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Pedagogy Behaviour Management

By Dale Mcdonald,2014-01-16 15:41
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Pedagogy Behaviour Management

    DATA SRN - Behaviour Management

Introduction

As you will know, behaviour management- features near the top of student

    teachers’ lists of concerns about teaching in the classroom; a fear of uncontrollable

    groups making learning and teaching impossible is a frequently -expressed fear.

    Such a scenario is largely unlikely and planning, with the help of a mentor or

    induction tutor, behaviour management for effective learning is a far more likely

    outcome.

The unit is structured into 4 sections. Each section has several tasks that you may

    want to guide your students to try. Resource sheets to support the tasks are also

    provided.

Section 1 - Contextual factors that influence pupils’ behaviour in schools

    This will help to deepen students’ understanding of negative behaviour and some of

    the key contextual factors that influence pupils’ behaviour in schools

    Section 2 - What do you bring to the classroom? This will help students to recognise the importance of their own responses to poor

    learning behaviour and their capacity to act as a positive influence on pupils in their

    placement schools

Section 3 Positive learning behaviour

    This introduces students to a range of approaches and responses to minimise

    behaviour problems when they do occur and to encourage positive learning

    behaviour by pupils

    Section 4 Support Resources for Sections 1 to 3 Here are some resources and tasks to deepen students’ understanding of this issue, and the importance of careful planning for effective classroom learning.

     1

Section 1: Contextual factors that influence pupils’ behaviour in

    schools

Some important working assumptions for students to consider in relation to

    managing pupil’ behaviour in schools are these:

     Behaviours in school occur within a social context;

     They are the result of the relationship of the learner with

     her or himself, with other people, with the environment and

     with the curriculum;

     Positive relationships encourage learning and participation;

     The use of appropriate research and theory in professional

     practice can contribute to an understanding of the behaviours

     of students and adults in schools.

Resource sheet 1, in Section 4, emphasises the idea of these social contexts and

    provides a task for students.

So what is ‘poor’ behaviour?

    ‘Poor behaviour’ disrupts learning and undermines social relationships. It

    essentially challenges the rules and established routines of the school that have been

    designed to allow students to make progress in their learning.

It might show itself in various forms and different levels of severity and may

    involve:

    - confrontation with the teacher or another pupil

    - silly noises

    - interruptions, particularly during a demonstration or explanation

    - failure to settle to the task

    - bullying or threatening behaviour

    - rudeness to the class teacher/teaching assistant/other students

    - misuse of practical or other equipment, for example constantly turning a

    bench …. In the RM workroom or pressing the foot pedal hard on the

    sewing machine so that it goes too fast

And in the classroom such behaviour can be of a kind that essentially excludes, not

    only individuals but also groups of children who may be singled out negatively for

    their difference and denied the opportunity to learn, for example travellers, pupils

    who do not have English as their first language; SEN pupils; those in care or gifted

    and talented - or something else. (See Diversity pages for more on this.)

Student task

Look at the list below and add to it other actions that you can think of. Include

    some actions that in your opinion range from low-level to high-level challenging

     2

behaviour and think through what an appropriate response to each might be,

    noting that your own responses will affect the outcome of the incident.

Behaviour category How it shows itself

    Personal level anxiety; resentment; disaffection; defiance and...

    Verbal level confrontation; silly noises; interruption; and…..

    Non-verbal level face -pulling; clingy; and…..

    Work level failure to follow instructions; and…..

Identify one act of disruption for which you would need immediate senior staff

    support.

Note any previous experience you have had that will help you deal calmly and

    positively with the situation identified above.

Major disruptions to learning: bullying, fighting

Schools take bullying and its consequences very seriously; and it is recognisably

    challenging behaviour - but not always easily detected and confronted. ‘Bullying’ can mean a very wide range of negative behaviours, all designed to isolate and

    belittle. Within this term we find:

     - name-calling

    - malicious rumours

    - damage to property, or to pupils’ work in the D&T area

    - alienating friend

    - threats and intimidation

    - silent or abusive phone calls

    - posting insulting messages on the internet (termed cyberbullying).

    Cyber bulling

    Research shows that currently, secondary school pupils spend more time on

    their computer than watching television. Yet only 13% of parents actually know

    the access codes of their children to such a facility. As part of the Every Child

    Matters agenda, teachers have a responsibility to alert pupils in school to the

    dangers that can accompany, for example, on-line chat room activity in order

    that they continue to ‘enjoy and achieve’ (an ECM desirable outcome) in school

    and beyond it.

     3

Student task

The following responses to suspected bullying have been advised. Look at each

    response and try to supply a reason for each.

