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    American Literature (English 11)



    Literary Movement or Literary Period Examination

    American Literature is divided into categories that we refer to as Literary Movements or Literary Periods. Your task in this year’s English Junior Research Project (EJRP) is to

    select one of the Literary Movements or Periods in American Literature from below (along with one of the authors who is considered to be a part of that movement or period). You will be required to obtain and read a full-length work by that author (a novel, collection of essays, collection of poetry, etc.) and respond to the following questions in a 6-7 page research paper (with an additional 1-2 page preface) for a total of 7-9 pages in length:

    1) What are the characteristics of the Literary Movement or Literary Period you have chosen? You may want to consider plot, characterization, literary devices, etc. 2) What historical events influenced your Literary Movement or Period? Why did your Literary Movement or Period sprout up during the time period in which it did? 3) Why would your chosen author and/or work of literature fit into this Literary Movement or Period? Be specific and address the characteristics of the Movement or Period that you outlined in #1 above.

    4) In what ways would your chosen author and/or work of literature NOT fit into this Literary Movement or Period? What sets him, her, or it apart from the Literary Movement or Period? Be specific and address the characteristics of the Movement or Period that you outlined in #1 above.

List of Literary Movements (or Periods) in American Literature

    I) Colonial Literature

    II) Supernatural Writings of the Period of the Salem Witch Trials

    III) The Great Awakening/Calvinism

    IV) Captivity Narratives

    V) Literature of the Revolutionary War Period

    VI) Post-Independence Literature

    VII) Slave Narratives

    VIII) The Early Romantics (Early Romanticism)

    IX) Humorous Writers of the Early Romantic period

    X) The Writers of the American Frontier

    XI) The Romantics (Romanticism)

    XII) The New England Brahmins (a.k.a. The Fireside Poets)

    XIII) The Transcendentalists (Transcendentalism)

    XIV) The Abolitionists (Abolitionism)

    XV) Dark Romanticism (a.k.a. Anti-Transcendentalism)

    XVI) Romantic Poetry

    XVII) Regionalism (a.k.a. The “Local Color” Movement)

    XVIII) Realism

    XIX) Naturalism


    XX) Marxist/Communist Writings thth/Early 20 XXI) Writing Examining Political and Social Issues in the Late 19


    XXII) The Harlem Renaissance

    XXIII) “The Lost Generation”

    XXIV) Imagism

    XXV) Modernism

    XXVI) Surrealism

    XXVII) Depression-Era Literature

    XXVIII) The Confessional School of Poetry

    XXIX) The Beat Generation/The Beat Poets

    XXX) The Theatre of the Absurd (Absurdism)

    XXXI) Post-World War II Literature

    XXXII) Postmodernism thstXXXIII) Modern Literature (Literature of the Late 20 and Early 21 Century)

    XXIV) Immigrant Literature

    IMPORTANT NOTE: No more than 2 students in any class period of English 11 may examine the same Literary Movement or Period. If two students in a given class period select the same Literary Movement or Period, they must select different authors and different works of literature. Literary Movement/Period selections will be first come, first served if you really want to examine a certain Literary Movement/Period, make sure that you turn-in your topic selection before we leave for Winter Break!

    Works Cited

Calendar of Important Dates:

     thMonday December 14, 2009: JRP is assigned thMonday January 4, 2010: Literary Movement/Period, authors, and works must be chosen and your teacher notified of your decision stThursday January 21, 2010: Outlines due thThursday January 28, 2010: Outlines returned thThursday February 4, 2010: Rough drafts due; Peer Review completed thThursday February 11, 2010: Final draft (with Preface, Annotated Works Cited, and parenthetical citations) due to your English 11 teacher. You must also submit your paper

    via! thFriday March 12, 2010: Final drafts returned


     • typed, double-spaced in a standard 12-point font with 1” margins



    • header on every page with student’s last name and page number

    • six to seven pages, with a one to two page preface

    • minimum of six sources (no encyclopedia or Wikipedia), including the book itself. Film

    or documentary may be included as a source (as can music or art). Teachers may provide students who are able to incorporate one of these non-print sources with extra credit

    this is at the discretion of the teacher.

