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The Concept of Remote Maintenance Monitoring and Its Computer

By Ralph Turner,2014-04-16 15:00
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Oil refineries perform numerous complex tasks during the processing of crude oil. Interchange Network II (NADIN-II), a national packet switching network (PSN), [8] Heise, O., Vanderbloemen, L., Wicksberg, S., October 2002,

THE CONCEPT OF REMOTE MAINTENANCE MONITORING AND ITS’

    COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE

    Louis J. Bottino, Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center

Abstract

    The Remote Maintenance The Concept of Remote Maintenance

    Monitoring Concept Monitoring (RMM) was developed and introduced

    in industrial engineering as a means to measure For an industrial or manufacturing plant with performance. This concept has been studied, command and control capabilities to function evaluated, implemented and deployed by the efficiently and productively, an external sub-system ? Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).The that monitors overall system performance should be application of RMM has improved the maintenance integrated within the facility. Utility companies that and performance of ground-based navigational aids, produce electricity for power generation, water and weather-related systems, RADAR surveillance and hazardous waste treatment plants that separate environmental control systems. Hundreds of FAA contaminants, oil refineries that process crude oil Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities, airports and into useful petroleum products and pharmaceutical remote monitoring stations throughout the country companies concerned with quality control have all employ some sort of RMM. Reliability, suitability, adopted some form of remote maintenance or and longevity of navigational aids, weather performance monitoring. processors, and surveillance systems has improved Since electric utilities have been deregulated, due to the functionalities RMM systems provide. demands for increased efficiencies have increased Site-specific needs of some of these ATC facilities at each level of operation. [1] These demands have are due to geographical location and the been met by using remote maintenance monitoring surrounding environment. and control systems for power distribution. Remote

    RMM Computer Architecture and Computer monitoring apparatus and control software has Communication methods will be discussed and successfully measured the performance of turbines, analyzed. This discussion will center on a boilers, natural gas and air compressors, cooling successfully deployed RMM sub-system for a towers, vibration monitors, and switching gears. weather-related system, an environmentally Maintenance costs, subsystem downtimes, and controlled monitoring system and a ground-based operational expenses are reduced when RMM surveillance system. In the end, a sincere attempt apparatus and control software are fully integrated 1will be made to demonstrate the success of RMM into utility plant functions. technology implementation, showcase the benefits Water and hazardous waste treatment plants and progress towards a versatile open systems need to monitor water levels on distant reservoirs approach and present the economic feasibility of and lakes. Plant operators require feedback on this technology with a view towards the future. chemical treatments and flow rates that are controlled in multiple tanks and lagoons.

    Information on pumps operating at different lift stations must be relayed to control centers that are ? This paper was written as a result of the experiences gained located a distance away. The benefits that water and from the Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) of waste treatment plants derive from remote twenty-three Remote Maintenance Monitoring Systems (RMMS) for ground-based navigational aids, weather-related

     processors and secondary surveillance systems. No new 1 In industrial and commercial circles the term “RMM” concepts or proprietary information is discussed except to isn’t necessarily standard. What was being adopted was provide the reader with technical reasons for the benefits of the use of Feedback Control Systems where the output this technology. is measured and compared with a standard representing

     the accepted range.

    monitoring apparatus include centralized water and (PC) based Supervisory Control and Data waste treatment control, improved automated Acquisition (SCADA) system to solve quality 2treatment processes and reduced costs. [2] control and production-related problems. [4] This

    system provided real-time monitoring, alarming and Oil refineries perform numerous complex tasks data acquisition of reaction parameters, and plant during the processing of crude oil. Some tasks utilities. The software and hardware that was used involve processes that require constant monitoring. enabled authorized personnel to track and record During fractional distillation different components numerous control processes. The PC-based are separated. The components called “fractions” monitoring component of the SCADA system undergo chemical processing to develop other consisted of five PCs, two programmable logic components in a process referred to as conversion. controllers (PLCS) with communications software, After impurities are removed from these human-machine interface (HMI) software, software components a process of combining produces the to operate the PCs remotely, modems, alphanumeric desired petroleum products.[3] In order for these pagers for supervisors, and software to send tasks to be successfully executed, tank gauging, messages to the pagers. The data acquisition leak detection and environmental monitoring must software shares records utilizing commercially be recorded and controlled. When remote available software programs, such as spreadsheets maintenance monitoring devices are used, cost-and application programs. The system is efficiency improves, productivity increases, and programmed to monitor reactor process temperature inventory management is made easier. with high and low alarms, jacket temperature with

