Unit 3 Text A How to Change Your Point of View
I. Teaching Objectives
1. To understand the audio materials of this unit.
2. To grasp the key words, Phrases and structure.
3. To mast the skills of writing and reading in this unit.
1）try to master the writing skill of connecting the general assertions and the specific examples used to support that assertion In a good expository essay
2) forms of comprehension questions
II. Teaching Content
1. Lead-in activities
2. Text Organization
3. Skill learning in writing and reading
4. Language points ( key words, phrases and difficult sentences)
5. Grammar Focus ( 1) The of (+adjective) + noun structure
2) Should used with the perfect infinitive )
6. Guided Practice (exercises, oral practice and group work)
7. After-class Assignments
1. Warm-up Activities:
Questions for Ss’ discussion: 1) Tell your group or class about a time you encountered a particularly difficult,
frustrating problem. How did you go about trying to solve it? Were you
2) Is there anything different between eastern style and western style of thinking? If so, what
are the typical differences?
Part I (Para1-Para3)Solving the problem by changing one’s point of view.
Para1: A specific example of Dr. Edward Jenner’s discovery of vaccination for
smallpox.Para2: We often reach an impasse in our thinking.Para3: Dr. Jenner erased
the old way of looking at his smallpox problem and was free to receive new
Part II. (Para 4-Para 8) Lateral thinking as a technique for changing one’s point of view.
Para 4-5: Dr. Edward de Bono comes up with Lateral thinking. Para 6: The normal Western
approach to a problem is to fight it. Para 7: Lateral thinking avoids this fight altogether and
solves the problem in an entirely unexpected fashion. Para 8: A specific example of Holmes
solved the case taking the opposite point of view.
Part III (Para 9-Para 12) Making vital shift in emphasis instead of attacking it head-on.
Para 9: Generalization: avoid attacking problem head-on. Para 10-11: Example: two ways
to look at the problem of smoking Para 12: Japanese parable to illustrate a point:
the more you fight it, the more anxious you become.
When a zen archer wants to hit the target with a bow and arrow, he doesn't When a zen archer wants to hit the target with a bow and arrow, he doesn't
Part IV. (Para 13) Lateral thinking is Eastern flanking maneuver. concentrate on the target, he concentrates rather on what he has in his hands. concentrate on the target, he concentrates rather on what he has in his hands.
So when he lets the arrow go, his focus is on the arrow, rather than the target. So when he lets the arrow go, his focus is on the arrow, rather than the target.
Part V (Para 14) Looking at a crisis from an opportunity point of view is lateral thinking.
Let us now suggest to the person in crisis that he cease concentrating so upon the
dangers involved and the difficulties, and concentrate instead upon the opportunity
— for there is always opportunity in crisis.
3. Skill Learning in Writing and Reading
A good expository essay is marked by a strong connection between its general assertions and
the specific examples used to support that assertion. Usually, when writing, we begin with a
generalization and then support it with specifics. However, it is not always necessary to
follow this order.
(example in text A ) The author starts with a specific example of changing one’s point of
view to solve the problem. ?He moves on to present the problem with our thinking. ? Then
he gives a generalization of the example.
4. Language Points
1. change one’s point of view – change one’s perspective A point of view in this text refers to a way of looking at or considering something rather than to
the opinions or attitudes someone has about something.
e.g. The book looks at college life from a student’s point of view.
From a purely practical point of view, the house is too small.
2. after studying case after case – after making researches on one case after another
A case in this context is a person with a particular illness of medical problem, a patient.
3. He had reached an impasse in his thinking – He had got into s difficult situation where he could think of no solution to the problem.
Impasse—n. a difficult position or situation from which there is no way out; deadlock
e.g. Despite an impasse in the pay negotiations, progress has been made in other problems.
4. Dr. Jenner … did something about this situation. – Dr. Jenner … took some action to change the situation.
Something here is used as a contrast to ―nothing‖. In this statement it implies the taking of an
action in a situation about which generally nothing can possibly be done.
e.g. I’m glad somebody finally did something about the crime problem.