    Advised response to bullying Reason for this

    Let the pupil(s) talk

    Don’t get overly involved

    Take what is said seriously

    Never promise confidentiality

    Make a record

    Pass on your concerns

The wider context of poor behaviour in schools: official responses

     OFSTED has reported that 1 in 10 secondary schools has endemic poor

    behaviour

     Poor behaviour is cited as a major factor for most schools in special

    measures

Another official response by schools to students whose behaviour is regarded as

    particularly anti-social is to exclude them, that is, remove them from formal

    learning arrangements. Where this is done it is often to protect the right to learn of

    the majority.

    It is worth noting that statistically, excluded students are often those whose personal

    and family relationships are already fractured.

Student task

    Read the facts below comparing a group of 136 such teenagers with a group of

    100 pupils who had never been excluded:

    The excluded group

     Were twice as likely to say they had never been disciplined at home;

     1 in 4 live with both parents (compared with 3 in 5 of the second group)

     Parents show little interests in their homework

     One quarter had a statement of special education needs

     More than half received fewer than 15 hours of education a week (the target

    is 25).

     Most had difficulty controlling their anger

     44% wanted to return to mainstream school

     Dislike of a particular teacher was cited as the most common reason for

    truanting before exclusion

    (Ref: The Way It Is School’s Out, The Prince’s Trust, 2002)

     4

    Consider:

     Do the findings of The Prince’s Trust (2002) study (Most of the excluded

    had difficulty controlling their anger; one quarter had a statement of special

    education needs, and so on) impact in any way upon your views? What recommendations for ways forward could you suggest to social

    agencies that want to reduce exclusion rates in schools? (Consider

    financial support, low-income taxation relief, flexible timetables, early

    experience of the world of work, effective links with the Connexions service,

    more effective targeting by the Every Child Matters (ECM) initiative;

    Diploma or other opportunities and so on.)

    Putting the behaviour management issue into perspective:

    It is important to note the myths and the reality about poor behaviour in schools.

    The myths The reality

    Most schools, classes and pupils Schools are volatile places and little

    spend most of their time on learning learning takes place.

    activities. Achievements in schools,

    nationally, even simply at the level of

    examination gains, confirm this. So

    too, should any recent school

    experience students have had. A

    great deal of learning takes place in

    schools.

    A purposeful learning environment is All teachers need charisma/ the X

    one that includes all pupils and seeks Factor. This will deal with any

    to meet the diverse needs and raise undesirable behaviour in class. the achievement of every individual

    within a class. Creating such an

    environment will reduce the likelihood

    of challenging behaviour by individual

    pupils.

    Learning, teaching and behaviour This is not an issue because only

    within a social context, are under-achieving teachers experience

    inextricably linked issues for schools. challenging behaviour by pupils in

    their classes

     5

Section 2: What do you bring to the classroom?

    The power of positive influence

The way that you, as a teacher, behave in the classroom can have an impact on the

    way the pupils behave. For example, you need to model good behaviour and arrive

    at the classroom at least on time for the lesson, before if you can. You need to have

    the lesson, and any resources, fully prepared. You should treat the pupils with the

    respect that you expect from them, but also be clear about your expectations in

    terms of behaviour and learning. The language you use in the classroom is

    extremely important in terms of the messages you send out to pupils. In relation to

    behaviour management, consider the examples below:

Re-framing language; an example

    Negative language Positive language Stop calling out Could change to … One at a time, thanks

    or

    Hands up please

Re-framing language in this way, accenting the positive, will support a calm and

    productive learning environment. Added to this, attention to the tone and gestures

    used, and understanding their possible and known effects in the classroom, can

    create valuable professional knowledge and make a strong contribution to a positive

    classroom climate.

Student task

Re-frame the statements below, changing them from negative to positive.

    Negative Positive Don’t use bad language

    Be quiet!

    There’s no point in you all

    talking at once

    Don’t you start to argue with

    me

    Stop wasting time

    Stop dreaming and get on

    No, you can’t give in your

    homework now

    (Adapted from Behaviour Management Module: Teaching Assistant File Section 5 previously

    available at www.teachernet.gov.uk

     6

Despite your best efforts it’s likely that at some time you will experience poor

    behaviour in the classroom, for example:

    ? a pupil won’t try in your class, he/she doesn’t like written work or is afraid

    to use the equipment

    ? a student always wants the last word

    ? a student annoys others or interferes with their work, particularly practical

    work

    ? anti-social behaviour occurs such as name-calling; sticking chewing gum on

    the window frame, stopping other pupils from accessing tools/equipment or

    interfering when they do

    ? racial sneers from a student

    ? a student continually talks when you are talking to the class or doing a

    demonstration

    ? a pupil who never brings the necessary ingredients, materials or homework

These negative behaviours are unlikely to occur together, but any one of them can

    be disruptive to learning. If you have considered in advance how you will respond

    to them you will be better prepared in the classroom.

