Unit 3 Text A How to Change Your Point of View

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How to Change Your Point of View

    Unit 3 Text A How to Change Your Point of View

     I. Teaching Objectives

    1. To understand the audio materials of this unit.

    2. To grasp the key words, Phrases and structure.

    3. To mast the skills of writing and reading in this unit.

    1try to master the writing skill of connecting the general assertions and the specific examples used to support that assertion In a good expository essay

    2) forms of comprehension questions

    II. Teaching Content

    1. Lead-in activities

    2. Text Organization

    3. Skill learning in writing and reading

    4. Language points ( key words, phrases and difficult sentences)

    5. Grammar Focus ( 1) The of (+adjective) + noun structure

    2) Should used with the perfect infinitive )

    6. Guided Practice (exercises, oral practice and group work)

    7. After-class Assignments

    III.Teaching Process

    1. Warm-up Activities:

     Questions for Ss discussion: 1) Tell your group or class about a time you encountered a particularly difficult,

    frustrating problem. How did you go about trying to solve it? Were you

    ultimately successful?

    2) Is there anything different between eastern style and western style of thinking? If so, what

    are the typical differences?

    2. Text-organization:

    Part I (Para1-Para3)Solving the problem by changing one’s point of view.

    Para1: A specific example of Dr. Edward Jenner’s discovery of vaccination for

    smallpox.Para2: We often reach an impasse in our thinking.Para3: Dr. Jenner erased

    the old way of looking at his smallpox problem and was free to receive new


    Part II. (Para 4-Para 8) Lateral thinking as a technique for changing one’s point of view.

    Para 4-5: Dr. Edward de Bono comes up with Lateral thinking. Para 6: The normal Western

    approach to a problem is to fight it. Para 7: Lateral thinking avoids this fight altogether and

    solves the problem in an entirely unexpected fashion. Para 8: A specific example of Holmes

    solved the case taking the opposite point of view.

    Part III (Para 9-Para 12) Making vital shift in emphasis instead of attacking it head-on.

    Para 9: Generalization: avoid attacking problem head-on. Para 10-11: Example: two ways

    to look at the problem of smoking Para 12: Japanese parable to illustrate a point:

    the more you fight it, the more anxious you become.

    When a zen archer wants to hit the target with a bow and arrow, he doesn't When a zen archer wants to hit the target with a bow and arrow, he doesn't

    Part IV. (Para 13) Lateral thinking is Eastern flanking maneuver. concentrate on the target, he concentrates rather on what he has in his hands. concentrate on the target, he concentrates rather on what he has in his hands.

    So when he lets the arrow go, his focus is on the arrow, rather than the target. So when he lets the arrow go, his focus is on the arrow, rather than the target.

    Part V (Para 14) Looking at a crisis from an opportunity point of view is lateral thinking.

    Let us now suggest to the person in crisis that he cease concentrating so upon the

    dangers involved and the difficulties, and concentrate instead upon the opportunity

     for there is always opportunity in crisis.

    3. Skill Learning in Writing and Reading

    A good expository essay is marked by a strong connection between its general assertions and

    the specific examples used to support that assertion. Usually, when writing, we begin with a

    generalization and then support it with specifics. However, it is not always necessary to

    follow this order.

    (example in text A ) The author starts with a specific example of changing one’s point of

    view to solve the problem. ?He moves on to present the problem with our thinking. ? Then

    he gives a generalization of the example.

    4. Language Points

    1. change one’s point of view change one’s perspective A point of view in this text refers to a way of looking at or considering something rather than to

    the opinions or attitudes someone has about something.

    e.g. The book looks at college life from a student’s point of view.

     From a purely practical point of view, the house is too small.

    2. after studying case after case after making researches on one case after another

    A case in this context is a person with a particular illness of medical problem, a patient.

    3. He had reached an impasse in his thinking He had got into s difficult situation where he could think of no solution to the problem.

    Impassen. a difficult position or situation from which there is no way out; deadlock

    e.g. Despite an impasse in the pay negotiations, progress has been made in other problems.

