Lighten Your Load and Save Your

    Life.

    The hotter people get, physiologically, with mental stress, the

    more likely they are to blow apart with some heart problem. ?.Difficult Points

    1. Text

    a) If you often feel angry and overwhelmed, like the stress in

    your life is spinning out of control, then you may be

    hurting your heart. (L1)

    b) What happens is that the hotter people get,

    physiologically, with mental stress, the more likely they

    are to blow apart with some heart problem.(L36)

    2. Writing techniques of this text:

    Cause-and-effect

    3. Reading skills

    ---finding out word meanings

    ?. Assignments

    1. Listening--- home listening

    2. Intensive Reading--- do exercises on p.182189 and read

    section B & C

    4. On-line discussion---How do you deal with stress when you

    are under pressure?

    Unit Seven

     Lighten Your Load and Save Your Life

    ?. Lead-in Activities

    Questions for answer

    1) According to Dr.Robert S.Eliot, what should you do if you don’t want to break

    your heart?

    2) For those who are called “hot reactors”, what may be the result of being tense?

    3) According to Eliot, what did researchers find through years of work? 4) What main factors, according to Eliot, cause harmful levels of stress? 5) What kinds of people does the author mention to illustrate “the root of their stress

    is anger”?

    6) What new factors does Eliot recommend in order to calm yourselves down? 7) What does the example of Ben Franklin show?

    8) From Eliot’s viewpoint, how do we face all the problems and difficulties in our

    daily lives?

    ?. Background Information

    1. Dr. Robert S. Eliot

    The author of the book: From Stress to Strength: How to Lighten Your Load and

    Save Your Life.

    2. The University of Nebraska

    The university (1869) has four campuses. Its main campus is located in Lincoln,

    where colleges of arts and sciences, agriculture, education, architecture,

    engineering, and technology, business administration, home economics,

    journalism, and law warehoused. Item Omaha campus has courses leading to

    bachelor’s and master’s degrees. The University of Nebraska’s medical center has

    colleges of medicine, nursing, dentistry, and pharmacy.

    3. Benjamin (Ben) Franklin

    ?. Key Words and Their Collocations 1. excess:通常指用于超过平常或允许范围而额外的?附加的这层含

    义?只能作定语。如?My cases were too heavy, and the airline charged

    me $20 for excess luggage.

    2. excessive表示在数量或程度上太多了?可作 定语或表语。

    She takes an excessive interest in clothes.

be out of control

    become no longer manageable

    失去控制?不听约束

    The children are out of control.

    孩子们不听管教。

    The situation was out of our control.

    事态已失去了控制。

    blood pressure

    血压

    Politicians always raise his blood pressure.

    政治家总是使他血压升高。;即?使他非常愤怒~

    blow one's top

    lose one's temper

    大发雷霆

    My father will blow his top when he sees what happened to the car.

    我父亲看到车子这个样子肯定会大发雷霆。

    When he told her how much it cost, she blew her top.

    当他告诉她东西的价格时?她大发脾气。

    stir in one's own juice

    suffer from unpleasant feelings

    受煎熬

    blow apart

break by an explosion

    爆炸

    His car had been blown apart.

    他的车被炸得支离破碎。

    on one's trail

    on one's way

    在……路上

    cut down

    reduce the amount or quantity of sth.

    减少……的数量

    The factory cannot afford to employ any more workers, so it will have to cut down

    on production.

    这个工厂没有能力再增雇工人?所以它只好减少生产。

    In these times of rising prices, we must all cut down on our spending. 在这个物价上涨的时期?我们都必须紧缩开支。

    keep sth. in mind

    remember sth.

    记住

    You must keep your parents' needs in mind when you make your decisions. 当你作决定时?不要忘了你父母的需要。

    We must keep in mind that the younger people might not like the idea. 我们必须考虑到?年轻人可能不喜欢这个想法。

?. Text Study

    A. Text Structure Analysis The whole passage falls into 3 parts:

    Part 1 (Para. 13): It shows the argument that the pressure in life will

    threaten people’health.

    Part 2 (Para. 411): The author explains the cause that pressure damage

    health through examples. Part 3 (Para .1220): The author indicates how to lighten pressure.

    B. Language Points

    1) Typical Patterns

So says Dr. Robert S. Eliot,… (Para. 3)

    It's an inverted sentence. The normal order is: Dr. Robert S. Eliot … says so.

    "So" refers to what is talked about in Para. 2. The reasons for the inverted order of

    the sentence are that the subject of the sentence (that is: Dr. Robert S. Eliot, author of a new book titled From Stress to Strength: How to Lighten Your Load and Save Your Life) is very long and, what is more, the subject bears the new information of

    the whole sentence. To keep the sentence in balance, and to achieve the end-weight

    (that is: leave the complex structure towards the end of the sentence) and end-focus (that is: leave the new information towards the end of the sentence), the

    word “so” is put at the very beginning and the verb comes before the subject.

