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Guiding principles for dual-language education. Review of research practices on effective features of dual-language education programs.

    National Task Force on Early Childhood Education for Hispanics Para Nuestros Niños

     Theme: English language learners (ELL) and bilingual students in schools Annotated Bibliography

    Allman, B. (2003). Vocabulary size and accuracy of monolingual and bilingual preschool thchildren. Paper presented at the 4 International Symposium on Bilingualism April 30 -

    May 3, 2003 in Tempe, Arizona.

     This study evaluates the receptive and productive vocabulary size of 77 English and

    Spanish monolingual and bilingual preschool children. Findings of this study provided

    empirical evidence that vocabulary size of bilingual preschoolers is better estimated by

    measuring vocabulary knowledge in both languages of bilingual children. The results of

    this study suggest implication for theory of bilingual vocabulary development,

    assessment, and intervention with bilingual preschoolers.

August, D., Calderón, M., & Carlo, M. (2002). Transfer skills from Spanish to English: A study

    of young learners. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

     Thus, the focus of our study is to understand the manner in which reading skills

    transferable across languages, in this case Spanish and English. The study examined how

    performance on indicators of Spanish reading at the end of second grade (April 1999)

    predicted English reading performance at the end of the third grade (April 2000).

August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C., & Snow, C. (2005). The Critical Role of Vocabulary

    Development for English Language Learners, Learning Disabilities Research & Practice,

    20(1), 50-57.

     In this article, authors review the research on methods to develop the vocabulary

    knowledge of ELLs and present lessons learned from the research concerning effective

    instructional practices for ELLs. The review suggests that several strategies are especially

    valuable for ELLs, including taking advantage of students' first language if the language

    shares cognates with English; ensuring that ELLs know the meaning of basic words, and

    providing sufficient review and reinforcement. Challenges in designing effective

    vocabulary instruction for ELLs are also discussed.

August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.) (In press). Report of the national literacy panel on language

    minority youth and children. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

     Funded by the U.S. Department of Education with SRI International and the Center for

    Applied Linguistics, this report represents the efforts of over twenty renowned scholars

    and academics to identify, assess, and synthesize research on the education of language-

    minority children and youth with regard to literacy attainment. It is the culmination of a

    four-year process that began in the spring of 2002 when a expert panel was formed to

    National Task Force on Early Childhood Education for Hispanics Theme: English language learners (ELL) and bilingual students in schools Page 1 Rev. 12/01/06

review research on the development of literacy in language-minority students in the

    United States. This seminal book, including 21 chapters, is divided thematically, into five

    parts: 1) development of literacy in second-language learners, 2) cross-linguistic

    relationships in second-languaeg learners, 3) sociocultural contexts and literacy

    development, 4) instructional approaches and professional development, and 5) student

    assessment. Cross-cutting themes and future research directions are also discussed.

    August, D., & Hakuta, K. (1997). Improving schooling for language-minority children: A

    research agenda. Washington: National Research Council, Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press. In this volume, a committee of experts focuses on how we effectively teach children from

    homes in which a language other than English is spoken, striving toward the construction

    of strong and credible knowledge base to inform the activities of those who educate

    children as well as those who fund and conduct research. An immensely broad range of

    studies are reviewed and further research is proposed.

    Abedi, J., Hofstetter, C. H., Lord, C. (2004). Assessment accommodations for English language

    learners: Implications for policy-based empirical research. Review of Educational

    Research, 74(1), 1-28.

    Given the potential consequences of test results, it is important that policy-makers and

    understand the empirical base underlying their use. This article reviews test

    accommodation strategies for English learners, derived from ―scientifically based

    research‖. The results caution against a one-size-fits-all approach to assessment


    Baker, C. (2000). The care and education of young bilinguals: An introduction for professionals.

    Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters LTD.

