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degradation using TiO2 immobilized on glass spheres of 15 emerging contaminants (ECs) at low concent

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degradation using TiO2 immobilized on glass spheres of 15 emerging contaminants (ECs) at low concent

    Research highlights

    ? Oxidative properties of biologically precipitated manganese oxides. ? Reductive properties of

    nanosized palladium particles. ? Removal of recalcitrant trace compound from wastewater effluent.

     Removal of antibiotics from urban wastewater by 143 constructed wetland optimization

     Chemosphere, Volume 83, Issue 5, April 2011, Pages

    Purchase 713-719

    $ 41.95 María Hijosa-Valsero, Guido Fink, Michael P. Schlüsener, Ricardo Sidrach-Cardona, Javier Martín-Villacorta,

    Thomas Ternes, Eloy Bécares

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    reference work articles

    Abstract | Figures/Tables | References

    Abstract

    Seven mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs), differing in their design characteristics, were set up in the open air to assess their efficiency to remove

    antibiotics from urban raw wastewater. A conventional wastewater treatment

    plant (WWTP) was simultaneously monitored. The experiment took place in autumn. An analytical methodology including HPLCMS/MS was developed to

    measure antibiotic concentrations in the soluble water fraction, in the suspended solids fraction and in the WWTP sludge. Considering the soluble water fraction, the only easily eliminated antibiotics in the WWTP were

    doxycycline (61 ? 38%) and sulfamethoxazole (60 ? 26%). All the studied

    types of CWs were efficient for the removal of sulfamethoxazole (59 ? 3087 ? 41%), as found in the WWTP, and, in addition, they removed trimethoprim (65 ? 2196 ? 29%). The elimination of other antibiotics in CWs was limited by the specific system-configuration: amoxicillin (45 ? 15%) was

    only eliminated by a free-water (FW) subsurface flow (SSF) CW planted with Typha angustifolia; doxycycline was removed in FW systems planted with T.

    angustifolia (65 ? 3475 ? 40%), in a Phragmites australis-floating

    macrophytes system (62 ? 31%) and in conventional horizontal SSF-systems (71 ? 39%); clarithromycin was partially eliminated by an unplanted FW-SSF

    system (50 ? 18%); erythromycin could only be removed by a P.

    australis-horizontal SSF system (64 ? 30%); and ampicillin was eliminated by a T. angustifolia-floating macrophytes system (29 ? 4%). Lincomycin was not removed by any of the systems (WWTP or CWs). The presence or absence of

    plants, the vegetal species (T. angustifolia or P. australis), the flow type and the CW design characteristics regulated the specific removal mechanisms.

    Therefore, CWs are not an overall solution to remove antibiotics from urban

    wastewater during cold seasons. However, more studies are needed to assess

    their ability in warmer periods and to determine the behaviour of full-scale

    systems.

    Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. Material and methods

    2.1. Description of the systems

    2.2. Sampling regime

    2.3. Material

    3. Analytical methodology

    3.1. Sample preparation

    3.1.1. Water samples (soluble aqueous fraction)

    3.1.2. SS samples

    3.1.3. WWTP-sludge samples

    3.1.4. PSE of SS and sludge samples

    3.2. SPE and sample concentration

    3.3. Chromatographic analysis

    3.3.1. Tetracyclines and β-lactam antibiotics HPLCMS/MS-positive

    electrospray ionization (ESI+) method

    3.3.2. Macrolides, lincomycin, sulfonamides and tiamulin

    HPLCMS/MS-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) method

    4. Results and discussion

    4.1. Characteristics of the influent wastewater and the WWTP sludge

    4.2. Removal efficiencies

    4.2.1. Influence of CW design characteristics

    Acknowledgements

    Appendix A. Supplementary data

    References

    Research highlights

    ? Constructed wetlands can partially remove antibiotics from urban wastewater. ? Several constructed

    wetland design-configurations were assessed. ? Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were removed by

    all the systems. ? The removal of other compounds was lower and depended on the design of the system.

