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Holden Caulfield A Rebellious Hero against

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Holden Caulfield A Rebellious Hero against

论文题目Holden Caulfield: A Rebellious Hero against

    Mainstream Culture in The Catcher in the Rye

    

     英语语言文学

     06

    

    指导教师

     教授

    2010 6月)

    CONTENT

    I.Introduction

    II.The Connotation of the Mainstream Culture in 1950s

     Rebellion in Holdens III.

    3.1 Rebellion against the Clique Spirit of Pencey Prep

    3.2 Rebellion in Holdens Speech

    3.3.1 Loose Danglings

    3.3.2 The Grammatical Errors in Holdens Speech

    3.3.3 The Vulgarity and Obscenity in Holdens Speech

    3.3.4 Holdens Slangs

    IV.Conclusion

    V. Bibliography

    VI. Acknowledgement

    Abstract

    J.D.Salingers The Catcher in the Rye is a modern classic, as one of the most controversial novels in the contemporary American literature.

     my paper illustrates Holdens rebellionmainly analyzing Holdens rebellion in three aspects: Holden rejects the clique spirit--form personalinterest clique and discriminate against dissenterswhich Pencey Prep embodies ; he completely denies

    the core part of the mainstream culture-the pursuit of the American Dream the

    pursuit of the material successthoroughly exposing the deceptiveness and corruption

    of the American Dream and shattering its requirements of him into pieces; his acts

    show the characteristics ofescape-he considers the social status and material

    successwhich the masses are fascinated withworthless and runs farther and farther away from the mainstream cultureand his violent language shares the common

    characteristics with that of the counter-culture movement: various kinds of language

    expression whose existence cannot be permitted by the mainstream culture-loose

    danglings and perpetual insistencesgrammatical errors obscenity and profanity in his

    speech and the slangs are like daggers thrown at the heart of the mainstream culture.

    Holden clearly shows his rebellion against American mainstream culture in

    1950s. Also with this comprehensive interpretation will the hero--Holden be deeply

    understood.

    KEY WORDS: Holden; the mainstream culture; rebellion

    J.D.塞林格的《麦田里的守望者》是一部“现代经典”,是当代美国文学中

    最具争议性的一部小说。小说通过霍尔顿?考尔

    菲德(Holden Caulfield)离开潘西中学后在纽约的游荡经历,深刻地揭示了现代社会中的疏离感和孤独感。霍尔顿厌倦同学间的冷漠、欺诈和虚假。他只身到纽约

    游逛,进而发现社会更加平庸、鄙俗和腐败。他感到非常沮丧。霍尔顿似乎代表

    了所有的年轻人,他们觉得自己被来自四面八方的各种压力所包围,他们要成长,并要按照准则去生活,要断绝有意义的人际接触,要抑制自己的个性,并顺应一个索然无味的文化标准。

     论文主要从三个方面加以分析:作为一个不随波逐流、不妥协、不服从的主

    人公,霍尔顿抵制潘西中学所体现的拉帮结派、排斥异己的“团体”精神,他完

    全否定主流文化的核心表现形式美国梦对个体的要求,彻底揭露了美国梦的欺骗

    性和腐败性:他采取逃遁的反叛形式,对群体社会中大众竭力去追求的社会地位 和物质财富不屑一顾,以自己坚决的行为离主流文化越来越远;他激烈的言辞则具有战后反文化运动语言的相同特征:大量的句末附着语和添加附着语、语法错

    误、粗俗语和污秽语以及俚语等丰富多样的但为主流文化所不容的语言表现形

    式,像匕首,像投枪,直入主流文化的心脏。

    霍尔顿鲜明地表现了对50年代主流文化的反叛。同时,通过这一深入阐释,

    对霍尔顿这个人物有更深入的理解。

    关键词:霍尔顿;主流文化;反叛

I.Introduction

    Jerome David Salinger (1919- ), an outstanding American novelist and short

    story writer, is best known for his controversial novel The Catcher in the Rye (1951). Salinger is recognized by many critics and readers alike as one of the most popular

    and influential authors of American writers after World War II. His only novel, The Catcher in the Rye, has become one of the two ―modern classics‖ in contemporary American literature.

     First published in 1951, The Catcher in the Rye continues to be one of the most

    popular novels ever written as well as one of the most frequently banned books in the

    United States, the most controversial novel in American contemporary letters.

