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Unit 8 Text A Foreword

By Peter Gomez,2014-05-10 21:42
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Text A Foreword

    Unit 8 Text A Foreword

I. Teaching Objectives

    1. Understand the audio materials of this unit.

    2. Grasp the key words, Phrases and structure.

    3. Master the skills of writing and reading in this unit. 1) Metaphor 暗喻

    2) Description, Narration, Exposition, and Argumentation

    II . Teaching Content

    1. Lead-in activities

    2. Text Organization

    3. Skill learning in writing and reading

    4. Language points ( key words, phrases and difficult sentences)

    5. Grammar Focus (1. Substitute word one(s) 2. Subjunctive)

    6. Guided Practice (exercises, oral practice and group work)

    III. Teaching Process

    1. Warm-up Questions / Activities

    Activities : 1). Play a piece of music to simulate the remote atmosphere of the outer space, ask Ss to close their eyes and imagine themselves in a time machine, in which they can travel forward to the future;

    2). ask Ss to travel to the year 2050 and to imagine the changes that might have taken place in the world by that time; ask them to work in group and write down the effects of the changes; 3). List all the changes on the board and ask them to give a short presentation of the effects of each change.

    Questions:

    1). What do you know about Bill Gates and his company Microsoft? What is Gates most famous for?

    2). What do you consider to be the most important technological achievements of the last 20 years? Why is each important?

    3). What kind of technological innovations might we see in the next 20 years?

    4). Skim the text to get the answers to the following questions:

     a) What sort of "revolution" does Gates believe is currently occurring?

     b) What stage of the revolution are we in now/

     c) How long does Gates expect it to go on?

    2. Text Organization

    The text can be divided into 3 parts:

    Part One.(para1) Bill Gates and his friend learned the first truly personal computer in Popular Electronics magazine. As they believed, it brought the world great changes Part Two.(para2-7) The upcoming communications revolution.

. Part Three.(para8-12) The purpose for which Bill Gates wrote the book

    3. Skill learning in writing and reading

    1) Reading skill: Metaphor" 暗喻

     Metaphor is a way of thinking of one thing in terms of another thing makes a COMPARISION is between two unlike elements. This comparison is IMPLIED rather than STATED

    (1). Make a list of all the words and phrases you can find with which Gates refers to computer

    technology as if it were a road, journey, or adventure.

    (2). Do you think this comparison of computer technologies to a journey is an effective one? If

    so, explain how the image of travel fits well with the new technologies. If not, what would be a

    better comparison?

    a. The past twenty years have been an incredible adventure for me. (Line 1)

    b. It has led us to places we had barely imagined. (Line 9)

    c. We are all beginning another great journey. (Line 11)

    d. We aren’t sure where this one will lead us either. (Line 11)

    e. This revolution will ... take us all farther. (Line 13)

    f. There is never a reliable map for unexplored territory.(Line 18)

    g. But this next journey, to the so-called information highway.(Line 30)

    h. I hope it can serve as a travel guide for the forthcoming journey. (Line 61)

    2) Writing skill:

    4. Language Points

    1). incredibleadj. unbelievable, extraordinary, unbeliably good

    eg. It's incredible that so many students came to the lecture.

     Michael Jordan is an incredible basketball player.

    2). Pore over---examine, study with close attention, read attentively

     eg. To prepare his term paper, the student spent many hours in the library poring over old

    documents.

     I have a poor sense of direction, and have to pore over my map time and again once in a new

    place.

    3). arise from -----be caused by, result from eg. The misunderstanding arose from the lack of communication among family members.

     The problem arose from the recent changes in the law.

    4). bring about---cause to happen.

     eg. The computer has brought about many changes in our lives.

     The increase in business activities was brought about by the fall in oil prices.

    5). business applications----computer software programs designed for business purposes.

    6). on-line systems-----the systems in which the processing is performed on equipment directly

    under the control of the central processor while the user remains in communication with the

    computer.

    7). authoring tools---software designed to enable non-expert computer users to create their own

    computer applications. Some popular examples of authoring tools are Ctt, Director, and Tool

    book.

    8). confine to ----restrict to eg. She didn't take the exam; she was confined to bed with a cold.

     Please confine your remarks to the subject under discussion.

    9). go beyond----be more or greater than limit, exceed.

     eg. The level of inflation has gone beyond 10%.