    • parenthetical citations in MLA format

    • annotated bibliography in MLA format


    Papers will be graded according to the rubric developed for this project by the English department. The paper will comprise 20% of the student’s grade for the Spring

    Semester after the Final Exam.

Book and Background Research

    As soon as you select your book, you should begin to locate sources and read as much as you can about the Literary Movement or Period you will be examining (as well as the author or work you will be investigating). Look at what was going on in the country at the time, and make sure you look at all possible points of view on the issue. Be sure to determine the reliability of each source by checking the credentials and background of the authors. Document each source fully.

    When doing your research, whether you use note cards, a notebook, or highlighted photocopies, be sure to include the name of the author and the page numbers, if applicable. This information is necessary for parenthetical citations throughout the research paper. Put quotation marks around exact words quote from a source. Save all research notes and materials.

Documentation in MLA Format

    As soon as you find a likely source, determine the type of source according to instructions for using MLA format in the Holt Handbook or other sources on MLA

    format from the library or Internet. Then follow that sample format to cite your source. Note that the format for citing sources is very precise, even to indented margins and punctuation.

Annotated Bibliography

    When you have completed your research, type your Annotated Bibliography - be careful to copy punctuation and spacing correctly. Your teacher will show you sample bibliographies from student papers. You may use formatting programs such as Citation Machine.



    The outline organizes and structures the content of the paper. It is the bridge between your research and your first draft. Outlines must follow the traditional outline format with parallel levels (I., A., 1., a.) and be in complete sentences below the level of upper case

    Roman numeral. Your teachers will provide sample outlines for you to examine.

Importance of Parenthetical Citations

    Whenever you paraphrase or in any other way use information or ideas from ANY source, make sure to include a parenthetical citation. Failure to do so means that you are including information or ideas from someone else but putting your name on it. This is plagiarism, whether intentional or not. Make sure you cite every source you use.

    Direct quotations are fine if you really need them, but don’t use a quotation as a substitute for your own words. Avoid lengthy quotations, but if you need to include a quotation of more than four lines, indent one inch (new paragraph tab) and omit quotation marks. Put the parenthetical citation at the end. Then use the quotation. Explain its

    meaning and significance. Never end a paragraph with a quotation.

Format of Parenthetical Citations

    Every idea or piece of information that comes from any source must be documented in a parenthetical citation. This includes information you are paraphrasing. Usually this is done by citing the last name of the author and the page number or numbers that identify the source, as shown below:

Jefferson was in favor of dividing Indian land (Zinn 125).

You can put the author’s name in your own sentence instead of in parentheses. You must

    use this format if the material you are citing involves more than one sentence. Whenever you present material from a source that is longer than one sentence, it is very important to show where the source material begins and ends.


    According to Zinn, Jefferson was in favor of dividing Indian land. The issue was complex, however, and the decision was not made lightly (125-127).

    If the source has no author, use the first main word or phrase from the title:

Ngo Ding Diem was overthrown and murdered by the Vietnamese

    military (Vietnam War 391).

    The parenthetical citation is a key for the reader to find the full citation in the alphabetized bibliography. Therefore, each parenthetical citation must have a

    matching entry in the Annotated Bibliography.


    Literary Movements and Literary Periods (In Order)

I. Colonial Literature

     A. Colonial Pamphlets

     1. John Smith

     a. A True Relation of Virginia

     b. The General Historie of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles

     2. Daniel Denton

     3. Thomas Ashe

     4. William Penn

     5. George Percy

     6. William Strachey

     7. Daniel Coxe

     8. Gabriel Thomas

     9. John Lawson

     B. Colonial Religious Writings

     1. John Winthrop

     2. Roger Williams

     3. Nathaniel Ward

     4. John Cotton

     C. Colonial Poetry

     1. Anne Bradstreet

     2. Edward Taylor

     3. Michael Wigglesworth

     a. The Day of Doom

     4. Nicholas Noyes

     5. Ebenezer Cook

     a. The Sot-Weed Factor

     D. Colonial Views of Native Americans

     1. Increase Mather

     a. A Brief History of the War with the Indians in New England

     2. William Bradford

     a. A History of Plymouth Plantation (1620-1647)

