Characterization results Photocatalytic activity results TiO2 immobilized tests using SW and SE

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Characterization results Photocatalytic activity results TiO2 immobilized tests using SW and SE


    ? The availability of Soil Organic (SON) affects the amounts and turnover rates of the soil organic

    carbon (SOC) pools. ? The nitrogen (N) cycle has a considerable indirect but also direct impact on the

    carbon (C) cycle. ? SON is a major contributor to the refractory SOM, determining not only the size of this pool but also its chemical composition. ? Peptides even have a key function in the C-sequestration

    process. ? In fire-prone regions, formation of “Black Nitrogen” represents a major N stabilization

    mechanism, leading to the accumulation of heterocyclic aromatic N.

     Cycas micronesica (Cycadales) plants devoid of endophytic 110 cyanobacteria increase in β-methylamino-L-alanine Original Research


    Purchase Toxicon, Volume 56, Issue 4, 15 September 2010, Pages 563-568

    $ 31.50 Thomas E. Marler, Laura R. Snyder, Christopher A. Shaw

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    Abstract | Figures/Tables | References


    Cycads are among the most ancient of extant Spermatophytes, and are known

    for their pharmacologically active compounds. β-methylamino-L-alanine

    (BMAA) is one metabolite that been implicated as causal of human

    neurodegenerative diseases in Guam. We grew Cycas micronesica seedlings

    without endophytic cyanobacteria symbiosis, and quantified initial and ending

    BMAA in various plant tissues. BMAA increased 79% during nine months of

    seedling growth, and root tissue contained 75% of the ultimate BMAA pool.

    Endophytic cyanobacteria symbionts were not the source of BMAA increase in

    these seedlings, which contradicts previously reported claims that biosynthesis

    of this toxin by cyanobacteria initiates its accumulation in the Guam

    environment. The preferential loading of root tissue with BMAA does not

    support earlier reports that this toxin serves a defensive role against herbivory

    of leaf or seed tissues. The long history of conflicting results in Guam’s cycad

    toxin research continues, and recent developments underscore the sense of

urgency in continued research as this endangered cycad population

    approaches extirpation from the island.

    Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. Materials and methods

    2.1. Field methods

    2.2. Synthesis of internal standard BMAA

    2.3. BMAA analytical methods

    2.4. Statistical analysis

    3. Results

    3.1. Gametophyte BMAA pool

    3.2. BMAA location within seedlings

    3.3. Total bioaccumulation of BMAA

    4. Discussion


    Conflict of interest



     Isolation, characterization and biological evaluation of bioactive 111 metabolites from Nocardia levis MK-VL_113 Original Research Article

    Microbiological Research, Volume 165, Issue 3, 31 March 2010,

    Purchase Pages 199-210

    $ 37.95 Alapati Kavitha, Peddikotla Prabhakar, Manchala Narasimhulu,

    Muvva Vijayalakshmi, Yenamandra Venkateswarlu, Karanam Venkateswara Rao, Venkata Balaraju Subba Raju

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    An Actinomycete isolate found to be prominent in the laterite soils of Acharya

Nagarjuna University (ANU) Campus, Guntur was identified as Nocardia levis

    MK-VL_113 by 16S rRNA analysis. Cultural, morphological and physiological

    characteristics of the strain were recorded. Screening of secondary metabolites

    obtained from 4-day old culture broth of the strain led to the isolation of two fractions active against a wide variety of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria

    and fungi. The structure of the first active fraction was elucidated using FT-IR,

    113EI-MS, H NMR and C NMR spectra and identified as 1-phenylbut-3-ene-2-ol

    which is first time reported as a natural product. The compound exhibited good

    antimicrobial potential against the opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antifungal activity of the strain and its metabolite were further confirmed with in vitro and in vivo studies. Evidence for the antagonism of the strain against Fusarium oxysporum, causing wilt disease in sorghum was demonstrated by the formation of inhibition zone in in vitro plate assay and

    reduction in the incidence of wilt of sorghum plants by using a green house trial.

    Analysis of the rhizosphere soil extracts by high performance liquid

    chromatography also demonstrated the production of the compound by the

    strain under in vivo conditions. As compared to the commercial fungicide mancozeb, the bioactive compound, 1-phenylbut-3-ene-2-ol was highly

    effective in controlling wilt of sorghum. Besides, the partially purified second fraction (PPF) subjected to gas chromatographymass spectrometry revealed

    the presence of phenylethyl alcohol, dibutyl phthalate and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 3-nitro.

