Background Information for
Obama’s Presidential Victory Speech
The City of Des Moines. As Iowa's capital city, Des Moines is
a hub of government action, business activity, arts and cultural
affairs. With a City population approaching 200,000 and a
metro population of nearly 500,000, Des Moines offers some
of the nation's best schools, superb public services, and
friendly, caring neighborhoods.
Affordable housing, one of the nation's shortest commute times, and an increasingly diverse population, make Des Moines a wonderful place to live, work and visit. Visit‖ http://www.ci.des-moines.ia.us/
Charleston is a city in Charleston county in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It is the
largest city and county seat of Charleston County. The city was founded as
Charlestown or Charles Towne, Carolina in 1670, and moved to its present location
(Oyster Point) from a location on the west bank of the Ashley River in 1680; it adopted its
present name in 1783. In 1690, Charleston was the fifth largest city in North America,
and remained among the ten largest cities in the United States through the 1840
census. Charleston is known as The Holy City due to the prominence of churches on
the low-rise cityscape, particularly the numerous steeples which dot the city's skyline, and for the fact that it was one of the few cities in the original thirteen colonies to provide
religious tolerance to the French Huguenot Church. In fact, it is still the only city in the
U.S. with such a church. Charleston was also one of the first colonial cities to allow Jews to practice their faith without restriction. Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim, founded in
1749, is the fourth oldest Jewish congregation in the continental United States. Brith
Shalom Beth Israel is the oldest Orthodox shul in the South, founded by Ashkenazic (German and central European) Jews in the mid 19th century.
a government of the people, by the people, and for the people has not perished from the Earth.
The Gettysburg Address is a speech by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and one of
the most quoted speeches in United States history. It was delivered at the
dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the
afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, during the American Civil War, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy！南部联盟，at the
decisive Battle of Gettysburg.
Despite the speech's prominent place in the history and popular culture of the United States, the exact wording of the speech is disputed. The five known manuscripts of
the Gettysburg Address differ in a number of details and also differ from contemporary newspaper reprints of the speech.
Five manuscripts: Nicolay Copy; Hay Copy; Everett Copy; Bancroft Copy; Bliss Copy Another contemporary source of the text is the Associated Press dispatch, transcribed
from the shorthand notes taken by reporter Joseph L. Gilbert. It also differs from the
drafted text in a number of minor ways
William R. Rathvon is the only known eyewitness of both Lincoln's arrival at Gettysburg and the address itself to have left an audio recording of his recollections. One year before his death in 1939, Rathvon's reminiscences(回忆) were recorded on February 12,
1938 at the Boston studios of radio station WRUL, including his reading the address, itself, and a 78 rpm record was pressed. The title of the 78 record was "I Heard Lincoln
That Day - William R. Rathvon, TR Productions." A copy wound up at National Public
Radio (NPR) during a "Quest for Sound" project in 1999. NPR continues to air them around Lincoln's birthday.
‖Let's remember that it was a man from this state who first carried the banner of the Republican Party to the White House.‖
Here, the man is Ronald Reagan (February 6, 1911 –
June 5, 2004) was the fortieth President of the United
States (1981–1989) and the thirty-third Governor of
California (1967–1975). Born in Illinois, Reagan moved
to Los Angeles, California in the 1930s, where he was
an actor, president of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG),
and a spokesman for General Electric (GE). His start in
politics occurred during his work for GE; originally a
member of the Democratic Party, he switched to the
Republican Party in 1962, at the age of 51. After
delivering a rousing speech in support of Barry
Goldwater's presidential candidacy in 1964, he was
persuaded to seek the California governorship, winning two years later and again in 1970. He was defeated in his run for the Republican presidential nomination in 1968 as well as 1976, but won both the nomination and election in 1980.