     3. Daniel Gookin

     4. Alexander Whitaker

     5. John Mason

     6. Benjamin Church

     7. Mary Rowlandson II. Supernatural Writings of the Period of the Salem Witch Trials

     A. Cotton Mather

     1. Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcraft and Possessions

     B. Increase Mather

     1. Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits

    III. The Great Awakening/Calvinism

     A. Thomas Hooker

     B. Thomas Shepard


     C. John Wise

     D. Samuel Willard

     E. Samuel Sewall

     1. The Selling of Joseph

     F. Sarah Kemble Knight

     2. Private Journal of a Journey from Boston to New York

     G. William Byrd

     H. Cotton Mather

     1. The Good Old Way

     I. Jonathan Edwards

     2. Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God IV. Captivity Narratives

    A. Cotton Mather

     1. Humiliations Follow’d with Deliverances

     2. Good Fetch’d Out of Evil

     3. A Memorial of the Present Deplorable State of New England

    B. Mary Rowlandson

     1. The Sovereignty and Goodness of God…

    C. Jesuit Relations

    D. John Williams

     1. The Redeemed Captive

     E. God’s Mercy Surmounting Man’s Cruelty

     F. Abraham Panther

     a. A Surprising Account of the Discovery of a Lady

     G. Bunker Gay

     a. A Genuine and Correct Account of the Captivity, Sufferings, and Deliverance of

     Mrs. Jemima Howe

    V. Literature of the Revolutionary War Period

     A. Political Writings

     1. Cotton Mather

     a. Bonifacius

     2. Benjamin Franklin

     a. Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

     b. Poor Richard’s Almanac

     c. “The Dogood Papers”

     d. “Plan of the Union”

     3. Samuel Adams

     4. Josiah Quincy

     5. John Dickinson

     6. Joseph Galloway

     7. Thomas Paine

     a. “Common Sense”

     b. “The American Crisis”

     8. James Otis

     a. The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved

     9. Robert Munford


     a. The Candidates

     10. George Washington

     a. “The George Washington Papers”

     B. Poetry of the Revolutionary War

     1. “Yankee Doodle”

     2. “Nathan Hale”

     3. Philip Morin Freneau

     4. Phyllis Wheatley

     a. Poems on Various Subjects

     5. Philip Freneau

     a. Poems

     6. Joel Barlow, Timothy Dwight, Lemuel Hopkins, John Trumbull, et. al.

     a. American Poems, Selected and Original

     b. “The Columbiad”

     7. Timothy Dwight

     a. “Greenfield Hill

     C. Literature of the Revolutionary War

     1. Susannah Rowson

     a. Charlotte: A Tale of Truth

     2. John Trumbull

     3. Francis Hopkinson

     4. Charles Brockden Brown

     a. Wieland

     b. Alcuin

     c. Arthur Mervyn Parts I and 2

     d. Ormond

     e. Clara Howard

     f. Jane Talbot

     D. Writings on Social Issues (from the Revolutionary War Period)

     1. Judith Sargent Murray

     a. “On the Equality of the Sexes”

     2. John Woolman

     a. A Word of Remembrance and Caution to the Rich

     3. J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur

     a. Letters from an American Farmer VI. Post-Independence Literature

     A. Political Writings of the Post-Independence period

    1. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay

    a. “The Federalist Essays”

     2. Thomas Jefferson

     a. The Declaration of Independence

     b. Notes on the State of Virginia

     c. Autobiography of Thomas Jefferson

     3. “The United States Constitution”