    Article Outline


    Materials and methods


    Taxonomic studies

Phylogenetic analysis


    Isolation, purification and identification of bioactive metabolites

    Biological assays

    Antifungal spectrum of the strain MK-VL_113 under in vitro and in vivo conditions

    In vitro screening

    Green house studies

    Detection of the active fraction in soil inoculated with antagonist followed by

    pathogen treatment

    Antifungal spectrum of the first active fraction under in vitro and in vivo conditions

    In vitro screening

    Green house studies

    Results and discussion

    Taxonomy of the strain

    Isolation, purification and identification of bioactive metabolites

    Physico-chemical properties and structural elucidation of bioactive compounds Biological assays

    Testing the minimum inhibitory concentration of the bioactive metabolites Antifungal spectrum of N. levis MK-VL_113 under in vitro and in vivo conditions Detection of 1-phenylbut-3-ene-2-ol in soil inoculated with antagonist followed

    by pathogen treatment

    Antifungal spectrum of 1-phenylbut-3-ene-2-ol under in vitro and in vivo conditions



    On-line estimation of key process variables based on kernel partial least 112 squares in an industrial cokes wastewater treatment plant Original

Research Article

    Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 161, Issue 1, 15 January

    Purchase 2009, Pages 538-544

    $ 41.95 Seung Han Woo, Che Ok Jeon, Yeoung-Sang Yun, Hyeoksun Choi,

    Chang-Soo Lee, Dae Sung Lee

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    Abstract | Figures/Tables | References


    A kernel-based algorithm is potentially very efficient for predicting key quality variables of nonlinear chemical and biological processes by mapping an

    original input space into a high-dimensional feature space. Nonlinear data

    structure in the original space is most likely to be linear at the high-dimensional

    feature space. In this work, kernel partial least squares (PLS) was applied to

    predict inferentially key process variables in an industrial cokes wastewater treatment plant. The primary motive was to give operators and process engineers a reliable and accurate estimation of key process variables such as chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and cyanides concentrations in real time. This would allow them to arrive at the optimum operational strategy in an early stage and minimize damage to the operating units as shock loadings of toxic compounds in the influent often cause process instability. The proposed

    kernel-based algorithm could effectively capture the nonlinear relationship in the process variables and show far better performance in prediction of the

    quality variables compared to the conventional linear PLS and other nonlinear

    PLS method.

    Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. Materials and methods

    2.1. Industrial cokes wastewater treatment plant

    2.2. Partial least squares

2.3. Neural network partial least squares

    2.4. Kernel partial least squares

    3. Results and discussion

    3.1. Linear partial least squares model

    3.2. Neural network partial least squares model

    3.3. Kernel partial least squares model

    4. Conclusions



     Ficus carica L.: Metabolic and biological screening Original 113 Research Article

    Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 47, Issue 11, November

    Purchase 2009, Pages 2841-2846

    $ 31.50 Andreia P. Oliveira, Patrícia Valentão, José A. Pereira, Branca M.

    Silva, Fernando Tavares, Paula B. Andrade

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    Ficus carica L. is one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees. In this work,

    metabolite profiling was performed on the leaves, pulps and peels of two

    Portuguese white varieties of F. carica (Pingo de Mel and Branca Tradicional). Phenolics and organic acids profiles were determined by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV, respectively. All samples presented a similar phenolic profile composed by 3-O- and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, ferulic acid,

    quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, psoralen and bergapten. 3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin-3-O-glucoside are described for the first time in this species. Leaves’ organic acids profile presented oxalic, citric, malic,

    quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids, while in pulps and peels quinic acid was

    absent. The antioxidant potential of the different plant parts was checked. All

    materials exhibited activity against DPPH and nitric oxide radicals in a

concentration-dependent way. However, only the leaves presented capacity to

    scavenge superoxide radical. Leaves were always the most effective part,

    which seems to be related with phenolics compounds. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity was evaluated, but no effect was observed. Antimicrobial potential was also assessed against several bacterial