     This book serves as a comprehensive introduction for all professionals working with

    bilingual childrenfor speech therapists, doctors, psychologists, counselors, teachers, and special needs personnel. The book addresses among other issues: the nature of

    bilingual children, everyday language use of bilinguals, children as interpreters, code

    switching, dialects and bilingualism, home and school relationships, bilingual classrooms,

    language delay and language disorder.

    Bialystok, E. (2001) Bilingualism in Development: Language literacy and Cognition. Cambridge

    University press.

    It explores language and cognitive development in bilingual children, focusing on the

    preschool years. It begins by defining what we mean by bilingualism and what the

    standards are for considering children to be bilingual. Then it examines how children

    who learn two languages early in childhood develop both linguistic and nonlinguistic

    cognitive skills. The book focuses on cognitive development and language processing.

    National Task Force on Early Childhood Education for Hispanics Theme: English language learners (ELL) and bilingual students in schools Page 2 Rev. 12/01/06

Christian, D., Genesee, F., and Lindholm-Leary, K. (2004). Project 1.2 two-way immersion:

    Final progress report. Unpublished Project Progress Report.

     This paper evaluates the variability of programmatic features between two-way

    immersion programs. Namely, it evaluates characteristics of effective classroom

    instruction, academic performace of students at-risk, and requirements placed on

    professionals working in these programs. These aspects are analyzed in terms of the

    level of English proficiency attained by students.

Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) (2005). Guiding principles for dual-language education.

    Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

    This paper was developed as a tool to help dual language programs (two-way immersion,

    heritage language, foreign language immersion, or developmental bilingual programs)

    with planning and ongoing implementation. Grounded in evidence from research and best

    practices, the Guiding Principles address program issues in seven strands: Assessment

    and Accountability, Curriculum, Instruction, Staff Quality and Professional Development,

    Program Structure, Family and Community, and Support and Resources.

    Combs, M. C., Evans, C., Fletcher, T., Parra, E., & Jiménez, A. (2005). Bilingualism for the

    children: Implementing a dual-language program in an English-Only state. Educational

    Policy, 19(5), 701-728.

     In November 2000, Arizona voters passed Proposition 203, a law that replaced bilingual

    education with a 1-year program known as Structured English Immersion (SEI).

    Although SEI has little support in the educational or applied linguistics research literature,

    all English-language learners (ELLs) in Arizona are automatically placed in SEI

    classrooms. This article examines the effects of SEI on the teachers, administrators, and

    students at an urban school serving a large number of ELLs.

Garcia, E. E. (2004). Bilingualism is not the arithmetic sum of two languages. In O. Saracho and

    B. Spodek (Eds.), Contemporary perspectives on language policy and literacy instruction

    in early childhood education. Information Age Publishing.

    This chapter introduces the empirical knowledge bases related to an understanding of

    bilingualism, second-language acquisition, and a broadened understanding of the

    communicative act as it relates to schooling contexts, particularly in the United States.

    Teaching/learning is addressed as it relates to linguistic, cognitive, and social research

    and theory that have developed over the last two decades. These contributions, the

    authors describes, have reshaped in a dramatic way our view of bilingualism.

Genesee, F. (Ed.) (1999). Program alternatives for linguistically diverse students. Berkeley, CA:

    Center for Research on Education, Diversity, & Excellence.

    This report looks at programs and approaches for educating students from diverse

    linguistic and cultural backgrounds. It is intended as a guide for decision makers in

    schools and school districts to help them identify the instructional approaches and

    National Task Force on Early Childhood Education for Hispanics Theme: English language learners (ELL) and bilingual students in schools Page 3 Rev. 12/01/06

    programs that would best serve their students, meet their goals and needs, and match

    local resources and conditions. An underlying assumption of this report is that no single

    approach or program model works best in every situation. Many different approaches can be successful when implemented well. Local conditions, choices, and innovation are

    critical ingredients of success. Authors discuss four program alternatives: (1) newcomer Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W., & Christian, D. (2005). English language programs, (2) transitional bilingual education, (3) developmental bilingual education, and learners in U.S. schools: An overview of research findings. Journal of Education for (4) two-way immersion. Students Placed at Risk, 10(4), 363-386.