Don’t just stand there, do something, can’t you see he’s hurt? 5. Picture the process going something like this: … – Imagine that the steps to be taken (in changing his point of view) are more or less like this: … 6. thus freeing yourself to take in new ideas and develop new ways of looking at things – thus
removing old ideas from your mind to absorb new ideas and take up new approaches to problems.
7. in effect – in fact
You add in effect to a statement or opinion that is not precisely accurate, but which you feel is a
reasonable description or summary of a particular situation.
e.g. In effect he has no choice.
The two systems are, in effect, identical.
8. receive new alternatives – consider other possibilities; take in new ideas
9. Doctor and philosopher Edward do Bono – Edward de Bono who was both a doctor and a
10. when the going gets tough, the tough get going. – As the situation becomes more
challenging the strong people work harder.
Going – n. condition of a path of travel or progress
e.g. The going was rough through the mountains.
I decided to sell my stock while the going was still good (i.e. while the conditions were
Tough – a. 1) (of a problem, etc.) difficult; full of hardship
2) (of a person) able to endure hardship; not easily defeated or injured
Note that the word tough is used in both senses in the above saying.
e.g. My boss has given me a tough job.
It’s tough finding a job these days.
He has a reputation for being resolute and tough.
You have to be tough to be successful in your career.
Get going – start to move away from a place; start doing something
e.g. We’d better get going or we’ll be late.
I’m really getting anxious to get going.
11. this aggressive attitude toward … – this determined approach to …
aggressive can mean being determined to win or succeed and behaving in an insistent and forceful
way without really caring about other people.
e.g. Thanks to our aggressive marketing tactics, our sales have risen sharply this year.
U.S. business today finds itself challenged by aggressive overseas competitors.
12. the framework produced by our Western way of thinking – the basic ideas that come
from our Western way of thinking
13. … feelings of fight take over -- … feeling of fight become dominant
take over – acquire or gain control
14. on this basis he solved the case – based on his opposite point of view he managed to find the solution to the criminal case
15. And it is. – And it is in fact simple.
16. be/get hung up on /about sth. – be emotionally upset or anxious about sth.; be puzzled by sth.
e.g. She’s really hung up on that young man.
The boy is badly hung up on the way his mother treated him.
17. The key is making that vital shift in emphasis, that sidestepping of the problem, instead
of attacking it head-on. – The important thing is to make major changes in your perspective, to
approach the problem sideways, rather than in a direct manner.
Sidestep – v. step to one side, esp. to dodge someone or to avoid something; evade (a question,
e.g. Some prefer to consult a doctor with a private practice. He had a solid career in a country law
These doctors lived on their earnings from private practice.
18. … explains how lateral thinking work with his patients – explains how he uses lateral
thinking effectively on his patients
19. they wind up telling themselves … -- in the end they told themselves …
If you wind up in a particular place or situation, you are in that place or situation at the end of a
series of travels or events so that it is the last place or event in the series.
e.g. It wouldn’t surprise me if he winds up in jail.
If I stay here long enough, I’ll wind up marrying her. 20. You end up smoking more – in the end you smoke more
To end up and to wind up are synonymous and often interchangeable, but the former implies that
the place or situation you are in at the end of a series of travels or events may not be where you
originally intend to be.
e.g. They have ended up in prison for terrorist activities
We ended up taking a taxi there.
21. you are your body’s keeper, and your body is something through which you experience
life – you are in full control of your own body, and your life depends on your body
22. If you stop to think about it, there’s really something helpless about your body. – Just
consider this: your physical self is really dependent on your mental self.
Stop to think about it – take time to think about it; think about it in earnest
23. wind up dead – die in the end
24. be involved in a bad pattern – be brought into a difficult situation
pattern – n. a particular way in which something is done or organized; a particular arrangement
e.g. a behavior pattern
The pattern of family life has been changing over the recent years.