Student task

Consider each of the above behaviours separately and how you could respond,

    using your experience and learning so far.

     7

Section 3 Positive learning behaviour

National level

Section 1 notes that this topic - behaviour management - features near the top of

    student teachers’ lists of concerns about teaching in the classroom. However, the research report, Behaviour management and pastoral skills training for initial

    teacher trainees: trainees’ confidence and preparedness (Gutherson. et al 2006) makes the key point that

    The behaviour management content of the ITT provision that was part of

    this research appears to be effective in giving trainees a sense of

    preparedness to manage behaviour.

    Gutherson, P. et al (2006). TAC/ Centre for British Teachers (March)

Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL)

This state of preparation of students (linked to that of the mentor- teachers in

    schools) is a comment on the success of strategies outlined in the Secondary National Strategy, behaviour and attendance strand which aims to secure positive

    behaviour and attendance, and the close connection of SEAL (Social and

    Emotional aspects of learning) within it.

See SEAL at:

    http://nationalstrategies.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/secondary/behaviourattendanceandse

    al

Q: Why do we need SEAL and what is its connection with behaviour management?

A: Misbehaviour anywhere has elements of the anti social.

‘Getting along’ with people in classroom, in jobs, and in life requires more than

    knowledge or qualifications:

    Employers are looking for more than just technical skills and knowledge of

    a degree discipline. They particularly value skills such as communication,

    team-working and problem solving. Job applicants who can demonstrate

    that they have developed these skills will have a real advantage.”

    Digby Jones, Director-General, Confederation of British Industry,

    Forward to Prospects 2004/5.

     In: DfES (2007) Aspects of Learning for Secondary schooling

    (SEAL) Guidance Booklet.:p12

Attention paid to SEAL is especially relevant to the successful implementation of

    the Diploma qualification and the work-place skills, job skills’ development and the

    positive attitude to learning in young people it seeks to underpin.

     8

School level

Schools succeeding in tackling unsatisfactory behaviour have tried these strategies.

    They:

    ? spell out what is considered to be unacceptable behaviour and its consequences

    ? make good use of monitoring and celebrate good behaviour

    ? seek pupils’ views about each stage of the improvement process.

    ? pay regard to and enact the principles of the ECM (Every Child Matters) agenda

    ? have staff review meetings, closer links with parents and use of external support,

    including educational welfare officers and social workers, learning support units

    (LSUs) and other available sources of support including, if possible, any

    extended services the school can offer

     Adapted from Improving Behaviour, Ofsted 2006 (Nov)

Teachers in teams

    Team work encourages consistency of approach to behaviour management and

    discussion of recurrent problems. Planned team responses to poor behaviour,

    designed to inhibit repetition and encourage the positive, are needed.

     Schools have tried, for example:

    ? Systems of yellow/red card allocations for disruptive pupils

    ? Two warnings (or ‘strikes’) then exclusion from the classroom

    ? Referral systems of pupils to Subject Leaders, Heads of Year/House

    ? Telephone calls to parents or carers by teachers

    ? On-site exclusion units, referred to in this Key Issue

    ? On-call’ senior staff

    ? Agreements between colleagues to ‘pair’, removing a disruptive pupil to the

     parallel group for a ‘cooling-down’ period.

    See also: DfES (2005) (0182-2005 G) Developing emotional health and well-being:

     a whole-school approach to improving behaviour and attendance.

Individual ITE students in placement

Things that students should be advised to do during a school placement include

    aspects of the above, and:

    ? making sure they familiarise her/himself with the school’s rules and processes

    for behaviour management, implementing them routinely - but not slavishly

    ? consciously re-framing their own language use to accent the positive, as in

    Resource sheet 3

    ? making sure they know the full range of supports available in school to help

    with behaviour management, and use these as and when necessary.

     9

    Section 4: Support Resources for Sections 1 to 3

Resource sheet 1

FACTORS INFLUENCING LEARNING

    BEHAVIOUR

    POLICIES

    Relationship with familyRelationship with family

    Relationship with self

    LEARNING BEHAVIOURRelationship with curriculumRelationship with others

    COMMUNITY/CULTURESERVICES

     Adapted from Powell, S., Tod, J. (2004) A systematic review of how theories explain learning

    behaviour in school contexts. In: Research Evidence in Education Library. London: EPPI-Centre,

    Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education.

Task: annotate the diagram on Resource sheet 1 with any detail you think important

    having read and considered the points raised in Part 1.

Resource sheet 2

    CATEGORISING ‘PROBLEM’ BEHAVIOUR

    Behaviour category How it shows itself

Personal level anxiety; resentment; disaffection; defiance and...

Verbal level confrontation; silly noises; interruption; and…..

    Non-verbal level face -pulling; clingy; and…..

    Work level failure to follow instructions; and…..

     Task: Can you add to these examples?

     10

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