     Pharmaceutical companies have concerns with high and low alarms, agitator current, process every stage of the drug development process drying equipment pressure and temperature, fume including quality control. Once a drug becomes scrubber data, vacuum pump pressure, tank levels, marketable, all process data such as temperatures, and plant utility data. heating, cooling cycles and drug compositions are To increase the reliability and dependability of monitored on a continuing basis. The ability to ground-based navigational aids, and other ATC monitor and measure these process parameters from FAA terminal and enroute systems, an RMM remote locations has enabled companies to save requirement was mandated. This requirement was thousands of dollars for overtime, improve quality included in all development contracts for ground-control, and increase productivity. [4] based navaids, terminal, and enroute systems. The

     Successful RMM implementations can be size and complexity of the RMM subsystem applied in many industries. A well-known appliance component depended on various factors. Most manufacturer a few years ago installed and important among these factors were the integrated a power monitoring system interfaced to functionality and complexity of the system to be a communications network. Smart metering devices, monitored. Data information on the operational protective relays, circuit breaker units and motor performance of a system is forwarded in the format starters were included on the network. In addition to of software datapoints. The Remote Maintenance monitoring the power consumption of two Subsystem (RMS) can be located at an ATC facility, manufacturing plants in Ohio, this appliance an outdoor remote monitoring shelter near one of manufacturer tracked and metered power usage the airport runways, or a remotely-located site using dial-up telephone modems at plants in Texas hundreds of miles from the actual system or airport. and New Mexico.[5] Using this communications An FAA proprietary or non-standard computer network, equipment reliabilities were determined by communication protocol is used to forward and measuring certain parameters. Data was recorded at exchange information from the RMS to a central one central location and exchanged with multiple collection location called the Air Route Traffic sites, enabling plant equipment to operate properly;

    saving monitors hundreds of miles of travel per day. 2 This is a system operating with coded signals over

     communication channels so as to provide control of Engineers at pharmaceutical company

     remote equipment ( using typically one communication SmithKline Beecham installed a Personal Computer channel per remote station ).

    Control Center (ARTCC). Operational, technology may be used to satisfy complicated performance, and maintenance information from requirements. One prototype RMM system numerous types of navigational, weather and introduced by the FAA in the Southwest Region surveillance systems are forwarded to twenty-three was the MCI (Micro Circuits Incorporated) Smart ARTCCs every day throughout the country. Circuits ALERT Program. This was an

    Environmental Remote Monitoring Subsystem The demand by industry and manufacturing (ERMS) Program that was proposed as one companies for specialized and specific remote alternative within the ERMS program. monitoring services has created a new market. New 3RMS service-rendering companies have surfaced package The MCI Smart Circuits ALERT for these manufacturing companies. These new consisted of the (1) Smart Circuits ALERT Box, (2) 4companies are prepared to provide specialized and the Demarcation or SOTAS Box, and the

    specific remote monitoring services to automobile Environmental Remote System (ERS), which was a manufacturing plants, industrial plants, oil Sun Microsystems Workstation using HP Openview refineries and computer or security firms in the Software. (The ERMS components included the high-tech world. Smart Circuits ALERT Box and the Demarc or

    SOTAS Box) The HP Openview Software utilized

    the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). The Remote Monitoring Environment The EMS and the ERMS communicated via an MCI The Remote Monitoring environment can be telephone leasedline and modem configuration. complex or basic. This depends on the requirements Operational Technology Services and Stanford of the system to be monitored, and the technology Telecommunications constructed and assembled the used. An industrial environment RMM system SUN Workstation used as a platform for the EMS. might consist of a combination of switch boxes, The monitor for the Sun Workstation used different sensors, measuring equipment and communication colored coded logos for each parameter or data devices, which relay performance information to a point. All engine generator and sensor inputs were central location either 50 feet or 50 miles away. A directed to the ERMS. Consistent with SNMP, the simple PC could be the device that receives this EMS used a Smart Circuit Management information. Information Base (MIB) that partitioned all sensor

