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Gongfu tea ceremony

By Emily Jenkins,2014-05-27 20:49
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Gongfu tea ceremony

    Gongfu tea ceremony

    Gōngfu Chá Dào, the gongfu tea ceremony or kungfu tea ceremony

    (Chinese: 工夫茶道; pinyin: gōng fu chá dào), literally "Way of tea

    brewing with great skill," is a type of Chinese tea ceremony used to prepare oolong tea and occasionally pu-erh tea.

    A typical Taiwanese-style gongfu cha setup

    Contents

    [show]

    ? 1 Origin

    ? 2 Chemistry and physics behind the Gongfu Chadao

    o 2.1 Chemistry

    o 2.2 Temperature

    ? 3 Teamaking requirements

    o 3.1 Taiwanese Gongfu tea ceremony

    ? 4 Ceremony procedures

    o 4.1 Surroundings

    o 4.2 Preparation

    o 4.3 Brewing

    o 4.4 Serving

    o 4.5 Aroma appreciation

    o 4.6 End of ceremony

    o 4.7 Cleaning up

    ? 5 See also

    ? 6 References

    [edit] Origin

    The Classic of Tea (Chinese: 茶經 or 茶经; pinyin: Chá jīng), a

    Chinese book written in the 8th century by Lu Yu (Chinese: traditional

    , simplified 陆羽; pinyin: Lù Yǔ; 733–804), contains the first known

treatise on the subject of the gongfu style tea ceremony. This style of tea

    consumption has remained consistently popular since the Qing dynasty,

    and remains one of the primary ceremonial methods of tea consumption

    in china.

    In the gongfu tea ceremony, rather than focusing on symbolic hand

    gestures such as that of the Japanese tea ceremony, the taste of the tea

    is paramount. Although gongfu method does have some

    uncompromising steps, it is important to note that the various Asian tea

    consuming cultures have added local styles and equipment; adding to

    the richness of the Asian tea culture.

    [edit] Chemistry and physics behind the Gongfu Chadao

    In essence, what is desired in Gongfu Cha is a brew that tastes

    great and is satisfying to the soul. Tea masters in China and other Asian

    tea cultures will study for years perfecting this method in order to do so.

    However, method alone will not determine whether a great cup of tea will

    be produced. It has been suggested that the chemistry and physics

    behind Gongfu Cha is what makes this method far superior to any other

    when brewing Chinese teas. Essentially, two things have to be taken into

    consideration: chemistry and temperature.

    [edit] Chemistry

    Water should be given careful consideration when conducting

    Gongfu Cha. Water which tastes or smells bad will adversely affect the

    brewed tea. However, distilled or extremely soft water should never be

    utilized as this form of water lacks minerals which will positiviely effect

    the flavour of the tea and so can result in a "flat" brew. For these reasons,

    most tea masters will use a good clean local source of spring water. If

    this natural spring water is not available, bottled spring water will suffice.

    Hard water should be avoided at all cost, even after it has been filtered.

    [edit] Temperature

    During the process of Gongfucha, the tea master will first determine

    what the appropriate temperature for the tea being used is, in order to

    extract the essential oils of the tea. An optimal temperature must be

    reached and maintained. The water temperature depends on the type of

    tea used.

    ? 95?C for Oolong (Chinese: traditional 烏龍; simplified 乌龙; pinyin:

    wūlóng) tea

    ? 100?C (boiling) for compressed teas, such as Pu-erh tea (Chinese:

    普洱; pinyin: pǔ'ěr)

? Note: Green tea is usually not used for a Gongfu tea ceremony.

    The temperature of the water can be determined by timing, as well

    as the size and the sizzling sound made by the air bubbles in the kettle.

    ? At 75-85?C, the bubbles formed are known as "crab eyes" and are

    about 3 mm in diameter. They are accompanied by loud, rapid

    sizzling sounds.

    ? At 90-95?C, the bubbles, which are now around 8 mm in diameter

    and accompanied by less frequent sizzling sounds and a lower

    sizzling pitch, are dubbed "fish eyes".

    ? When the water is boiling, neither the formation of air bubbles nor

    sizzling sounds occurs.

    The above rules cannot be applied in highlands as the water will boil

    at lower temperatures in higher altitudes.