     Pilot study of drinking water treatment with GAC, 144 O/BAC and membrane processes in Kinmen Island, 3

     Taiwan Original Research Article

    Purchase Desalination, Volume 263, Issues 1-3, 30 November 2010,

    $ 37.95 Pages 271-278

    Jong-Sheng Yang, Dong-Xing Yuan, Tzu-Pao Weng

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    Abstract | Figures/Tables | References

    Abstract

    A study on advanced treatment of drinking water was conducted in a pilot

    scale plant in Tai Lake, Kinmen, Taiwan. The raw water contains a high

    concentration of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors and causes serious

    odor problems. Chlorination of the raw water produced higher haloacetic acid

    formation potential (HAAFP) than trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Therefore, the high concentration of NOMs, which is the major

    source of DBP precursors, and the removal efficiencies of non-purgeable

    dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC), UV, THMFP, HAAFP, 254

    2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), and trans-1, 10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol

    (geosmin) were evaluated for both conventional and advanced water

    treatment processes. 2-MIB and geosmin can be removed efficiently by the GAC and O/BAC process, but bromo-THMs cannot. In addition, the removal 3

    efficiency of HAAFP was higher than that of THMFP by the GAC or O/BAC 3

    process. The ultrafiltration (UF)-nanofiltration (NF) combined process showed removal efficiencies for NPDOC, UV, THMFP, HAAFP of 88.7%, 94%, 254

    84.3% and 97.5%, respectively. This study found that the GAC or O/BAC 3

    process is a promising way to treat odor problems, and the UFNF membrane

    process was one of the best available ways to remove NOMs and DBP formation potential.

    Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. Materials and methods

    2.1. Pilot plant

    2.2. Analytical methods

    3. Results and discussion

    3.1. Raw water characteristics

    3.2. Performance evaluation of each treatment process

    3.2.1. Rejection of turbidity and organic matters

    3.2.2. Removal of THMFP and HAAFP

    3.2.3. Elimination of geosmin and 2-MIB

    3.3. Evaluation of performance of treatment processes

3.4. Cost analysis of treatment processes

    4. Conclusion

    Acknowledgements

    References

     Essential oil composition and antioxidant and 145 antimicrobial properties of the aerial parts of Salvia

     eremophila Boiss. from Iran Original Research Article

    Purchase Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 48, Issue 5, May

    $ 31.50 2010, Pages 1371-1376

    Abdolrasoul H. Ebrahimabadi, Asma Mazoochi, Fereshteh

    Jookar Kashi, Zahra Djafari-Bidgoli, Hossein Batooli

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    Abstract | Figures/Tables | References

    Abstract

    The essential oil composition and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of Salvia eremophila were evaluated

    in this research. GC and GC/MS analysis of the plant essential oil resulted in the identification of 28 compounds representing 99.24% of the oil. Borneol (21.83%), α-pinene (18.80%), bornyl acetate (18.68%) and camphene (6.54%)

    were detected as the major components consisting 65.85% of the oil. The

    plant essential oil and methanol extract were also subjected to screenings for the evaluation of their antioxidant activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

    (DPPH) and β-carotenelinoleic acid tests. While the plant essential oil

    showed only weak antioxidant activities, its methanol extract was considerably

    active in both DPPH (IC = 35.19 μg/ml) and β-carotenelinoleic acid 50

    (inhibition percentage: 72.42%) tests. Appreciable total phenolic content

    (101.25 μg/mg) was also detected for the plant methanol extract as gallic acid equivalent in the FolinCiocalteu test. The plant was also screened for its antimicrobial activity and good to moderate inhibitions were recorded for its essential oil and methanol extract against most of the tested microorganisms.

Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. Materials and methods

    2.1. Materials

    2.1.1. Plant material

    2.1.2. Solvents and chemicals

    2.2. Preparation of the extracts

    2.2.1. Isolation of the essential oil 2.2.2. Preparation of the methanol extract 2.3. Chromatographic analysis

    2.3.1. Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis 2.3.2. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis

    2.4. Antioxidant activity

    2.4.1. DPPH radical assay

    2.4.2. β-Carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay 2.4.3. Assay for total phenolics

    2.5. Antimicrobial activity

    2.5.1. Microbial strains

    2.5.2. Disc diffusion assay

    2.5.3. Micro-well dilution assay

    2.5.4. MIC agar dilution assay

    3. Results and discussion

    3.1. Chemical composition of the essential oil 3.2. Amount of total phenolic constituents 3.3. Antioxidant activity

    3.4. Antimicrobial activity

    4. Conclusion

Conflict of interest statement

    Acknowledgements

    References

     Phytochemical and biological activities of Crataegus 146 sinaica growing in Egypt Original Research Article

     Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, Volume 3,

    Purchase Issue 4, April 2010, Pages 257-261

    $ 31.50 Alaa Tawfeek Refaat, Abdelaaty Abdelaziz Shahat,

    Nermine Ahmed Ehsan, Nemat Yassin, Faiza Hammouda,

    Elsayed Abou Tabl, Shams Imbabi Ismail

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    Abstract | References

    Objective

    To evaluate the cardiac activity and hepatoprotection of Crataegus sinaica (C.

    sinaica).