    4. Dr. Jenner … did something about this situation. Dr. Jenner … took some action to change the situation.

    Something here is used as a contrast to ―nothing‖. In this statement it implies the taking of an

    action in a situation about which generally nothing can possibly be done.

    e.g. I’m glad somebody finally did something about the crime problem.

     Don’t just stand there, do something, can’t you see he’s hurt? 5. Picture the process going something like this: … – Imagine that the steps to be taken (in changing his point of view) are more or less like this: … 6. thus freeing yourself to take in new ideas and develop new ways of looking at things thus

    removing old ideas from your mind to absorb new ideas and take up new approaches to problems.

    7. in effect in fact

    You add in effect to a statement or opinion that is not precisely accurate, but which you feel is a

    reasonable description or summary of a particular situation.

    e.g. In effect he has no choice.

    The two systems are, in effect, identical.

    8. receive new alternatives consider other possibilities; take in new ideas

9. Doctor and philosopher Edward do Bono Edward de Bono who was both a doctor and a


    10. when the going gets tough, the tough get going. As the situation becomes more

    challenging the strong people work harder.

    Going n. condition of a path of travel or progress

    e.g. The going was rough through the mountains.

     I decided to sell my stock while the going was still good (i.e. while the conditions were


    Tough a. 1) (of a problem, etc.) difficult; full of hardship

     2) (of a person) able to endure hardship; not easily defeated or injured

    Note that the word tough is used in both senses in the above saying.

    e.g. My boss has given me a tough job.

     It’s tough finding a job these days.

     He has a reputation for being resolute and tough.

     You have to be tough to be successful in your career.

    Get going start to move away from a place; start doing something

    e.g. We’d better get going or we’ll be late.

     I’m really getting anxious to get going.

    11. this aggressive attitude toward … – this determined approach to …

    aggressive can mean being determined to win or succeed and behaving in an insistent and forceful

    way without really caring about other people.

    e.g. Thanks to our aggressive marketing tactics, our sales have risen sharply this year.

     U.S. business today finds itself challenged by aggressive overseas competitors.

    12. the framework produced by our Western way of thinking the basic ideas that come

    from our Western way of thinking

    13. … feelings of fight take over -- … feeling of fight become dominant

    take over acquire or gain control

    14. on this basis he solved the case based on his opposite point of view he managed to find the solution to the criminal case

    15. And it is. And it is in fact simple.

    16. be/get hung up on /about sth. be emotionally upset or anxious about sth.; be puzzled by sth.

    e.g. She’s really hung up on that young man.

     The boy is badly hung up on the way his mother treated him.

    17. The key is making that vital shift in emphasis, that sidestepping of the problem, instead

    of attacking it head-on. The important thing is to make major changes in your perspective, to

    approach the problem sideways, rather than in a direct manner.

    Sidestep v. step to one side, esp. to dodge someone or to avoid something; evade (a question,


    e.g. Some prefer to consult a doctor with a private practice. He had a solid career in a country law


     These doctors lived on their earnings from private practice.

    18. … explains how lateral thinking work with his patients explains how he uses lateral

    thinking effectively on his patients

19. they wind up telling themselves -- in the end they told themselves …

    If you wind up in a particular place or situation, you are in that place or situation at the end of a

    series of travels or events so that it is the last place or event in the series.

    e.g. It wouldn’t surprise me if he winds up in jail.

     If I stay here long enough, I’ll wind up marrying her. 20. You end up smoking more in the end you smoke more

    To end up and to wind up are synonymous and often interchangeable, but the former implies that

    the place or situation you are in at the end of a series of travels or events may not be where you

    originally intend to be.

    e.g. They have ended up in prison for terrorist activities

     We ended up taking a taxi there.

    21. you are your body’s keeper, and your body is something through which you experience

    life you are in full control of your own body, and your life depends on your body

    22. If you stop to think about it, there’s really something helpless about your body. Just

    consider this: your physical self is really dependent on your mental self.

    Stop to think about it take time to think about it; think about it in earnest

    23. wind up dead die in the end

    24. be involved in a bad pattern be brought into a difficult situation

    pattern n. a particular way in which something is done or organized; a particular arrangement

    e.g. a behavior pattern

     The pattern of family life has been changing over the recent years.

