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EPC Exhibit 133-131 - EPC Exhibit 133-13

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EPC Exhibit 133-131 - EPC Exhibit 133-13

    EPC Exhibit 133-13.1

    April 22, 2010

    THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

    Dewey Section

To: Caroline Kent, Chair

     Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee

Cc: Members of the Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee

     Karl E. Debus-López, Chief, U.S. General Division

From: Rebecca Green, Assistant Editor

     Dewey Decimal Classification

     OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc.

Via: Joan S. Mitchell, Editor in Chief

     Dewey Decimal Classification

     OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc.

Re: 004006 Selected topics (based on LCSH review)

Expansion

    From To Topic

    004.678 004.6782 Cloud computing

This exhibit addresses recent or emerging topics in computer science and technology that are not

    well represented in the current schedules and that we would like represented in DDC 23. Topics

    are drawn largely from two sources: frequently occurring Library of Congress Subject Headings

    (LCSHs) from 20062010 that occur in WorldCat with works classed in 004006; and Ebe

    Kartus (Manager, Acquisitions & Cataloguing, RMIT University, Australia), who has been

    engaged in a classification project involving computer science.

Cyberinfrastructure

Various definitional statements make clear that cyberinfrastructure comprises many aspects of

    004006 and thus approximates the whole of 004:

     Cyberinfrastructure is the coordinated aggregate of software, hardware and other

    technologies, as well as human expertise, required to support current and future discoveries in

    science and engineering. (Fran Berman, SBE/CISE Workshop on Cyberinfrastructure for the

    Social Sciences, San Diego Supercomputer Center and UC San Diego;

    http://vis.sdsc.edu/sbe/SBE-CISE_Workshop_Intro.pdf)

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    Cyberinfrastructure consists of computing systems, data storage systems, advanced instruments and data repositories, visualization environments, and people, all linked together by software and high performance networks to improve research productivity and enable breakthroughs not otherwise possible. (Craig Stewart, Indiana University Cyberinfrastructure Newsletter; http://pti.iu.edu/ci/cyberinfrastructure-news?d=200703)

    Like the physical infrastructure of roads, bridges, power grids, telephone lines, and water systems that support modern society, ―cyberinfrastructure‖ refers to the distributed computer,

    information and communication technologies combined with the personnel and integrating components that provide a long-term platform to empower the modern scientific research endeavor. (Report of the National Science Foundation Blue-Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure; http://www.nsf.gov/od/oci/reports/toc.jsp)

We propose to add cyberinfrastructure to the class-here note at 004.

Mobile computing

Webopedia treats Mobile computing as a category (http://webopedia.com/Mobile_Computing/)

    encompassing a broad range of topics, for example, hardware (e.g., handhelds), networking (e.g., wireless computing), and operating systems (e.g., Symbian OS). We propose to treat mobile

    computing as a class-here concept at 004 with a scatter see reference for specific aspects of mobile computing.

Netbook computers

We propose to add netbook computers to the class-here note at 004.16 Personal computers,

    where it joins with microcomputers, laptop, notebook, pen, portable, tablet, and wearable

    computers, and workstations.

Web servers

While the term ―web server‖ has both a hardware-oriented sense and a software-oriented sense,

    Webopedia and pcmag.com agree that the hardware-oriented sense predominates:

    Web server: A computer that delivers (serves up) Web pages. Every Web server has an IP address and possibly a domain name. For example, if you enter the URL http://www.pcwebopedia.com/index.html in your browser, this sends a request to the server whose domain name is pcwebopedia.com. The server then fetches the page named index.html and sends it to your browser. (http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/W/Web_server.html)

    Web server: A computer that runs a Web site. Using the HTTP protocol, the Web server delivers Web pages to browsers as well as other data files to Web-based applications. The Web server includes the hardware, operating system, Web server software, TCP/IP protocols and site content (Web pages, images and other files).

    (http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=Web+server&i=54342,00.asp)

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    As web servers represent the essence of client-server computing, the best placement for them is in 004.36, where web servers join client-server computing in the class-here note. We propose to add class-elsewhere notes to refer between web servers at 004.36 and web services at 006.78.

Cloud computing

    The pcmag.com encyclopedia provides this definition/description of cloud computing: ―Using the Web server facilities of a third party provider on the Internet (the "cloud") to store, deploy and run applications. Cloud computing takes two forms. It may refer to ‗utility‘ computing in

    which only the hardware and software infrastructure (operating system, databases, etc.) are offered, or it may refer to ‗software as a service‘ (SaaS), which includes the business

    applications as well.‖ Other characterizations of cloud computing differentiate among infrastructure-as-a-service, platform-as-a-service, and software-as-a-service.