     4. Fisher Ames

     5. James Otis


     6. Patrick Henry

     7. James Kirke Paulding

     a. The Diverting History of John Bull and Brother Jonathan

    VII. Slave Narratives

    VIII. The Early Romantics

     A. Washington Irving

     1. Salmagundi

     2. A History of New York (under the pseudonym Diedrich Knickerbocker)

     3. Rip Van Winkle

     B. James Fenimore Cooper

     1. The Leatherstocking Tales

     A. The Deerslayer

     B. Last of the Mohicans

    C. William Cullen Bryant

    A. “Thanatopsis”

    B. “To a Waterfowl”

    IX. Humorous Writers of the Early Romantic period

     A. Seba Smith

     B. Benjamin P. Shillaber X. The Writers of the American Frontier

     A. Davy Crockett

     B. Augustus Baldwin Longstreet

     C. Johnson J. Hooper

     D. Thomas Bangs Thorpe

     E. George Washington Harris XI. The Romantics (Romanticism)

    A. Edgar Allan Poe

    1. “The Masque of the Red Death”

    2. “The Pit and the Pendulum”

    3. “The Fall of the House of Usher”

    4. “The Murders in the Rue Morgue”

    5. “Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym”

    6. “The Tell-Tale Heart”

     B. Nathaniel Hawthorne

     1. Twice-Told Tales

     2. The Scarlet Letter

     3. The House of the Seven Gables

     C. Herman Melville

     1. Moby Dick

     2. Billy Budd

     D. William Cullen Bryant

     E. John Greenleaf Whittier XII. The New England Brahmins (a.k.a. The Fireside Poets)

     A. James Russell Lowell

     B. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

     C. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.


     D. William Cullen Bryant

     E. John Greenleaf Whittier

    XIII. The Transcendentalists

     A. Ralph Waldo Emerson

     1. “Nature

     B. Henry David Thoreau

     2. Walden

     C. Bronson Alcott

     D. Margaret Fuller

     E. George Ripley

     F. Orestes Brownson

     G. Jones Very

    XIV. The Abolitionists

    A. Harriet Beecher Stowe

    1. Uncle Tom’s Cabin

    B. William Lloyd Garrison

    C. John Greenleaf Whittier

    D. Fanny Wright

    1. Plan for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery

    E. Frederick Douglass

    1. A Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass

    F. Child

     1. Appeal in Favor of that Class of Americans Called Africans

    XV. Dark Romanticism (Anti-Transcendentalism)

    A. Herman Melville

    B. Nathaniel Hawthorne

    C. Edgar Allan Poe

    XVI. Romantic Poetry

    A. Walt Whitman

    1. Leaves of Grass

    B. Emily Dickinson

    1. Poems

    2. Poems: Second Series

    C. Ralph Waldo Emerson

    D. Edgar Allan Poe

    XVII. Regionalism (a.k.a. The “Local Color” Movement)

    A. Harriet Beecher Stowe

    B. Rose Terry Cooke

    C. Mary E. Wilkins Freeman

    D. Sarah Orne Jewett

    E. Alice Cary

    F. Alice Brown

    G. Celia Thaxter

    H. Mary N. Murfree

    1. In the Tennessee Mountains

    I. Kate Chopin


     1. The Awakening

     J. Grace King

     K. George Washington Cable

     L. Alice Dunbar-Nelson

     M. Constance Fenimore Woolson

     N. Charles W. Chesnutt

     O. Joel Chandler Harris

     P. James Lane Allen

     Q. Hamlin Garland

     R. Zona Gale

     S. Gertrude Simmons Bonnin

     T. Bret Harte

     U. Mark Twain

     V. Mary Austin

    XVIII. Realism

    A. Mark Twain

    1. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

    B. William Dean Howells

     1. The Rise of Silas Lapham

     C. Henry James

     1. Daisy Miller

     2. The Turn of the Screw XIX. Naturalism

    A. Edith Wharton

    1. The Age of Innocence

    2. Ethan Frome

    B. Stephen Crane

    1. Red Badge of Courage

    2. Maggie: A Girl of the Streets

    C. Theodore Dreiser

    1. Sister Carrie

    D. Hamlin Garland

    E. Frank Norris

    XX. Marxist/Communist Writings

    A. Daniel DeLeon

    B. Eugene Debs

    C. Upton Sinclair

    1. The Jungle

    D. Max Eastman

    E. Louise Bryant

    F. Max Bedacht

    G. Evelyn Roy

    H. John Reed

    I. Louis Fraina

    J. Max Schactman

    K. James Burnham


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