     This article reviews findings from scientific research that has been conducted in the

    United States since 1980 on the educational outcomes of English language learners ELLs.

    Major findings on the oral language, literacy, and academic achievement of ELLs are

    discussed in 3 separate sections of this article, in addition to a discussion of the gaps and

    shortcomings in current research in each domain. Recommendations for future research

    are also presented, including the need for sustained theory-driven research that examines

    the longitudinal development of and influences of instruction on the oral language,

    literacy, and academic skills of diverse groups of ELLs across the K-12 span.

Gonzalez, M., & Glasman, N. (2004). An input-throughput-output analysis of the two-way

    immersion language program in a California school district. Did bilingual education

    help? Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association annual

    conference, April 13, 2004, San Diego, CA.

    This paper examines the inputs, throughputs (processes), and outputs of two models of

    two-way language immersion programs (90/10 and 50/50) implemented in four schools

    in a large school district in California.

    Hasson, D. (2004). Perceived language abilities in bilingual Hispanic university students: Did

    bilingual education help? Paper presented at the American Educational Research

    Association annual conference, April 13, 2004, San Diego, CA.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Hispanic students who had

    participated in bilingual programs in elementary school had a better perception of their

    abilities in Spanish, confirmed by scores on a writing sample, when compared with

    Hispanic students who had not participated in such programs

    Hakuta, K., Butler, Y., & Witt., D. (2000). How long does it take learners to attain English

    proficiency? University of California Linguistic Minority Research Institute Policy 2000-


     This paper is a summary of a longer study which reports on data from four different

    school districts to draw conclusions about how long it takes English Learner/Limited

    English Proficient students to develop oral and academic English proficiency. Authors

    find that oral proficiency takes a minimum of three to five years to develop, while

    National Task Force on Early Childhood Education for Hispanics Theme: English language learners (ELL) and bilingual students in schools Page 4 Rev. 12/01/06

    academic English proficiency can take up to four to seven years. The analysis also

    revealed a continuing and widening gap between English learners and native English

    speakers. The report concludes that policies that assume rapid acquisition of English are

    unrealistic. Instead, the report asserts that the entire span of the elementary grades is a

    more realistic range for English acquisition.

    Hawkins, M. R. (2004). Researching English language and literacy development in schools.

    Educational Researcher, 33(3), 14-25.

     This article draws on new conceptualizations that look at what happens when diverse

    language and cultures come into contact as part of human behavior and interactions,

    always situated in larger social and cultural contexts. Ideas are recruited from multiple

    fields such as anthropology, social psychology, cognitive psychology, sociology, cultural

    studies, literary theory, critical theory, communications, new literacy studies, semiotics,

    and linguistics to inform the ways we conceptualize classrooms as spaces in which

    language and literacy skills develop through situated social spaces.

    Howard, E., Sugarman, J., & Christian, D. (2003). Trends in two-way immersion education. A

    review of the research. Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on the Education of Students

    Placed At Risk (CRESPAR)

    Two-way immersion (TWI) is an instructional approach that integrates native English

    speakers and native speakers of another language (usually Spanish) and provides

    instruction to both groups of students in both languages. While the model has been in

    existence in the United States for almost 40 years, the most dramatic growth has been

    seen over the past 15 years. Not surprisingly, the recent growth of two-way immersion

    education has prompted increasing interest in various aspects of such programs, such as

    design and implementation, student outcomes, instructional strategies, cross-cultural

    issues, and the attitudes and experiences of students, parents, and teachers involved.

Lesaux, N., & Siegel, L. (2003). The development of reading in children who speak English as a

    second language. Developmental Psychology, 39(6), 1005-1019.