    species, although no activity was noticed. This is the first study comparing the

    chemical composition and biological potential of F. carica pulps, peels and


    Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. Materials and methods

    2.1. Standards and reagents

    2.2. Plant material

    2.3. Extracts preparation

    2.4. HPLC/DAD for phenolic compounds analysis

    2.5. HPLC/UV for organic acids analysis

    2.6. Antioxidant activity

    2.6.1. DPPH scavenging activity

    2.6.2. Nitric oxide scavenging activity

    2.6.3. Superoxide radical scavenging activity

    2.7. Acetylcholinesterases inhibitory activity

    2.7.1. Buffers

    2.7.2. Enzyme

    2.7.3. Microplate assay

    2.8. Antimicrobial activity

    2.9. Statistical analysis

    3. Results and discussion

3.1. Phenolic compounds

    3.2. Organic acids

    3.3. Antioxidant activity

    3.4. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity

    3.5. Antimicrobial activity

    4. Conclusion

    Conflicts of interest



     Diversity of plantanimal interactions: Possibilities for a new plant 114 defense indicator value? Original Research Article

    Ecological Indicators, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online

    Purchase 12 March 2011

    $ 35.95 Fabian Borchard, Hans-Joachim Berger, Margret Bunzel-Drüke,

    Thomas Fartmann

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    Abstract | Figures/Tables | References


    The interactions between herbivores and plants are of general interest in

    ecology. Even though the extensive research carried out during the last

    decades has culminated in many theories, additional studies are necessary to validate these findings. In particular, the hypotheses dealing with the complex

    interrelations of plant defense mechanisms and herbivores continue to be debated.

    In this paper, we develop a new indicator value that quantifies the defense mechanisms of Central European woody plants against large mammalian

    herbivores. The indicator value is based on three plant-specific traits: chemical

    defense (toxic compounds, digestion inhibitors), mechanical defense and leaf size. Our validation of the newly established indicator shows that evergreen

woody plants have a significantly higher indicator value than deciduous woody

    plants. Moreover, plant defense is correlated with growth height: woody plants

    growing in the browsing zone preferred by large mammalian herbivores have significantly higher levels of defense compared with woody plants capable of growth high above the reach of large herbivores.

    We conclude that the new plant defense indicator value is a valuable tool for

    the validation of existing hypotheses and habitat calibration on a statistical

    basis. The quantification of plant mechanisms of defense against large

    herbivores produces a significantly better understanding of the multifaceted nature of plantanimal interactions and should contribute positively to future


    Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. Materials and methods

    2.1. Study area

    2.2. Plant defense indicator

    2.3. Statistical analyses

    3. Results

    3.1. Plant defense mechanisms

    3.2. Plant defense indicator

    4. Discussion

    5. Conclusion


     Electrodialysis on RO concentrate to improve water recovery in 115 wastewater reclamation Original Research Article

    Journal of Membrane Science, In Press, Corrected Proof,

    Purchase Available online 23 October 2010

    $ 35.95 Yang Zhang, Karel Ghyselbrecht, Boudewijn Meesschaert, Luc

Pinoy, Bart Van der Bruggen

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    Abstract | Figures/Tables | References


    Over-consumption of groundwater in coastal areas causes seawater intrusion and soil salinization, which is a threat to residents, to agricultural activity and to the ecological system. In this study, a more sustainable approach is investigated based on groundwater recharge of the unconfined aquifer in the

    dune water catchment area in the western part of the Flemish coast. Ultrafiltration (UF) followed by reverse osmosis (RO) is currently applied to treat the secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for

    infiltration (groundwater recharge). This paper investigates the feasibility of electrodialysis (ED) on the RO concentrate to reduce the volume of salty water discharge and to improve the overall water recovery to produce infiltration water for groundwater recharge. In the pilot system, the decarbonation process was used to reduce scaling potential of the feed or the concentrate stream of the ED. Based on various experiments in batch and in feed-and-bleed mode, ion

    transport mechanisms were studied to monitor the effluent water compositions.

    Meanwhile, a factor named critical scaling concentration (CSC) was established to predict the potential occurrence of scaling. Ozonation was used to improve the biodegradability of the ED effluent hence to reduce the potential

    of organic compounds accumulation in the recirculation system. Thus, ED was found to be a good option to treat RO concentrates.

    Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. Materials and methods

    2.1. Membrane characteristics

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