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Frequently Asked Questions about Dual LanguageTWI Programs

By Jessica Green,2014-05-21 15:05
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Two-Way Immersion is a type of dual language education in which language minority and language majority students are integrated, and both English and the

    Frequently Asked Questions about Dual Language/TWI Programs

    (Excerpted from publication of the Center for Applied Linguistics)

    What is Two-Way Immersion?

    ? Two-Way Immersion is a type of dual language education in which language minority

    and language majority students are integrated, and both English and the native language

    of the language minority students are used for instruction.

    ? The structure of programs varies, but they all provide instruction in the non-English

    language for a significant portion of the school day and integrate language majority and

    language minority students for all or most instruction.

    ? The unique feature of this type of dual language instruction is that within each program,

    there is a balance of language-minority and language-majority students, with each group

    making up between one-third and two-thirds of the total student population.

    ? In this model, all students have the opportunity to be both first language models and

    second language learners.

    ? TWI creates an additive bilingual environment for all students since the first language is

    maintained while the second language is acquired.

    ? Two-way bilingual immersion programs strive to promote bilingualism and biliteracy,

    grade-level academic achievement, and positive cross-cultural attitudes and behaviors in

    all students.

    Are there different kinds of TWI programs?

? The main differences among TWI models concern primarily two issues: first, the amount

    of time spent learning in English and in the minority language, and second, the

    language(s) in which initial literacy instruction is provided (minority language, English,

    or both). Some programs also separate their students for part of the day, particularly for

    literacy instruction, with children receiving initial literacy instruction in their native

    language.

    ? For more information and examples of different types of TWI programs, see our

    bibliography page, especially the section Program Profiles and Evaluations.

    How well do students perform in Two-Way Immersion Programs? ? In well-implemented programs, both native English speakers and language minority

    students tend to do as well or better than their peers in other educational programs.

    ? Our CAL/CREDE project is addressing this issue, so keep an eye on our website for

    publications.

    ? For specific research on student performance in two-way programs, see the following

    publications:

    o Cazabon, M., Lambert, W., & Hall, G. (1993). Two-Way Bilingual Education: A

    Progress Report on the Amigos Program (Research Report 7). Washington, DC:

    National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language

    Learning.

    o Cazabon, M., Nicoladis, E., & Lambert, W. (1998). Becoming Bilingual in the

    Amigos Two-Way Immersion Program (Research Report 3). Santa Cruz, CA and

    Washington, DC: Center for Research on Education, Diversity, & Excellence.

    o Christian, D., Montone, C., Lindholm, K., & Carranza, I. (1997). Profiles in Two-

    Way Immersion Education. McHenry, IL and Washington, DC: Delta Systems

    and Center for Applied Linguistics.

    o Howard, E. R., Christian, D., & Genesee, F. (in press). The Development of

    Bilingualism and Biliteracy from Grades 3 to 5: A Summary of Findings from the

    CAL/CREDE Study of Two-Way Immersion Education. Santa Cruz, CA and

    Washington, DC: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence.

    o Howard, E. R., Sugarman, J., & Christian, D. (2003). Trends in Two-Way

    Immersion Education: A Review of the Research (Report No. 63). Baltimore, MD:

    Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk.

    o Lindholm-Leary, K. (2001). Dual Language Education. Clevedon: Multilingual

    Matters.

    o Thomas, W. & Collier, V. (1997). School Effectiveness for Language Minority

    Students (NCBE Resource Collection Series, No. 9). Washington, DC: National

    Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.

    o Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V. (2002). A National Study of School Effectiveness

    for Language Minority Students' Long-Term Academic Achievement. Santa Cruz,

    CA and Washington, DC: Center for Research on Education, Diversity &

    Excellence.

    ? For more publications, see our bibliography page, particularly the sections on Academic

    Achievement and Language and Literacy Outcomes.

    ? For specific research on student performance in two-way programs, see the following

    publications:

    ? For more publications, see our bibliography page, particularly the sections on Academic

    Achievement and Language and Literacy Outcomes.

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