    (http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0%2C2542%2Ct%3Dcloud+computing&i%3D5796

    4%2C00.asp)

    Since cloud computing can have different meanings, the best comprehensive works number is not immediately obvious. The broad scope of the termit may refer to computing capacity,

    storage, networking, database services, software, etcargues for a number in 004. What all uses

    of the term have in common is third-party provision of computing resources over the Internet, which leads us to 004.678 Internet. But there is sufficient literary warrant for an expansion here; we propose 004.6782. A scatter see reference is added to class works on specific aspects of cloud computing with the aspect.

Aspect-oriented programming

    Aspect-oriented programming refers to a programming paradigm that focuses on the modularization of source code according to aspects / concerns / functionality, including the isolation of concerns that cut across a number of concerns/functions (e.g., printing, logging). Aspect-oriented programming grew out of object-oriented programming and thus belongs in 005.117 Object-oriented programming. Since variously-named programming paradigms come and go, it could be counterproductive to explicitly mention aspect-oriented programming at 005.117, but aspect-oriented programming should be indexed to 005.117.

Integrated development environments

    Integrated development environments (IDEs) provide programmers an integrated set of tools (e.g., text editor, compiler, build mechanism, debugger) with which to develop software. The various components of IDEs are associated with multiple classes in 005: application generators and text editors specially designed to assist in coding programs are in the including note at 005.13 Programming languages; debugging is in the caption at 005.14 Verification, testing, measurement, debugging; interpreters, compilers, and assemblers are subdivisions of 005.45 Programming language translators. The major question is whether one wants to represent that an IDE qualifies as a systems program (as interpreters, compilers, and assemblers are treated) or as an aid in programming (as application generators, text editors specially designed to assist in coding programs, and debuggers are treated). The rule of application sides with the latter. We

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therefore propose to add integrated development environments to the class-here note at 005.1

    Programming. (The integration of various tools in support of programming argues for treating

    IDEs as a topic that approximates the whole of programming.) (See note below Application

    frameworks.)

Application frameworks

The pcmag.com encyclopedia characterizes an application framework as ―a set of common

    software routines that provides a foundation structure for developing an application. Frameworks

    take the tedium out of writing all the program code for an application from scratch. Object-

    oriented application frameworks, which are the norm today, are structured as a class library.‖

    Application frameworks can assist in building general-purpose applications or specific types of

    applications. As a set of routines, an application framework is software, but not an application;

    its purpose is to support the development of programs. As such the rule of application leads to

    application frameworks being associated with 005.1 Programming, where we propose its

    addition to the class-here note.

    (http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0%2C2542%2Ct%3Dapplication+framework&i%3

    D37907%2C00.asp )

(Note regarding Integrated development environments and Application frameworks: In our

    editorial team meetings the question was raised whether these topics ought to be in the same

    number with software compatibility, portability, reliability, and reusability [which are in the

    class-here note at 005]. Our conclusion was that they should not. Software compatibility,

    portability, reliability, and reusability relate both to how programming is done and to the result

    of the programming process, whereas Integrated development environments and Application

    frameworks apply only to supporting the programming process.)

Computational intelligence

In the period between 2005 and 2009, the LCSH Computational intelligence has been assigned to

    works classed in 006 an average of 75 times a year. It is not immediately clear whether

    computational intelligence should be associated with 006.3 Artificial intelligence or with 006.32

    Neural nets (Neural networks). On the one hand, the journal Computational intelligence

    ―promotes and stimulates research in the field of artificial intelligence,‖ focusing on the

    following topic areas: machine learning; web intelligence and semantic web; discovery science

    and knowledge mining; agents and multiagent systems; knowledge-based systems

    (http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0824-7935). The multivolume work Foundations of

    computational intelligence, published in 2009, also casts its net widely, with separate volumes on

    learning and approximation; approximate reasoning; global optimization; bio-inspired data

    mining; function approximation and classification; and data mining. On the other hand, the

    scope of the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society is stated somewhat more narrowly: ―the

    theory, design, application, and development of biologically and linguistically motivated

    computational paradigms emphasizing neural networks, connectionist systems, genetic

    algorithms, evolutionary programming, fuzzy systems, and hybrid intelligent systems in which

    these paradigms are contained‖ (http://ieee-cis.org/about_cis/scope/). As the breadth of the name

    is likely to attract a wide array of topics, adding computational intelligence at 006.3 is considered

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    the wiser option; indeed, it approximates the whole of 006.3 and should be added to the class-here note.