    inputs into thirteen groups. All requirements to be A computer automated SCADA system, satisfied were represented and included in a System similar to that installed by the pharmaceutical Requirements Document (SRD). [6] company SmithKline Beecham, would consist of

    conventional control systems and innovative Once the complexity of the Remote software and hardware combinations. These Monitoring environment increases, the difficulty in combinations would allow authorized personnel to understanding this environment also increases. The monitor processes remotely. The system’s software Test and Evaluation of the operational performance notifies on-call personnel using a paging system of of this environment can only be possible if the any deviations from the process and plant environment is thoroughly understood. As in parameters. Once the alarm is received, the on-call physics an idealized model is sometimes helpful person contacts the host computer monitoring and necessary in understanding a complicated system via a laptop or remote PC. The supervisor Remote Monitoring (RM) environment. Figure 1 views the active alarms on the screen and notes the flashing icon. Clicking the icon with a mouse brings 3 The complete name of the program was “The Micro the alarm history to the screen. [4] At any time, all Circuits Incorporated (MCI) Automated Leased personnel so empowered have the ability to contact Interfacility National Airspace Communication System the host computer and observe plant activities via a (LINCS) Environmental Remote Resource Tool (ALERT) phone-based datalink. Environmental Remote Monitoring Subsystem (ERMS).

    4 SOTAS is a trademark name. The SOTAS box Another Remote Monitoring environment contains the SmartCircuits SNMP Agent and provides feature involves computer automation. When the communication ports for the system management and

    Test interfaces. system to be monitored is complex, advanced

represents an example of an idealized operational navigational aids, weather-related processors and

    model RM environment configured by the FAA. [7] RADAR surveillance systems. A workstation can

    be located at the ARTCC, at the RMS shelter, The figure can be representative of any (which is a distance from the ARTCC) at the computer automated RM environment that monitors Maintenance Monitoring and Control (MMC) alarm conditions and status changes for ground-facility and at the Maintenance Control Center based (MCC).

    RMS SENSOR GROUND-BASEDINTERFACE FACILITY EQUIPMENT

    RMS SENSOR GROUND-BASEDINTERFACE FACILITY EQUIPMENT

    GROUND-BASED SENSOR RMSFACILITY INTERFACE EQUIPMENTDEFINED BY ICD MAINTENANCEMONITORING AND CONTROL ENROUTE FACILITY MPS

    REMOTE MONITORGROUND-BASED SENSOR RMS SUBSYSTEMFACILITY INTERFACE CONCENTRATOR WORKSTATION EQUIPMENT

     MAINTENANCE CONTROL CENTER FACILITY SECTORGROUND-BASED SENSOR RMS WORKSTATION MPSFACILITY INTERFACE EQUIPMENT

     WORKSTATION

    RMS SENSOR GROUND-BASEDINTERFACE FACILITY EQUIPMENT

    RMS SENSOR GROUND-BASEDINTERFACE FACILITY EQUIPMENT

     Figure 1. An Idealized Model of an Operational RM Environment Configured by the FAA. Central and Remote Elements Typically Representative of a Ground-based Deployment are Shown.

     The Enroute and Sector Maintenance Processor

    Subsystems (MPS) are two different types of MPSs that were proposed at one time. They are separate

    database and a built-in historical record. Another from the host MPS and are located a distance from 5advantage of this new technology is the ability to All data information is forwarded to a the ARTCC.

    integrate additional PCs and have third party Remote Monitor Subsystem Concentrator (RMSC).

    software packages gather, store, integrate, The function of the RMSC is to consolidate all

    manipulate and analyze the data collected from alarm and status information inside the facilities of

    pilot plant or customer and laboratory equipment. a small geographical area and interface these

    Coupling remote monitoring to the PCS has facilities to the MPS.[7] The facility equipment and

    allowed the papermaker to refine monitoring RMS system located and protected inside a shelter

    procedures in-house before offering them to are connected and interfaced to sensor devices.