    [edit] Teamaking requirements

    1. A small clay teapot, around 150 ml in volume (Chinese: traditional

    茶壺, simplified 茶壶, Pinyin: chá hú).

    2. Three cups, each 30 ml (Chinese: 茶杯, Pinyin: chá bēi)

    3. Fresh water. (Tap water should be filtered; hard water should be

    avoided.)

    4. A kettle (preferably made of clay or glass, in order to determine

    the temperature of the boiling water.)

    5. A container to dispense water (Chinese: 茶缸, Pinyin: chá gāng)

    6. A water catching tray or a bowl for the tea pot during water pouring

    (Chinese: traditional 茶盤, simplified 茶盘, Pinyin: chá pán)

    7. A clean cotton cloth to wipe off any water on the table

    [edit] Taiwanese Gongfu tea ceremony

    The Taiwanese ceremony, known there as 老人茶 (Pinyin:

    L?orénchá), makes use of some different utensils on top of those

    already mentioned:

    1. A wooden tea spoon to measure the amount of tea leaves

    required (Chinese: 茶匙, Pinyin: chá chí)

2. A tea pitcher used to ensure the consistency of the flavor of the

    tea (Chinese: 公道杯, Pinyin: gōng dào bēi) 3. A tea strainer (Chinese: 漏斗, Pinyin: lòu d?u)

    4. A snifter cup used to appreciate the tea's aroma (Chinese:

    traditional 聞香杯, simplified 闻香杯, Pinyin wén xiāng bēi) 5. A pair of tweezers called "Jiā" (Chinese: ) or "Giab" in both the

    Chao Zhou and Min Nan dialects.

    [edit] Ceremony procedures

    [edit] Surroundings

    The ceremony should be carried out in an appropriate space. A

    table large enough to hold the tea-making utensils, the drip tray, and the

    water is the minimum necessary. Ideally the surroundings should be

    peaceful and conducive to relaxation and socialization. Incense, flowers,

    and low, soft, traditional music will all add to the ambience, as will

    songbirds.

    [edit] Preparation

    1. The first stage of preparation is known as 溫壺燙杯 (simplified:

    温壶烫杯, Pinyin: wēn hú tàng bēi) literally "warming the pot and

    heating the cups." At this point the cups and pot are laid on the

    table. They are then warmed and sterilized with hot water, the

    excess is then poured away. when pouring from the cups in the

    Taiwanese L?orénchá style, the wooden tweezers may be used

    instead of bare hands.

    2. The second stage of the perparation is known as 鑒賞佳茗

    (simplified: 鉴赏佳茗, Pinyin: jiàn shǎng jiā míng), literally

    "appreciate excellent tea." At this point those who would partake

    of the tea during the ceremony examine and appreciate its

    appearance, smell, and its other characteristics.

    3. The third stage of the preparation is known as 烏龍入宮

    (simplified: 乌龙入宫, Pinyin: wū lóng rù gōng), "The black dragon

    enters the palace" (this term in particular is used when Oolong tea

is used for the ceremony). The teapot is filled with tea. For a 150

    ml tea pot at least 15 grams of tea leaves are used, however

    depending on the size of the pot and the strength of the tea the

    pot may be filled between 1/2 and 2/3 full.

    4. The leaves are now rinsed using hot water poured from some

    height above the pot, this is known as 懸壺高沖 (simplified: 悬壶高冲, Pinyin: xuán hú gāo chōng), "rinsing from an elevated pot".

    This is done by putting the teapot into the catching bowl. Water

    heated to the appropriate temperature for the tea is the poured

    into the pot until the pot overflows.

    5. Any debris or bubbles which form on the surface are then scooped

    away gently to keep the tea from around the mouth of the pot

    which is then closed with the lid. This is known as 春風拂面 (simplified: 春风拂面, Pinyin: chūn fēng fú miàn), meaning "the

    spring wind brushes the surface."

    6. At this point opinions differ as to what should be done with the tea.

    Some suggest that the tea be steeped for a short while, and

    discarded into the cups (重洗仙顏, simplified: 重洗仙颜, Pinyin: chóng xǐ xiān yán, meaning "bathe the immortal twice"). This is in

    order that the temperature inside and outside of the pot is the

    same. Others recommend immediately pouring the first brew into

    all of the cups without allowing the tea to steep.