Web application frameworks

According to wiseGEEK, ―Web application frameworks are software tools that are commonly

    used to aid in the creation and management of various types of online applications. A web

    application framework can involve designing and launching pages for a website or provisioning various applications to provide a wide range of web services to consumers. The framework tends to include all the elements needed to accomplish the desired tasks, thus eliminating the need to secure the necessary tools from different sources‖ (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-web-

    application-framework.htm). Web application frameworks belong in 006.76, alongside web

    programming.

Rich Internet applications

    Rich Internet applications are web applications that function like desktop applications; typically they depend on having software such as ActiveX, Java, or Flash installed on the client machine. It is proposed to add them to the including note at 006.78.

Augmented reality

The Webopedia entry for augmented reality states:

    An augmented reality system generates a composite view for the user that is the combination of the real scene viewed by the user and a virtual scene generated by the computer that augments the scene with additional information. The virtual scene generated by the computer is designed to enhance the user's sensory perception of the virtual world they are seeing or interacting with. The goal of Augmented Reality is to create a system in which the user cannot tell the difference between the real world and the virtual augmentation of it. (http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/A/Augmented_Reality.html)

    Characterizations of augmented reality differ on whether augmented reality is a special kind of virtual reality or whether virtual reality is an aspect of virtual reality. The happiest compromise is to treat both augmented reality and virtual reality in the same number. However, just adding augmented reality to the caption at 006.8 Virtual reality is not enough, since the definition note there is specific to virtual reality. The definition note also needs modification to cover both.

Web 2.0

The Webopedia entry for Web 2.0 (http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/W/Web_2_point_0.html)

    states:

    Web 2.0 is the term given to describe a second generation of the World Wide Web that is focused on the ability for people to collaborate and share information online. Web 2.0 basically refers to the transition from static HTML Web pages to a more dynamic Web that is

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    more organized and is based on serving Web applications to users. Other improved functionality of Web 2.0 includes open communication with an emphasis on Web-based communities of users, and more open sharing of information. Over time Web 2.0 has been used more as a marketing term than a computer-science-based term. Blogs, wikis, and Web services are all seen as components of Web 2.0.

    Web 2.0 was previously used as a synonym for Semantic Web, but while the two are similar, they do not share precisely the same meaning.

The Wikipedia article for Web 2.0 sheds this further light:

    The term [Web 2.0] is closely associated with Tim O'Reilly because of the O'Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in 2004. Although the term suggests a new version of the World Wide Web, it does not refer to an update to any technical specifications, but rather to cumulative changes in the ways software developers and end-users use the Web. Whether Web 2.0 is qualitatively different from prior web technologies has been challenged by World Wide Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee, who called the term a "piece of jargon" precisely because he

    intended the Web to embody these values in the first place.

    As to the possible relationship between Web 2.0 and the Semantic Web, the Webopedia entry on Web 3.0 and a section on Web 3.0 in the Wikipedia Web 2.0 article offer the following:

    Web 3.0: The term used to describe the evolution of the Web as an extension of Web 2.0. This definition of Web 3.0 is the popular view held by Tim O'Reilly. In contrast, Nova Spivack defines Web 3.0 as connective intelligence; connecting data, concepts, applications and ultimately people. While some call the The [sic] Semantic Web 'Web 3.0', Spivack's opinion is that The Semantic Web is just one of several converging technologies and trends that will define Web 3.0.

    Not much time passed before "Web 3.0" was coined. Definitions of Web 3.0 vary greatly. Amit Agarwal states that Web 3.0 is, among other things, about the Semantic Web and personalization. Andrew Keen, author of The Cult of the Amateur, considers the Semantic Web an "unrealisable abstraction" and sees Web 3.0 as the return of experts and authorities to the Web. For example, he points to Bertelsman's deal with the German Wikipedia to produce an edited print version of that encyclopedia. Others still such as Manoj Sharma, an organization strategist, in the keynote A Brave New World Of Web 3.0 proposes that Web 3.0 will be a "Totally Integrated World" - cradle-to-grave experience of being always plugged onto the net. CNN Money's Jessi Hempel expects Web 3.0 to emerge from new and innovative Web 2.0 services with a profitable business model. Conrad Wolfram has argued that Web 3.0 is where "the computer is generating new information", rather than humans.

    Three options can be considered for treatment of Web 2.0: (1) grouped with ―Web 1.0‖ / general works on the World Wide Web, (2) expansion for Web 2.0, or (3) grouped with Semantic Web.