    customers. For maintenance monitoring, the These shelters are sometimes near the airport

    papermaker uses Internet technologies to view its’ runway or at some distant location. An Interface

    machinery in distant plants. Operating parameters Control Document (ICD) defines the required

    such as downtimes and uptimes are tracked and command and data structures to establish computer

    customers can be advised when components such as communications and connectivity between the RMS

    bearings and motors need to be changed. In and MPS.

    performance monitoring, sensors are installed on customer equipment to indicate how well the

    equipment is operating, when it needs attention, and The Industrial RM Environment

    how to make it run more efficiently. New open The industrial production lines in platform sensors and sensor systems used by the manufacturing were possibly the first to recognize Paper Company contribute to improved the need and utilize the benefits derived from performance monitoring. [8] remote maintenance and performance monitoring.

    New types of businesses have surfaced which The first RM devices added to industrial equipment

    will provide RMM services to industrial plants and and machinery consisted of a combination of switch

    manufacturing areas. Many new providers of RMM boxes and communication devices that relayed

    services have targeted and competed for the performance information to a central location.

    business of numerous manufacturing elements. Today computerized networks and advanced

    Industrial concerns about profits, productivity, technology are used in industrial engineering

    pollution and quality control have increased the environments.

    desire to use RMM technologies. Therefore the For example, the Voith Paper Technology ability to use RMM measurement techniques to Center in Appleton, Wisconsin has adopted new forecast and improve industrial output will remain automation technologies into its papermaking popular. facility. Their remote monitoring system has

    incorporated Microsoft software, the Internet and wireless communication standards. New control The Computer Security RM Environment technology is used to remotely monitor the progress

    in Voith’s papermaking plants all over the world. Computer security is an important concern and An RMS could have been constructed creates another kind of RM environment. independently from the pilot plant’s PCS (Process Computer systems, networks, and workstations Control System), however the new control used in business, government offices, and technologies presented advantages in coupled manufacturing have all adopted some form of monitoring and control, and customer tracking. security apparatus using remote monitoring Some of these advantages include having a global techniques. These RM techniques can be designed

     to prevent intruders from entering a computer

    network or alerting a maintenance operator if 5 The MPS is the central processor for a given someone penetrated into a secure network. The geographical area and will act as a control point

     to collect, record, and analyze monitored data and need for a computer system to be secure involves

     issue commands. The MPS is also responsible protecting databases, applicatons programs, and for the display of monitored data and the maintenance computer communications regardless of operating of historical records of reported data. [7]

    system or platform used. Monitoring work activity computer architectures be used. The FAA’s RMM and employee communications may be another network has selected computer architectures desired feature of RM used in secure computer tailored to fit the needs of the National Airspace environments. System (NAS). Ground-based navigational aides,

    surveillance, environmental systems and weather-In all non-Internet based business transactions related processors depend on these RMM systems the main focus is network security. Large and small to ensure their reliability, dependability and corporations will use RM and other diagnostic increase longevity. services to verify that only authorized parties pass

    firewalls and that data is secure from hackers. The RMM components and architecture Before implementing an RM package that contains composed and constructed by the FAA have been a security apparatus an evaluation should be taken successfully tested and deployed throughout the to ensure proper security preparations are employed country. Because many of these components have and suited to the computer environment. The passed reliability and dependability tests, they are complete RM and security service provider will use discussed here. The main components of the RMM a device or package that has a secure connectivity architecture include the MPS, the RMS, the RMSC, infrastructure and a strong identification element. the Interfacility Communications System, the Other important elements in the package will be Maintenance Data Terminal (MDT) and the software that dynamically filters, separates and Maintenance Monitoring Console (MMC). ensures data integrity. [9] The MPS located at each ARTCC represents