    This article empirically examined patterns of reading development in native English-

    speaking children and children who spoke English as a second language. The findings

    demonstrate that a model of early identification and intervention for children at risk is

    beneficial fro ESL speakers and also suggest that the effects of bilingualism on the

    acquisition of early reading skills are not negative and may be positive.

    Lindholm-Leary, K. (2005). Review of research practices on effective features of dual-language

    education programs. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

     This review of research and best practices was written to serve as a background and

    companion for the document Guiding Principles for Dual Language Education, which is

    intended to help guide Dual Language Programs with planning and ongoing

    implementation. These principles are based on the Dual Language Program Standards

    National Task Force on Early Childhood Education for Hispanics Theme: English language learners (ELL) and bilingual students in schools Page 5 Rev. 12/01/06

    developed by Dual Language Education of New Mexico (

    The companion document can be found at

López, A. (Ed.) (2005). Latino early literacy development: Strategies for lifelong learning and

    success. Washington, DC: National Council of La Raza.

     This compendium of papers authored by leading scholars and practitioners in the field of

    early childhood education and literacy explores the importance of increasing early

    literacy opportunities in the Latino community. This work calls parents, early childhood

    educators, and community advocates to engage more deeply in a national dialogue that

    promotes reading and language development among Latino children. The expertise,

    insight, and suggestions shared in this volume will benefit those who wish to ensure the

    educational success of Hispanic Americans.

Martin, P., Houtchens, B., Ramirez, M., & Seidner, M. (2003). High school reform and English-

    language learner students: Perspectives from the field. Washington, D.C.: Council of

    Chief State School Officers.

    This document looks at current high school reform efforts to interface, or not, with ELLs.

    Commissioned papers are written by four field practitioners: a classroom teacher, a

    school development coordinator, a district representative, and a former director of

    ESL/bilingual programs at the state level.

    McLaughlin, B. (1995). Fostering second language development in young children: Principles

     and practices. Washington, DC: Center for Research on Education, Diversity &


    More than one fifth of American school-age children come from families in which

    languages other than English are spoken. Many children from such families are limited in

    their English proficiency. During the last decade, the number of school children with

    limited proficiency in English grew two and a half times faster than regular school

    enrollment. Given these changes in classroom demographics, it is imperative that all

    teachers have knowledge about second language development and instructional strategies

    for developing language proficiency. This report sets down some guidelines for teaching

    these children. It summarizes principles and practices that can be derived from current

    thinking and research in the field of second language acquisition and culturally sensitive


    Moll, L. C., & Gonzales, N. (1994). Lessons from research with language-minority children.

    Journal of Reading Behavior, 26(4), 439-456.

    The article summarizes four projects that attempt to make use f cultural resources for

    instruction. It starts with work done with Latino and African-American households;

    work with Haitian children in Boston and their use of collaborative inquiry in the

    teaching and learning of science. It also looks at work done with Puerto Rican and

    African-American children in New York City. It concludes looking at Navajo student in

    AZ., questioning the notion of Native American children as passive noninquisitive. National Task Force on Early Childhood Education for Hispanics Theme: English language learners (ELL) and bilingual students in schools Page 6 Rev. 12/01/06

    Myhill, W. (2004). The state of public education and the needs of English language learners in

    the era of ‗No Child Left Behind‘. The Journal of Gender, Race, & Justice, 8(2), 393-447.

    This journal article reviews the history of education policy for ELL in the U.S., the

    presently persisting need of bilingual services in public schools, present politics and

    legislative actions regarding language-use in public school instruction, and the present

    state of academic achievement outcomes for ELL.

    National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) (2005). Screening and

    assessment of young English-language learners: Supplement to the NAEYC position

    statement on early childhood curriculum, assessment and program evaluation.

    Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

    The aim of this document, which was requested by experts in the field, is to explain and

    expand on the meaning of "linguistically and culturally responsive"; to discuss other

    issues uniquely related to the screening and assessment of young English-language

    learners; and to make specific recommendations to increase the probability that all young

    English-language learners will have the benefit of appropriate, effective assessment of

    their learning and development.

    Oller, D.K. & Eilers, R. (2002) Language and literacy in bilingual children. Clevedon, UK:

    Multilingual Matters.

    Language and Literacy in bilingual children sets a high standard of rigor and scientific

    approach to the study of bilingualism and provides new insights regarding the critical

    issues of theory and practice, including the interdependence of linguistic knowledge in

    bilinguals, the role of socio-economic status , the effect of different language usage

    patterns in the home, and the role of schooling by single-language immersion as opposed

    to systemic training in both home and target language.

     rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Ovando, C., Collier, V., & Combs, M. (2003). Bilingual and ESL classrooms: Teaching in In this book, authors argue that it is the responsibility of all educators, not just specialists, multicultural contexts, 3to prepare themselves to work with ever-increasing language minority student population.

    This time-tested classic text (not an edited volume) integrates theory and practice and

    provides comprehensive coverage of bilingual and ESL issues. The text integrates the

    fields of ESL, bilingual, and multicultural education and provides rich examples of

    effective practices and their underlying research knowledge base. New to this edition are

    chapters on authentic assessment and special needs.

Reese, L., Saunders, W., & Goldenberg, C. (2004). Language use among families in three types

    of school programs for Spanish-speaking English learners. Paper presented at American

    Educational Research Association annual meeting, April 13, 2004, San Diego, CA.

    This paper examines ways in which community characteristics impact families‘ language

    use and experiences in both L1 and L2 in ways that may also influence children‘s

    academic performance.

    National Task Force on Early Childhood Education for Hispanics Theme: English language learners (ELL) and bilingual students in schools Page 7 Rev. 12/01/06

    Rincones, R., Tinajero, J., & Dow, P. (2004). Teachers’ and principals’ perceptions on dual

    language acquisition in a Texas school district in the U.S.-Mexico border. Paper

    presented at the American Educational Research Association annual conference, April 13,

    2004, San Diego, CA.

    The purpose of this study was to gain understanding on how the perceptions of teachers

    and school administrators on dual language acquisition have changed since the

    implementation of two-way dual language/developmental bilingual education six years

    ago. This study is a byproduct of the evaluation of this program being implemented in a

    Texas school district locates on the U.S.-Mexico border.

Rodriguez, J.L., Duran, D., Diaz, R.M., & Espinosa, L. (1995). The impact of bilingual

    preschool education on the language development of Spanish-speaking

    children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 10, 475-490

    This study addressed the question of what effect bilingual preschool education has

    on the Spanish and English language development of Spanish speaking children.

    This question was addressed by measuring the language proficiency of children

    enrolled in a bilingual preschool program and children who stay at home during the


Rolstad, K., Mahoney, K., & Glass, G. (2005). The big picture: A meta-analysis of program

    effectiveness research on English language learners. Educational Policy, 19(4), 572594.

     This article presents a meta-analysis of program effectiveness research on English

    language learners. It is shown that bilingual education is consistently superior to all-

    English approaches, and that developmental bilingual education programs are superior to

    transitional bilingual education programs. It is concluded that bilingual education

    programs are effective in promoting academic achievement, and that sound educational

    policy should permit and even encourage the development and implementation of

    bilingual education programs.

Santos, M. (2004). Raising the achievement for English-language learners: How principals are

    working to make a difference. Harvard Education Letter, 20(2), 6- 8.

    This article elaborates on the role of school principals in leading their schools to help

    English-language learning (ELL) students to succeed. Specifically, this article provides

    examples of and suggestions for principals that serve ELL students, a fast growing

    segment of U.S. schools (K-12).