    The material quoted above indicates that ―Web 2.0‖ does not have a single, widely-recognized

    meaning and that development from an ―information-only‖ WWW to a more collaborative

    WWW has been incremental, which argues against the second option. Although ―Web 2.0‖ has

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at times been used to refer to the Semantic Web, that usage is not current. Thus, we recommend

    the first of these options. As it is not clear that the terminology ―Web 2.0‖ will have staying

    power, we recommend that Web 2.0 be used as an electronic-only index term for 025.042, the

    interdisciplinary number for World Wide Web, and not be mentioned explicitly in the schedule

    entry there.

004 Computer science

    Class here data processing; selection and use of computer hardware; electronic

    computers; electronic digital computers; computer systems (computers, their peripheral

    devices, their operating systems); cyberinfrastructure; central processing units;

    computer reliability; interactive, online processing; mobile computing; comprehensive

    works on hardware and programs in electronic data processing

    Class computer modeling and simulation in 003.3. Class computer science and data

    processing applied to a specific subject with the subject, plus notation 0285 from Table

    1, e.g., data processing in banking 332.10285

    For computer programming, programs, data, see 005; for special computer methods,

    see 006; for engineering, manufacture, repair of computers, see 621.39. For a

    specific aspect of mobile computing, see the aspect, e.g., handheld computing

    devices 004.167, wireless communications 004.6, mobile operating systems for

    handheld computing devices 005.446

    See also 025.04 for automated information storage and retrieval; also 303.4834 for

    computers as a cause of social change; also 343.0999 for computer law; also

    364.168 for financial and business computer crimes; also 371.334 for computer-

    assisted instruction (CAI); also 658.05 for data processing in management; also

    794.8 for computer games

    See Manual at 004006 vs. 621.39; also at 004 vs. 005; also at 510, T10151 vs.

    004006, T10285

004.16 *Personal computers

    Class here microcomputers; laptop, netbook, notebook, pen, portable, tablet,

    wearable computers; workstations; comprehensive works on midrange and

    personal computers

    For midrange computers, see 004.14

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004.36 *Distributed processing

    Including systems analysis and design, computer architecture, performance

    evaluation

    Class here client-server computing, web servers; grid computing

    Class web services in 006.78

    See also 004.6 for computer communications networks; also 005.758 for

    distributed databases

004.678 *Internet

    Including extranets, virtual private networks

    Class here World Wide Web

    Interdisciplinary works on World Wide Web relocated to 025.042

    Class a specific regional or national network with the area served, e.g.,

    BiblioRedes (Chilean network) 004.6780983

    For Internet, World Wide Web as information systems, see 025.042

    See Manual at 004.678 vs. 006.7, 025.042, 384.33

004.678 2 Cloud computing

    For a specific aspect of cloud computing, see the aspect, e.g., grid

    computing 004.36, web services 006.78

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    005.1 *Programming

    Class here application frameworks, application programming, computer

    algorithms, integrated development environments, software engineering

    Class algorithms discussed solely from a theoretical perspective, without regard to

    computer implementation, in 518.1. Class a specific application of programming

    within computer science with the application in 005.4005.8 or 006, e.g.,

    programming of computer graphics 006.66

    For programming for specific types of computers, for specific operating

    systems, for specific user interfaces, see 005.2

    See Manual at 005.1005.2 vs. 005.42; also at 005.1 vs. 005.3

    006.3 *Artificial intelligence

    Class here comprehensive works on artificial intelligence and cognitive science

    [formerly 153], computational intelligence, intelligent agents, multi-agent systems,

    question-answering systems

    Class robotics in 629.892

    For cognitive science, see 153

    See also 006.4 for pattern recognition not used as a tool of artificial intelligence

    See Manual at 006.3 vs. 153

    006.76 *Programming

    Class here Internet programming, web application frameworks, web programming

    For programming for specific types of computers, for specific operating systems,

    for specific user interfaces, see 006.77

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006.78 Programs

    Including rich Internet applications (RIAs), web services

    Class here multimedia authoring programs, software; multimedia software

    Add to base number 006.78 the numbers following 005.3 in 005.31005.39, e.g.,

    multimedia authoring software that runs on Apple iMac? 006.7865

    Class web servers in 004.36

006.8 *Augmented and vVirtual reality

    A combination of computer software and hardware that adds computer-generated

    information to the visual presentation of a real environment or that gives an illusion

    of being in an artificial environment or a remote real environment and gives the user

    an ability to manipulate objects in that environment. The illusion is created by visual,

    auditory, and other sensory data provided by the computer system to the user

    Standard subdivisions are added for either or both topics in heading

*Use notation 019 from Table 1 as modified at 004.019

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