     New software tools and products have been the main Central Processing Unit (CPU) for a introduced by software security companies. Avaya geographical area. The collection, control and Integrated Management platform developed by the distribution of monitored data are performed by the Converged Enterprise Technology Networks MPS. Processing, storage, retrieval of historical (CETNetworks) is a Secure Remote Maintenance information, and communication interfacing are Monitoring (SRMM) package that provides 24-hour also performed by the MPS. Two software packages service support. The package can be used on Linux, supporting the MPS in this task are the Monitoring UNIX, and Windows Operating systems. [10] and Control Software (MCS) and the Maintenance Another RM security Software Company offers Management Subsystem (MMS). The MCS creates comprehensive database monitoring, data a central monitoring and control capability. This encryption and management solutions to maintain capability facilitates equipment performance Oracle databases. The efforts to protect computer monitoring, remote control and adjustment, alarm communications, software applications and notification and the collection of equipment databases will never end since the threat from certification data from centralized work centers. outside sources will always be there. The MMS facilitates all administrative and

    maintenance-related-functions.[11] The RMS collects performance measurement The Computer Architecture and maintenance data from remotely located

    equipment and identifies alarm and status Description conditions. Diagnostic tests using the resident RMS Remote Maintenance Monitoring Components software are performed, during operational testing

    and system troubleshooting. When these diagnostics The design of a specific Computer are performed the alarm, status, and certification Architecture will vary according to the desired reports can be transferred to a portable MDT or function and proposed requirements of the remote forwarded to an MPS through an RMSC. The RMS maintenance monitoring system. The method of can be retrofitted to an existing system, or be an data information collection, measurement, analysis, embedded agent or device of a new system. [11] storage and exchange with other plants, sites and

    facilities will determine the design of the computer In certain areas, there are numerous RMS architecture. In some cases site specific needs and equipped facilities such as airports, Automated different site configurations will suggest certain Flight Service Stations (AFSSs), Air Traffic

information with the RMS. Data formatting, signal Control Towers (ATCTs), and Terminal RADAR

    levels for data and control, sychronization and Approach Control Facilities (TRACONs). For these

    appropriate sequencing are provided by any areas concentrators can be used to consolidate the

    protocol.[13] When exchanging messages with the data and messages being transmitted from these

    MPS this protocol defines the necessary electrical, facilities. The RMSC can reduce the number of

    mechanical, and data link control elements. communication links and simplify the

    Recently the FAA has started to utilize other types communication interface between the MPS and the

    of communication protocols with the same monitored facilities (See Figure 1).

    architecture or modified architecture. NAS-MD-6 Each FAA facility has an existing ground- 790A and the Simple Asynchronous Interface based communication infrastructure. This existing (SAI) are examples. In an effort to improve the communication infrastructure is used in the data technology and have an open systems architecture, and message exchange of RMS elements. On the FAA has started using the commercial standard occasion new data communication networks have SNMP. With SNMP, other software applications been built, and dedicated TELCO or telephone lines compatible with Transmission Control Protocol / have been installed to insure RMS computer Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are used at the MPS. communications. Whenever possible the existing These items are modular in design and well suited communication infrastructure will be used or to Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) products. modified to accommodate the RMS computer

     The maintenance data and status information architecture.

    that the MPS receives from surveillance, The MDT can be a portable laptop or fixed navigation / landing and weather systems is device. Commands exercised from the MDT periodically updated. Technicians and operators at include requests for data, the displays or responses the ARTCC then forward this information to to system messages, and system status. The fixed maintenance control specialists at the MCCs. The MDT interfaces with an RMS or selected RMSCs. application software programs resident on the Portable MDTs can communicate with an MPS, MPS are used to perform this task, which includes RMS or other MDTs while the system operator is at data transmission exchanges, data acquisition a remote location. management and data display updates.

    Maintenance Automation System Software The MMCs or workstations will be considered

    (MASS) and Direct Monitor and Control Software the central monitoring and control points (See

    (DMCS) are two application software programs Figure 1). These consoles located at the MCCs

    assigned to perform this task. [12] provide an access to the RMS system and display

    acknowledgements when desired. [11] Since MASS has been designated to replace

    DMCS, it can operate simultaneously with DMCS.