    Another simple example:

    So goes the story. 故事如此云云。

2) Difficult Points

    If you don’t want to break your own heart, you need to learn to take charge of your life where you can and recognize there are many things beyond

    your control. (Para. 2)

    Meaning: If you don’t like to harm your heart, you should learn to take control of your own life where you can, and at the same time, you have to realize that you’re unable to take control over everything

    …To learn to take charge of your life…(Para. 2)

    take charge of: take control of (a situation, organization, or a group of people)

    Please take charge of my dog while Im away. 我不在家时请帮忙照管我的狗。

    He will take charge (of it) during my time away. 我外出时由他负责。

    She took charge of the family business when her father died. 她在父亲去世后负责

    掌管家里的生意。

    It creates many short circuits, and that causes crazy heart rhythms. (Para. 5)

    Meaning: Damaged heart muscles cause the heart a lot of problems, which result in irregular heartbeat.

    Short circuit: a faulty electrical connection that makes the current flow along the wrong path and so usually puts the power supply out of operation. Here the

    expression is used in its figurative sense to mean a problem that may cause the heart to function irregularly.

    The heart beats like a bag of worms instead of a pump. (Para. 5]

    Meaning: The heart works badly rather than beating like a pump.

    Like a bag of worms: (functioning) irregularly and without much power

    pump:

    1) n. [C] a machine or device for forcing water, gas or air into, out of or through sth.

    water pump 抽水机

    The doctor removed the contents of her stomach with a stomach pump. 医生用胃

泵清除掉她胃里的东西。

    2) vt. cause air, gas, water, etc. to move in a specified direction by using a pump

    The heart pumps the blood round the body. 心脏使血液在身体内循环。

    We took turns pumping out the boat. 我们轮流用泵把船里的水抽干。

    C) After-text Discussion

    1.How do you deal with stress when you are under pressure? 2.What attritude do you keep towards some parts of your life, which are beyond your control?

    ?. Writing Techniques

    The cause-and-effect structure is not new to us. We came across this structure before. What is new in our reading passage or worth our attention is that we find a sort of chain of causes or effects. This is to say the first cause leads to the first effect and the first effect becomes the second cause leading to the second effect and the second effect becomes the third cause leading to still another effect.

     Please look at part of Paragraph 5 and the following chart.

Part of Paragraph 5:

    We’ve done years of work in showing that excess alarm or stress chemicals can literally burst heart muscle fibers. When that happens it happens very quickly, within five minutes. It creates many short circuits, and that causes crazy heart rhythms. The heart beats like a bag of worms instead of a pump. And when that happens, we can’t live.

     The first cause: excess alarm or stress

    chemicals

     The first effect:(That) can literally burst heart muscle fibers.

     This is also the second cause in the chain.

     The second effect: It creates many short circuits, and that causes crazy

    heart rhythms. The heart beats like a bag of worms instead of a pump.

    This is also the third cause in the chain.

     The third effect: We can't live.

    It looks a bit complicated but it represents our logical thinking and the way we present our thoughts or arguments.

    ?. Reading Skill

    Finding Out Word Meanings: As we learned in Unit 2, we can often figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word from clues provided by context. The context clues that might be helpful for us to recognize the meaning of a new word include:

    1. Some sentences give the definition for a difficult word with the help of punctuation such

    as commas, dashes or parentheses.

    2. Context sometimes gives examples to illustrate a difficult word rather than define it. We

    can use the examples to figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word. 3. Synonyms are words or phrases that are similar in meaning. A synonym is one type of 4. Antonyms are words or phrases the have opposite meanings to other words or phrases.

    Antonym coues can help you understand new words.

    5. Sentences before or after a sentence that has a difficult word sometimes explain the

    meaning of the word.

    6. Sometimes we can use our own experiences, or our knowledge about a certain topic, to

    find out the meaning of an unfamiliar word.

    7. Word part clues. We can often figure out an unfamiliar word because we know the refix

    or suffix attached to the root word, or the two words that make up a compound word. ?.Summary

    Stress can kill you. Being tense can damage your heart so it is wise to take charge of your life and realize you cannot control everything. But you can control stress, which is caused by fear, uncertainty, doubt and lack of control. Anger may be the root of this stress, especially for hard-working professional women and people with no goals in life. To relax and take control, try the NICE factors: new, interesting, challenging experiences. And follow Ben Franklin’s example by writing down the major goals you

    want to achieve in your life. For the problems over which you have no control, you have to learn to go with the flow.

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