    25. an Eastern flanking maneuver a planned and controlled movement of armed forces round the side of an enemy army as developed by the Easterners

    26. I think the answer lies in that direction I think the answer is generally like that 27. Take the situation … = Take the situation … for example. 28. character = Chinese character

    29. Looking at a crises from an opportunity point of view is a lateral thought. Considering

    a crisis to be in part an opportunity is an example of lateral thinking.

    5. Grammar Focus

    1. The of (+adjective) + noun structure

    The structure of (+ adjective) + noun is often used as a postmodifier or predicative of a

    sentence in place of an adjective with the similar meaning (modified by an adverb) the preposition

    of in the structure means consisting of or having, and the noun denotes a quality like importance, significance, use, value, etc. The noun structure may sound more formal than the



    The matter is of great importance.

    Sitting with your head bent forward might prove to be of some help.

    The subject is of little interest (i.e. not very interesting).

    These developments are of such consequence (=are so important) that they deserve further


    2. Should used with the perfect infinitive

    The auxiliary verb should is used with the perfect infinitive in the pattern should (not) have

    done sth. To talk about things which, although they were supposed, intended, or expected to

happen (or not to happen), actually happened (or did not happen).


    Yesterday should have been the start of the soccer season.

    The plants dead. Maybe I should have given it more water.

    The taxi should have arrived at 8:30.

    6. Guided Practice (exercises, oral practice and group work) You shouldnt have invited Mary to the party. 1) Summary

    A). Ask several students to retell the text by using their own words.

    B). Talk about the main idea of the text.

    2) exercises: vocabulary and word-building

    3) Divide the class into several groups; discussing one or more of the following topics and try

    solving them using lateral thinking the following questions in brief ( i.e. using a different point

    os view from the normal one)

     a. Flavia has been trying to lose weight for two years. She has tried a new diet every

    month---twenty-four different ones in allbut she keeps getting fatter.

     b. Husband and wife have been arguing for months about how to raise their twelve-year-old

    daughter Jessica. The two parents have been losing sleep because they stay awake all night

    talking about the problem.

    7. After-class Assignments

    1. Recite the paragraph on page 81.and,

    2. finish the exercises of vocabulary and cloze

    Text B Lateral and vertical thinking Language Points:

    1. be thrown into jailbe taken to jail immediately

    The verb throw may imply force or roughness. If you throw someone into a particular

    place or position, you force them roughly into that place or position.


    They were beaten up and thrown into police lorries.

    2. He proposed a bargain.He suggested that they made an agreement on the matter.

    A bargain is an agreement between two people or groups, esp. in business, in which they

    agree what each of them will do, pay, or receive.


     The management and employees eventually struck / made a bargain (i.e. reached an


    3. a pebble-strewn patha path loosely laid with pebbles

    To strew is to lay (things) over a surface, esp. untidy.


    One of the first things I noticed about New York was its trash-strewn streets.

    4. You may believe that careful logical analysis must solve the problem if there is a solution.

    You may think that, as long as there is a solution to the problem, you are certain to find the

solution through careful vertical thinking.

    5. the pebble that is left behindthe pebble left in the money-bag after the other one has been taken

    6. she fumbled and let it fall to the path--she handled the pebble clumsily and casually dropped it to the path

    If you fumble when you are trying to do something with your hands, you are clumsy and do

    not move quickly and efficiently or hold things safely and steadily.


    His awkwardness made him fumble with the key.

    7. The girl is actually better off than if the money-lender had been honest and had put one

    black and one white pebble into the bag, for then she would have had only an even chance of

    being saved. If the money lender had been honest and had put one black and one white pebble

    into the bag, the girl would not have been in such an advantageous position as she is in now, for in

    that case she would have had only a fifty-fifty chance of being saved.

    If someone is better off after something has happened, they are in a more beneficial,

    advantageous, or satisfactory situation than it has not happened.


    This house is much too small for all of you. Youll be much better off when you move into a

    larger place.

    8. But the pattern that may eventually emerge can be as useful as the vertical structure. But

    the result that may come from lateral thinking can be as useful as that from vertical thinking.

    The pattern that may eventually emergethe formation that may appear in the end (with the blocks scattered around)

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