As president, Reagan implemented bold new political and economic initiatives. His supply side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics," included deregulation and
substantial tax cuts implemented in 1981. In his first term he survived an assassination
attempt, took a hard line against organized labor, and ordered military actions in
Grenada. He was reelected in a landslide in 1984. Reagan's second term was primarily
marked by foreign matters, namely the ending of the Cold War, the bombing of Libya,
and the revelation of the Iran-Contra affair. The president had previously ordered a
massive military buildup in an arms race with the Soviet Union, forgoing the strategy of
détente. He publicly described the USSR as an "evil empire" and supported
anti-Communist movements worldwide. He negotiated with Soviet General Secretary
Mikhail Gorbachev, resulting in the INF Treaty and the decrease of both countries'
The dust bowl,
or the dirty thirties, was a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and
agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936 (in some areas until 1940), caused by severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without crop rotation or other techniques to prevent erosion. It was largely a
man-made disaster caused by an abnormally severe drought combined with the
deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains, which killed the natural
grasses. Such grasses normally kept the soil in place and moisture trapped, even during periods of drought and high winds.
During the drought of the 1930s, with the grasses destroyed, the soil dried, turned to
dust, and blew away eastwards and southwards in large dark clouds. At times the clouds blackened the sky, reaching all the way to East Coast cities such as New York and Washington, D.C. Much of the soil ended up deposited in the Atlantic Ocean. The Dust Bowl affected 100,000,000 acres (400,000 km2), centered on the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma, and adjacent parts of New Mexico, Colorado, and Kansas. The storms of the Dust Bowl were given names such as Black Blizzard and Black
Roller because visibility was reduced to a few feet (around a meter).
The Dust Bowl was an ecological and human disaster. It was caused by misuse of
land and years of sustained drought. Millions of acres (hectares) of farmland became useless, and hundreds of thousands of people were forced to leave their homes. Degradation of dry lands claimed peoples' cultural heritage and livelihoods. Hundreds of
thousands of families from the Dust Bowl (often known as "Okies", since so many came
from Oklahoma) traveled to California and other states, where they found conditions little better than those they had left. Owning no land, many traveled from farm to farm picking fruit and other crops at starvation wages. John Steinbeck later wrote the classic Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Grapes of Wrath and also Of Mice and Men about
The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn starting in most places in
1929 and ending at different times in the 1930s or early 1940s for different countries. It was the largest and most important economic depression in modern history, and is used in the 21st century as a benchmark in how far the world's economy can fall. The Great Depression originated in the United States; historians most often use as a starting date the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. The end of the
depression in the U.S. is associated with the onset of the war economy of World War II,
beginning around 1939
the bombs fell on our harbor>>>
Pearl Harbor is a harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu. Much of the
harbor and surrounding lands is a United States Navy deep-water naval base. It is also the headquarters of the U.S. Pacific Fleet. The attack on Pearl Harbor by the Empire of
Japan on December 7, 1941 brought the United States into World War II.
Tyranny(暴政) threatened the world >>>>
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. Nazism.
the buses in Montgomery, the hoses in Birmingham, a bridge in Selma, and a
preacher from Atlanta who told a people that "We Shall Overcome."
the buses in Montgomery:
Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political and social protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its
public transit system. The ensuing struggle lasted from December 1, 1955, to December 20, 1956, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared
the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses unconstitutional.
The No. 2857
bus on which
1132), is now
exhibit at the
On the night of Rosa Parks's arrest, Jo Ann Robinson, head of the Women's Political
Council, printed and circulated a flyer throughout Montgomery's black community which
read as follows:
"Another woman has been arrested and thrown in jail because she refused to get up out
of her seat on the bus for a white person to sit down. It is the second time since the
Claudette Colvin case that a Negro woman has been arrested for the same thing. This
has to be stopped. Negroes have rights too, for if Negroes did not ride the buses, they
could not operate. Three-fourths of the riders are Negro, yet we are arrested, or have to stand over empty seats. If we do not do something to stop these arrests, they will continue. The next time it may be you, or your daughter, or mother. This woman's case will come up on Monday. We are, therefore, asking every Negro to stay off the buses Monday in protest of the arrest and trial. Don't ride the buses to work, to town, to school, or anywhere on Monday. You can afford to stay out of school for one day if you have no other way to go except by bus. You can also afford to stay out of town for one day. If you work, take a cab, or walk. But please, children and grown-ups, don't ride the bus at all on Monday. Please stay off all buses Monday."
the hoses in Birmingham (hose:水管、水枪)
High school students are hit by a high-pressure water jet from a firehose during a
protest in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963. Images like this one, printed in Life Magazine,
inspired international support for the demonstrators.