    [edit] Brewing

    1. Customarily this first brew is poured into the cups but is not drunk,

    this is known as 行雲流水 (simplified: 行云流水, Pinyin: háng yún líu shǔi) "A row of clouds, running water". It is essentially a

    slightly extended washing of the leaves.

    2. The pot is then refilled with fresh hot water until the water reaches

    the mouth of the pot. This is known as 再注清泉 (Pinyin: zài zhù qīng xuán), "Direct again the pure spring" or 回旋低斟 (Pinyin: húi xuán dī zhēn) meaning "pouring again from a low height." This second term refers to an important principle in the brewing of

    Chinese tea ceremonially: Gāo chōng dī zhēn (trad.: 高沖低斟,

simp. 高冲低斟), "high to rinse, low to pour." This is because in

    the rinsing the tea is rinsed using the force of water poured from a

    height, whereas in the brewing water is poured closer to the

    leaves in order not to force the flavour from the leaves too rapidly.

    3. The bubbles which may have formed on the surface are removed

    using the lid, and the pot is closed. The hot tea from the first brew

    is then emptied over the teapot's outside, this is known as 刮沫淋

     (simplified 刮沫淋盖, Pinyin: guā mò lín gài). Wait for 20 to 50

    seconds, depending on the type and quantity of the tea used

    before beginning to serve the tea.

    [edit] Serving

    1. In a regular gongfucha ceremony the tea is poured evenly into the

    teacups, in a circular manner around the guests. In a Taiwanese

    style ceremony however, the tea is first emptied into the tea

    pitcher before being served to the guests. A quality oolong tea is

    good for anywhere from 4 to 8 brewings. Each subsequent pot

    follows the same procedure, but requires a slightly longer infusion

    time.

    [edit] Aroma appreciation

    1. In the Taiwanese style ceremony, at its highest form, the aroma of

    the tea is enjoyed as well as its taste. In this case, the tea is first

    poured into the tea jug, and then into snifter cups (聞香杯) this is

    known as 毆杯沐淋 (simplified: 殴杯沐淋, Pinyin: ōu bēi mù lìn), "bathing the snifter cup."

    2. The drinking cup is placed upside down over the top of the snifter

    cup and balanced there. This is known as 龍鳳呈祥 (simplified:

    龙凤呈祥, Pinyin: lóng fěng chéng xiáng) meaning "The dragon

    and phoenix in auspicious union." This is a ritualised action, and is

    viewed by some as a form of prayer for the prosperity, wellbeing,

    and happiness of the guests.

    3. The two are inverted so that the snifter cup is upside down in the

    drinking cup. This is known as 鯉魚翻身 (simplified: 鲤鱼翻身,

    Pinyin: lǐ yú fān shēn), "the carp turns over."

4. The final stage, 敬奉香茗 (Pinyin: jǐng fěng xiāng míng)

    "respecfully receive the fragrant tea," occurs when the snifter cup

    is lifted and the tea is released into the drinking cup. The guest

    can then enjoy the aroma of the tea from the snifter before then

    consuming the tea from his drinking cup. In good etiquette the

    drinker will drink his tea in three sips, no less. The first a small one,

    the second the main one, and the last an after taste. [edit] End of ceremony

    1. The ceremony ends with the used tea leaves being put into a

    clean bowl for the guests to appreciate the tea in its used form.

    Good etiquette dictates that the guests should make appropriate

    compliments regarding the choice of tea.

    [edit] Cleaning up

    Cleaning up is an important step in the ritual.

    1. Brewed tea and tea leaves should not remain in the teapot after

    the ritual. It must be cleaned up thoroughly and rinsed with hot

    tea.

    2. Utensils must be sterilized with boiling water.

    3. The tea pot should be rinsed with hot tea and the outside of the

    pot should be rubbed / polished with a good linen cloth. 4. A teapot should never be rinsed with water, nor washed with

    detergents or soaps.

    5. Allow the tea pot to dry naturally.

    6. Let the utensils and serving cups air dry on a tea tray.

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