25. an Eastern flanking maneuver – a planned and controlled movement of armed forces round the side of an enemy army as developed by the Easterners
26. I think the answer lies in that direction – I think the answer is generally like that 27. Take the situation … = Take the situation … for example. 28. character = Chinese character
29. Looking at a crises from an opportunity point of view is a lateral thought. – Considering
a crisis to be in part an opportunity is an example of lateral thinking.
5. Grammar Focus
1. The of (+adjective) + noun structure
The structure of (+ adjective) + noun is often used as a postmodifier or predicative of a
sentence in place of an adjective with the similar meaning (modified by an adverb) the preposition
of in the structure means ―consisting of‖ or ―having‖, and the noun denotes a quality like importance, significance, use, value, etc. The noun structure may sound more formal than the
The matter is of great importance.
Sitting with your head bent forward might prove to be of some help.
The subject is of little interest (i.e. not very interesting).
These developments are of such consequence (=are so important) that they deserve further
2. Should used with the perfect infinitive
The auxiliary verb should is used with the perfect infinitive in the pattern should (not) have
done sth. To talk about things which, although they were supposed, intended, or expected to
happen (or not to happen), actually happened (or did not happen).
Yesterday should have been the start of the soccer season.
The plant’s dead. Maybe I should have given it more water.
The taxi should have arrived at 8:30.
6. Guided Practice (exercises, oral practice and group work) You shouldn’t have invited Mary to the party. 1) Summary
A). Ask several students to retell the text by using their own words.
B). Talk about the main idea of the text.
2) exercises: vocabulary and word-building
3) Divide the class into several groups; discussing one or more of the following topics and try
solving them using ―lateral thinking‖ the following questions in brief ( i.e. using a different point
os view from the normal one)
a. Flavia has been trying to lose weight for two years. She has tried a new diet every
month---twenty-four different ones in all—but she keeps getting fatter.
b. Husband and wife have been arguing for months about how to raise their twelve-year-old
daughter Jessica. The two parents have been losing sleep because they stay awake all night
talking about the problem.
7. After-class Assignments
1. Recite the paragraph on page 81.and,
2. finish the exercises of vocabulary and cloze
Text B Lateral and vertical thinking Language Points:
1. be thrown into jail—be taken to jail immediately
The verb throw may imply ―force‖ or ―roughness‖. If you throw someone into a particular
place or position, you force them roughly into that place or position.
They were beaten up and thrown into police lorries.
2. He proposed a bargain.—He suggested that they made an agreement on the matter.
A bargain is an agreement between two people or groups, esp. in business, in which they
agree what each of them will do, pay, or receive.
The management and employees eventually struck / made a bargain (i.e. reached an
3. a pebble-strewn path—a path loosely laid with pebbles
To strew is to lay (things) over a surface, esp. untidy.
One of the first things I noticed about New York was its trash-strewn streets.
4. You may believe that careful logical analysis must solve the problem if there is a solution.
–You may think that, as long as there is a solution to the problem, you are certain to find the
solution through careful vertical thinking.
5. the pebble that is left behind—the pebble left in the money-bag after the other one has been taken
6. she fumbled and let it fall to the path…--she handled the pebble clumsily and casually dropped it to the path…
If you fumble when you are trying to do something with your hands, you are clumsy and do
not move quickly and efficiently or hold things safely and steadily.
His awkwardness made him fumble with the key.
7. The girl is actually better off than if the money-lender had been honest and had put one
black and one white pebble into the bag, for then she would have had only an even chance of
being saved. –If the money lender had been honest and had put one black and one white pebble
into the bag, the girl would not have been in such an advantageous position as she is in now, for in
that case she would have had only a fifty-fifty chance of being saved.
If someone is better off after something has happened, they are in a more beneficial,
advantageous, or satisfactory situation than it has not happened.
This house is much too small for all of you. You’ll be much better off when you move into a
8. But the pattern that may eventually emerge can be as useful as the vertical structure. –But
the result that may come from lateral thinking can be as useful as that from vertical thinking.
The pattern that may eventually emerge—the formation that may appear in the end (with the blocks scattered around)