     This year's sales figures go beyond all our expectations.

     My interest in computers goes beyond just playing computer games.

    10). meet---satisfy

     eg. Does the result of the experiment meet your expectation?

     The book is so popular that it has had to go to a second print to meet the demand. 11). turn out ---take place in the specified way, prove to be.

     eg. The newcomer turned out to be one of my old acquaintances.

     How did the party turn out?

     It turned out very well, thanks.

    12). get around to---find or take the necessary time or effort for

     eg. I never got around to taking the examination.

     He only got around to reading the document a few days ago.

     I finally got around to replying the letter from my parents, dated 3 weeks ago. 13). run into----meet accidentally, encounter

     eg. The Prime Minister ran into trouble with his unsound economic policies.

    14). take advantage of ---- make good use of . profit from

    eg. The tennis player knows how to take advantage of his opponent's weakness.

     We took advantage of the dry weather to paint the house.

    5. Grammar Focus

    1). Substitute word one(s)

    Explain that

    a. one is often used to replace or to avoid repeating a noun, for example:

    The young couple is looking for a house. They'd like one with a garden. b. ones is the plural of one, for example:

    New cars are much more expensive than used ones.

    A big one, the one in your hand.

    c. one can only replace a countable noun.

    d. ones is not usually used after both, for example:

     ---Would you like the red one or the blue one?

     -----Both;

     He put down his book and picked up the one of Bob's.

    2). Subjunctive

    a. The doctor insisted that he should give up smoking.

    I propose that the trip should be postponed.

    (Propose, recommend, request, suggest, ect.)

    b. Absurd, amazing, annoying, desirable, essential, important, necessary, ridiculous, strange, surprising, vital, etc.)

     It's important that you follow the doctor's instructions closely.

     It's only natural that the girl should be upset; she has just lost her bike.

    6. Guided Practice (exercises, oral practice and group work)

    1) Summary

    A). Ask several students to retell the text by using their own words.

    B). Talk about the main idea or theme of the text.

    2). Exercises

    A. Comprehension of the text(During the period of preview or discussions in class).

    B. vocabulary IV--VII(homework)

    C. Translation( on exercise-book)

    D. Dictation

     The word robot first appeared in 1921, in a Czech play about rebellious machines that had some

    human characteristics, and is derived from the Czech word for "forced labor". It is mainly as

    helpers, though that robots have found their way from fiction into the real world. In particular,

    they are used to perform many tasks too dangerous, difficult or boring for humans. For example,

    robots have explored the wreck of the Titanic, and a robot even helps doctors to perform brain

    surgery.

    E. Group Activity

    Step 1 Show Ss the picture of a robot and ask the following question:

     What can the robot in the picture do/

     What would you like it to do?

    Step 2 Ask Ss to work in groups to program a robot, deciding what it can do and what it cannot do,

    how to operate it (whether it reacts to voice, light, touch, or anything else)

    Step 3 after each group presents their robot, have Ss choose the Best Robot of the Class.

    7. After-class Assignments

    Write a short passage to elaborate on (阐发) Gates’ metaphor that “computers are a revolution.”

    First, think about what ideas you associate with a revolution (for example, “war”, “violence,”

    complete change”) and then decide which of these ideas can be compared to computers. You may

    use a dictionary to get ideas about the different meanings “revolution” can have. (Or, if you do not

    think that “revolution” is a good metaphor for computers, you may compare computers to

    something else you have thought of.)

     Text B Smart Mashines: Our Tireless Helpers

    Language Points:

    1. a computer’s capabilities in relation to a human’s ------ the qualities and abilities which a

    computer has, in comparison with those of a human being

    2. they figured that… ------ they estimated or predicted that…

    3. stopped dead ------ stopped suddenly and completely

    4. more advanced descendants of Dante ------ robots more powerful than Dante that will be

    created in the coming years

    5. Can science and technology take us too far by programming intelligence into machines?

    ------ Is there a danger that artificial intelligence will lead to the development of machines

    that are so advanced that they are harmful, rather than beneficial, to humans?

    6. The prediction is for a good working relationship between human beings and their

    tireless helpers. ------ It seems most likely that people in the fuure will be able to depend on

    machines to do work for us, but there is no need to worry about being controlled by them.

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