The Birmingham campaign was a strategic effort by the Southern Christian Leadership
Conference (SCLC) to promote civil rights for black Americans. Based in Birmingham,
Alabama, and aimed at ending the city's segregated civil and discriminatory economic policies, the campaign lasted for more than two months in the spring of 1963. To provoke the police into filling the city's jails to overflowing, Martin Luther King, Jr. and black
citizens of Birmingham employed nonviolent tactics to flout laws they considered unfair.
King summarized the philosophy of the Birmingham campaign when he said, "The purpose of ... direct action is to create a situation so crisis-packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation".
Protests in Birmingham began with a Selective Buying Campaign to pressure business
leaders to open retail sales jobs and other employment to people of all races, as well as to end segregated facilities in the stores. When business leaders resisted the boycott, King and the SCLC began what they termed Project C, a series of sit-ins and marches
intended to provoke arrest. After the campaign ran low on adult volunteers, it recruited children for what became known as the "Children's Crusade". High school, college, and elementary students were trained to participate, and hundreds were arrested. During the protests, the Birmingham Police Department, led by Eugene "Bull" Connor, used
high-pressure water jets and police dogs to control protesters, including children. Media coverage of these events brought intense scrutiny on segregation in the South.
Not all of the demonstrators were peaceful, despite the avowed intentions of the SCLC. In some cases, bystanders attacked the police, who responded with force. Scenes of the ensuing mayhem caused an international outcry. It led to federal intervention by the Kennedy administration. King and the SCLC were criticized for putting children in harm's way. By the end of the campaign, King's reputation improved immensely, Connor lost his job, the "Jim Crow" signs in Birmingham came down, and public places became more open to blacks.
The Birmingham campaign was a model of direct action protest, as it effectively shut down the city. In attracting media attention to the adverse treatment of black Americans, it brought national force to bear on the issue of segregation. Although desegregation occurred slowly in Birmingham, the campaign was a major factor in the national push towards the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited racial discrimination in hiring
practices and public services in the United States.
a preacher from Atlanta who told a people that "We Shall Overcome."
Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April
4, 1968) was an African American clergyman,
activist and prominent leader in the American
civil rights movement. His main legacy was to
secure progress on civil rights in the United
States and he is frequently referenced as a
human rights icon today.
A Baptist minister, King became a civil rights
activist early in his career. He led the Montgomery
Bus Boycott (1955–6) and helped found the
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1957),
serving as its first president. His efforts led to the
1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom,
where King delivered his ―I Have a Dream‖ speech.
There, he raised public consciousness of the civil
rights movement and established himself as one of the greatest orators in U.S. history. In 1964, King became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his
work to end racial segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and
other non-violent means. By the time of his death in 1968, he had refocused his efforts on ending poverty and opposing the Vietnam War, both from a religious perspective. King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee. He was
posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977 and
Congressional Gold Medal in 2004; Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a
U.S. national holiday in 1986.
McCain’s Speech Notes
Booker T. Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator,
orator, author and leader of the African-American community. He was freed from slavery
as a child, gained an education, and as a young man was appointed to lead Tuskegee
Institute, then a teachers' college for blacks. From this position, he rose into a nationally prominent role as spokesman and leader for African Americans. He was successful in building relationships with major philanthropists to contribute to education at Tuskegee and for public schools for black children in the South, as well as to donate to legal
challenges to segregation and disfranchisement. From 1895-1915 he was the most
powerful African-American man in the nation
布克?华盛顿, 非裔美国教育领袖(创立了―塔斯克基学院！Tuskegee Institute，‖(同时也是作家(著有
In all my efforts to learn to read, my mother shared fully my ambition and sympathized with me and aided me in every way she could. If I have done anything in life worth attention, I feel sure that I inherited the disposition from my mother.
—Booker T. Washington (1881—1915)