    Methods

    All the isolated compounds were isolated by open-column liquid

    chromatography (CC) using sephadex LH-20 as stationary phase. Elution of the column was performed with EtOH or MeOH. The phytochemical investigation of the young stem of C. sinaica for the first time together with the leaves and flowers lead to the isolation and identification of quercetin, hyperoside, vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside, epicatechin, procyanidin B2 and procyanidins C1.

    Results

    Rats treated with the low and high dose of C. sinaica leaves with flowers extract showed 15% and 17% reduction in the heart rate, and reduction in the ST-segment by 107% and 57%; respectively. The T-amplitude was decreased

    by 59% of the high dose extract. On the other hand, the young stems and leaves with flowers extracts of C. sinaica on primary culture of rat hepatocytes

    monolayer indicated a hepatoprotection for the total extract, ethyl acetate,

    butanol, and chloroform fractions at 100 μg/mL, 75 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, and 25μg/mL; respectively.

    Conclusions

    The results of these chemical and biological studies suggest the use of C.

    sinaica growing in Egypt as a preventive drug against cardiovascular and

    hepatic diseases. The chemical studies suggest the use of woody young stems as a newly investigated bioactive organ. The extraction of unsaturated fatty acids from the seeds of the plant would serve as a good health and

    nutritive product.

     Toxicity-directed approach of polyester manufacturing 147 industry wastewater provides useful information for

     conducting treatability studies Original Research Article

    Purchase Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 163, Issue 1, 15

    $ 41.95 April 2009, Pages 92-97

    Roberto A. Caffaro-Filho, Dione M. Morita, Roger Wagner,

    Lucia R. Durrant

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    Abstract | Figures/Tables | References

    Abstract

    A broader characterization of industrial wastewaters, especially in respect to hazardous compounds and their potential toxicity, is often necessary in order to determine the best practical treatment (or pretreatment) technology

    available to reduce the discharge of harmful pollutants to the environment or publicly owned treatment works. Using a toxicity-directed approach, this paper

    sets the base for a rational treatability study of polyester resin manufacturing. Relevant physical and chemical characteristics were determined.

    Respirometry was used for toxicity reduction evaluation after physical and chemical effluent fractionation. Of all the procedures investigated, only air stripping was significantly effective in reducing wastewater toxicity. Air stripping in pH 7 reduced toxicity in 18.2%, while in pH 11 a toxicity reduction of 62.5% was observed. Results indicated that toxicants responsible for the most significant fraction of the effluent's instantaneous toxic effect to unadapted activated sludge were organic compounds poorly or not volatilized

    in acid conditions. These results led to useful directions for conducting treatability studies which will be grounded on actual effluent properties rather

    than empirical or based on the rare specific data on this kind of industrial

    wastewater.

    Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. Materials and methods

    2.1. Effluent sampling

    2.2. Physical and chemical analysis

    2.3. Fractionation procedures

    2.4. Respirometric toxicity tests

    3. Results and discussion

    3.1. Physical and chemical effluent characterization

    3.2. Respirometric tests

    3.3. Suppositions about identity of toxicant(s)

    3.4. Confirmation of toxic effects to acclimated biomass

    3.5. Treatability study directions

    4. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

     Influence of the phenophase on the phenolic profile 148 and antioxidant properties of Dalmatian sage Original

     Research Article

    Purchase Food Chemistry, Volume 127, Issue 2, 15 July 2011,

    $ 35.95 Pages 427-433

    Ivana Generalić, Danijela Skroza, Ivica Ljubenkov, Ana

    Katalinić, Franko Burčul, Višnja Katalinić

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    Abstract | Figures/Tables | References

    Abstract

    This study aimed to research the influence of phenophase on the phenolic profile (phenolic acids, flavonoids and stilbenes) and related antioxidant

    properties of sage, one of the most characteristic plants of Dalmatian karst.

    The total phenol and flavonoid contents in sage leaves were determined

    spectrophotometrically, while the principal phenolics were determined using

    HPLC-RP-DAD. Antioxidant properties of this well known medicinal plant were

    determined as free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and by Briggs-Rauscher oscillating

    reaction (BR). The results strongly indicate that Dalmatian sage leaves are rich

    source of valuable phenolics, mainly phenolic acids, with extremely good

    antioxidant properties. The presence of resveratrol or its derivatives was

    confirmed in all extracts. The best results for total phenols and flavonoids, as well as the best antioxidant properties were obtained for May sage, while the highest amounts of catechin monomers and compounds from group of

    stilbenes were found in February extract.

    Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. Materials and methods

    2.1. Reagents, solvents and standards

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