Scheffner Hammer, C., Miccio, A. & Rodriguez, B. (2004). Bilingual language acquisition and

    the child socialization process. In B. Goldstein‘s (Ed.), Bilingual language development

    and disorders in Spanish-English speakers. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks.

    This chapter addresses the research in the area of language acquisition and social-cultural

    factors affecting language acquisition of Spanish-English bilingual populations living in

    the US, and this information with a few recent studies.

    National Task Force on Early Childhood Education for Hispanics Theme: English language learners (ELL) and bilingual students in schools Page 8 Rev. 12/01/06

Scheffner Hammer, C., Miccio, A., & Wagstaff, D. (2003). Home literacy experiences and their

    relationship to bilingual preschoolers‘ developing English literacy abilities: An initial

    investigation. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 34, 20-30.

    This study investigates the relationship between home literacy experiences and bilingual

    preschoolers‘ early literacy outcomes. Forty-three Puerto Rican mother-child dyads were

    recruited from Head Start programs in central Pennsylvania and were grouped according

    to whether the child had learned Spanish and English simultaneously or sequentially.

    Slavin, R. & Cheung, A. (2003). Effective reading programs for English language learners: A

    best evidence synthesis. Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At

    Risk, The Johns Hopkins University.

    This report reviews experimental studies of reading programs for English language

    learners, focusing both on comparisons of bilingual and English-only programs and on

    specific, replicable models that have been evaluated with English language learners. The

    review method is best-evidence synthesis, which uses a systematic literature search,

    quantification of outcomes as effects sizes, and extensive discussion of individual studies

    that meet inclusion standards. The review concludes that while the number of high-

    quality studies is small, existing evidence favors bilingual approaches, especially paired

    bilingual strategies that teach reading in the native language and English at the same time.

Slavin, R. E. & Chung, A. A. (2004). Effective Reading Programs for English Language

    Learners. In O. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.), Contemporary perspectives on language

    policy and literacy instruction in early childhood education. Information Age Publishing.

    This chapter reviews quantitative, experimental-control comparisons evaluating early

    reading programs for ELL. Fifteen studies met the criteria of inclusion. Among these, a

    broad array of approaches were found to accelerate the reading performance of ELL, both

    in English and in their home language, usually Spanish.

    Vialpando, J., Linse, C., & Yedlin, J. (2005). Educating English Language Learners:

    Understanding and Using Assessment. Washington: DC: National Council of La Raza.

    This article provides information and resources relevant to operators, teachers, and

    teacher trainers on the development of an effective assessment program for schools

    serving English language learners. NCLB assessment administration requirements,

    bilingual educational resources, web resources, and scenarios for professional

    development are offered.

WestEd (2004). A framework for teaching English learners. R & D Alert, 6(3). A publication of


    This report focuses on some of the challenges and opportunities that educators face in

    trying to better serve English learners. Highlighted is a new framework for teaching

    English learners that is a central component of a large-scale professional development

    initiative in New York City led by WestEd's Aída Walqui. The framework identifies

    specific instructional approaches that teachers can offer to help English learners excel.

    National Task Force on Early Childhood Education for Hispanics Theme: English language learners (ELL) and bilingual students in schools Page 9 Rev. 12/01/06

    Winsler, A., Diaz, R.M., Espinosa, L., & Rodriguez, J. L. (1999). When learning a second

    language does not mean losing the first: Bilingual language development in low-income,

    Spanish-speaking children attending bilingual preschool. Child Development, 70(2), 349-


    This article discusses two investigations which explored the bilingual language

    development outcomes of comparable groups of low-income, Spanish-speaking, Mexican

    American children who either did or did not attended a bilingual (Spanish/English)

    preschool. Results are discussed in terms of the need for more systematic research to be

    conducted in this area to inform policy and practice in the early education and

    development of language-minority children.

    National Task Force on Early Childhood Education for Hispanics Theme: English language learners (ELL) and bilingual students in schools Page 10 Rev. 12/01/06

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