    It has a windows-based user interface with The Management of Computer capabilities based on a client-server technology. Communications and Application Programs MASS has created an environment where real-time

    monitoring, control, and alarm routing for most The Computer Communications and data

    RMSs is possible. The MASS environment information monitored between the RMS and MPS

    includes the standard Tandem system software, is possible because of the operational interface of

    third party vendor software, and custom developed the application programs. Many of these

    MASS software. DMCS provides the Graphical application programs are transparent to the

    Unit Interface (GUI) and has been modified to technician at the ARTCC or operator at the RMS

    accommodate the implemention of MASS site. However, each RMS interface is tested using

    software. These modifications include the many of these application programs prior to

     operational integration within the NAS. The FAA

    has successfully used a proprietary or non-6 Data collected during the Operational Test and standardized communication protocol defined via Evaluation (OT&E) of the RMS / MPS interface is

    NAS-MD-790 to forward and exchange data easier to analyze when the SAI protocol is used.

introduction of Structured Query Language (SQL) emulation software. The terminal emulation 7data structures and decoders.software is composed of OutsideView for

    Windows with Tandem terminal emulators; client/ MASS operates in a combined mainframe and server transport layer communications (Tandem workstation configuration. The mainframe portion Remote Server Call); and database access software is co-located with DMCS on the MPS within the by Cornerstone DynaAccess). [12] RMS platform environment. The MPS mainframe

     The MDTs are part of the RMS platform is a Tandem Non-Stop CLX 200 Reduced

    environment and are connected to the Tandem Instruction Set Computer (RISC), executing the

    Guardian Operating System. The user and Computer through Multi-LAN Communication

    devices or standard asynchronous telephone dial-administrative workstations have IBM-compatible

    ups or TCP/IP. An MPS Functional Area PCs running Windows equipped with terminal

    Description Diagram is illustrated in Figure 2. [12]

    7 Structured Query Language (SQL) is a query

    language designed for accessing data and performing queries on relational databases. It is standardized by

    ASC X3, which is a standards committee accredited by the American National Standards Institute.

     RMS

    RMS

    M

    PMDTMDT

     S

     Figure 2. An MPS Functional Area Description with an RMS and MDT Interface

local weather phenomena. ITWS is able to provide The Monitoring Control Function (MCF)

    this information because certain software and application software as part of MASS enables

    hardware elements are integrated in the system connectivity between the MPS and the RMS or the

    design. These elements are comprised of a weather MPS and MDT so real-time monitoring

    data processing algorithm, the computer information can be displayed. Terminal emulation

    processing itself, and the hardware with can operate over the three connection methods

    interconnecting links. Besides these elements the identified above. However, MASS will only

    system has connections to external data sources. operate when connected by asynchronous or TCP/

    [12] IP methods. When connected using TCP/IP, both

    MASS and terminal emulation can run The ITWS components include the Product concurrently on the same PC. Given the Generator (PG), the multiple Situation Displays asynchronous connection method, a PC can run (SDs), and the associated Ribbon Display MASS or terminal emulation, but not both at the Terminals (RBDT). Specific data sets from the same time. NWS are obtained at one designated system location and transmitted to other Product Generator Computer peripherals such as terminals and

    sites via TELCO lines. Interfacility communications printers in the laboratory are directly connected to

    are provided via the National Airspace Data the Tandem mainframe. Off-site devices such as

    Interchange Network II (NADIN-II), a national remote terminals and printers are interfaced via the

    packet switching network (PSN), or over point-to-Federal Aviation Administration /

    point terrestial communication lines. The Telecommunication (FAA/ TELCO) System. In

    connection to the NWS is provided via the FAA most cases the Tandem computer hardware resides

    Bulk Weather Telecommunications Gateway in sector headquarters, and communication with

    (FBWTG) service to the NWS Filter Unit (NFU). other sector computers is achieved through the

    Portions of the NWS are extracted by the NFU for standard FAA/ TELCO network. Expansion to

    each ITWS. MCC facilities is possible using Multi-LAN

    Communication devices for terminal emulation The embedded RMS monitors and reports and TCP/IP for terminal emulation and MASS. maintenance alerts, alarms and executes fault processing. It is the entry point for maintenance

    commands, system control, and for entering site

     Computer Communication adaptable data. Maintenance-related data and control functions are forwarded to maintenance Methodologies and RMM specialists using the non-standard NAS-MD-790 Deployments protocol. The decoder module, which has the ITWS database, will be tested and verified once loaded on The Integrated Terminal Weather System

    the MPS. The MASS and DMCS application (ITWS) programs previously discussed will be used to The ITWS is a weather system processor perform this task. The developer will install the developed by the Raytheon Corporation for the decoder module for initial testing at the Technical FAA. It is an automated and integrated terminal Center, at the Houston ARTCC for Delta weather information system that will improve the operational testing (OT), and at the Kansas City safety, efficiency, and capacity of terminal Olathe ARTCC, for regression OT. (Delta testing is aviation operations. The system collects data from required when an RMS has specific system National Weather Service (NWS) sensors and functionalities located at a particular site, while from aircraft in-flight over the terminal area. regression testing involves retesting the same Other aviation-related weather products are functionalities that previously failed.) collected and without additional meteorological The majority of OT occurred at the Technical interpretation used by ATC Technicians. Some of Center. Delta and regression OT was planned to be these products give descriptions of terminal conducted in operational settings at the Airport weather conditions and short-term predictions of Surveillance RADAR (ASR) facility in Houston,

    Texas and Olathe, Kansas. The system was electrical power systems, environmental remotely monitored and controlled at the Houston conditioning systems, smoke and fire detection and Olathe Center ARTCC. Figure 3 illustrates the systems, fuel tank monitoring systems, Houston or Kansas City TRACON and ATCT uninterruptable power systems, and computer Equipment Room Layout & Communication Link network security and safety systems. [14] Some Test Configuration for the ITWS RMS. [12] ERMS will have different configurations or

    functionalities depending on the kind and type of The facility environment to test the ITWS equipment at each site. RMS interface included the Tandem Computer,

    accessed through any available MPS terminal at the The OPTO-22 is one of several ERMS ARTCC or the Technical Center and the proposals and alternatives to monitor and report on appropriate modems. The System Control & the indoor conditions of any remote FAA facility. Support (SCS) Software will communicate with the Each alternative is distinguished by the type of MPS using the 790-decoder module. The DMCS requirements it has to satisfy, the computer resident on the Tandem will provide the GUI to the architecture of the interface, and the computer MPS. The MASS program may also be running, communication protocol used. Different protocols which will be properly configured for the sub-require different software application programs system under test. resident on the MPS. Also modifications in the

    computer architecture are sometimes necessary. The testing configuration will include a

    Network Sniffer located at the ARTCC and a The OPTO-22 is a COTS product and system Toshiba Tecra with a Pocket Scope. The sniffer can which scans sensors and other remote control be used to capture NAS-MD-790 formatted data or devices for information. The data collected is used as a protocol analyzer during testing at the formatted for storage and transmission. Before this MPS. The Toshiba Tecra with the Pocket Scope can occurs, parameter values are compared against also be configured as a protocol analyzer and established alarm and alert thresholds. If these collect NAS-MD-790 formatted data using a special parameters are outside the established threshold data collection program. An additional laptop limits, an alarm or alert message is prepared. An running HyperTerminal, or an equivalent terminal MDT is located with the RMM at the site. While emulation program, can be used as a local interface the ERMS provides this data to the MDT, this same or MDT connected to the RMS or SCS function. data is then transferred for further processing, The ITWS RMS was successfully deployed after storage or display to the MPS. The OPTO-22 is the completion of OT and the resolution of all supported by GFE data communication circuits, communication and interface related problems. modems, and MDTs where possible. An auto-

    dial/auto-answer (A/A) modem configuration is employed to facilitate communications with the

    MPS. [15] The Environmental Remote Monitoring

    System (ERMS) This RMM system has two control modes

    Operate and Maintenance. The Operate mode is the The ERMS is an environmental or climatic normal operational mode, while the Maintenance monitoring system developed predominantly by mode removes power for engine generator functions. the FAA. It is unique since the complete system is In the Operate mode the system provides full a remote monitoring device as opposed to being a operational monitoring capabilities. When the component of a larger system. The system is based Maintenance mode is selected via a front panel on a network of intelligent and independent switch, the site technician is able to monitor processors, which are operating in a multitasking, environmental data points at the remote NAS site. multiuser environment. This RMM device is [15] comprised of hardware and software suitable for

    installation into a NAS facility to monitor and The OPTO-22 utilizes the SAI protocol. SAI control the environmental equipment within the software templates are installed on the MPS and facility. The environmental equipment consists of supported by the DMCS at the ARTCC. The

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