    Surprisingly, the first reviewers of The Catcher in the Rye were mixed. Some reviewers praised the novellas a significant success. S.N.Behrman wrote a lengthy and

    very favorable review in New Yorker, and Clifton Fadiman wrote, ―That rare miracle of fiction has again come to pass: a human being has been created out of ink, paper,

    and the imagination.‖ In a review that appeared in New York Times on the day of the novel‘s publication, Nash K.Burger called The Catcher in the Rye ―an unusually brilliant first novel‖ and Paul Engle, in the Chicargo Tribunt, found itengaging and believable‖, a novel ―full of right observation and sharp insight.‖

     Other critics were less enthusiastic about it. Anne Goodman, in New Public, said

    that ―the book as a whole is disappointing‖. It is ―a brilliant tour-de-force, but in a writer of Salinger‘s undeniable talent one expects something more‖. Ernest Jones admitted that The Catcher in the Rye was a case history of all of us, but he said that

    though the book was always lively in its parts, The Catcher in the Rye, as a whole was predictable and boring. In England, the critic for Times Literary Supplement has also thought Holden is very touching and the endless stream of blasphemy and obscenity

    in which he talks is incredible.

    Even less enthusiastic were the notices that appeared in Catholic World. Reley Hughes, the reviewer in Catholic World complained about the novel‘s excessive use

    of amateur swearing and coarse language, which, he argued, made Holden‘s iconoclastic character monotonous and phony. Morris Longstreth, writing for Christian Science Monitor, found the novel to be wholly repellent in its mingled

    vulgarity and sly perversion. Longstreth concluded that The Catcher in the Rye ―is not fit for children to read.‖ For although Holden is alive and human, he is also

    preposterous, profane, and pathetic beyond belief. The criticism on The Catcher in the Rye and Salinger became so active that they finally resulted inThe Salinger Industry‖. In Saturday Review, the novelist and critic Harvey Swados expressed dismay at the

    outpouring of articles, essays, and speculations about the writer. Unquestionably,

    Salinger is a clever writer, with a first-rate ear for the mannerism of speech peculiar to

    young people.

    Obviously, the above comments show that critics and readers chiefly focus their

    attention upon the text itself. They stressed on ―being concerned with the text itself‖.

But the text is only the basis for the analysis of a work of art. For Salinger, it is very

    difficult to completely separate his works from his life and the sensitive and particular

    era of American history he lived and his novel were published in: the 1950s. Though

    he has once lived a recluse life, he can not escape the influence of this situation.

    According to Lionel Trillng‘s theory, there are many factors shaping a work of art.

    Literature can not be separated from the outside influences and forces. These outside

    factors often take the form of social, political or historical or cultural background.

     In The Catcher in the Rye, Holdens rebellion against mainstream culture is omnipresent in the whole novel which deeply impressed me. My paper aims to

    analyze Holden Caulfield as a rebellious hero against mainstream culture through the

    social and cultural perspective.

    My paper concludes the following chapters. Chapter One is introduction. Chapter

    Two is devoted to the connotation of the mainstream culture in 1950s, mainly

    analyzing the definition of the mainstream culture, American Dream, and the

    language at that time. Chapter Three explores Holden‘s rebellion against the mainstream culture as is shown in his rebellion against the clique spirit of Pencey

    Prep, rebellion against the American Dream and rebellion in language; Chapter four is

    conclusionfunctioning as the conclusive remark of my study of Holdens rebellion

    against mainstream culture in 1950s.

    II.The Connotation of the Mainstream Culture in 1950s

    2.1 The Definition of the Mainstream Culture

    Before defining mainstream culture, it is very necessary to explain the meaning

    of ―culture‖. It is well known that there are several hundreds different definitions for

    ―culture‖. Among these definitions, a couple of them are widely accepted by the

    people all over the world. I choose one of the definitions for culture from Kamalini

    Draid‘s book Acculturation of Anti-culture. In this book, the author holds a belief that culture is made up of people‘s manners, customs, its technology, its religious organization and its system of valuation. There is another widely accepted definition

    for culture. It comes from Bruce A.Ronda‘s book The Discourse of American literature culture and Expressions from Colonization to Present. In this book Ronda thinks that culture puts emphasis on the importance of the current meaning as ―way of

    life‖. His definition for culture has a more general and more inclusive meaning. In this

    book, Ronda also expounds the meaning of ―discourse‖ .He thinks that discourse is a system of expression. As a matter of fact, writing is one of the systems of expression.

    One society can articulate its culture by this kind of expression. Literary works also

    reflect the dominant view of what‘s real and meaningful. As a result, the mainstream culture finds its expression in literary works to reflect the dominant view of what‘s

    real and meaningful in the way of life. In other words, the mainstream culture reflects

    the dominant values and ideals in the way of life of the society.

    But with the development of the mainstream culture, some people can not accept

    the dominant views and values of the society. So, in their own inner heart, they feel

    greatly suppressed and depressed. This happens to many writers. They feel

    disappointed with the mainstream culture and begin to express their dissatisfaction

    and rebellion against it. J.D.Salinger is one of them. Like other writers, Salinger

expresses his defiance against the mainstream culture in his writings, especially in his

    novel The Catcher in the Rye. His masterpiece is created as a typical rebel Holden, the

    hero of his masterpiece against the mainstream culture in the 1950s.

    2.2 The American Dream

    The American Dream plays a major role in Americans‘ life. It is an age-old

    glorious dream. Its emergence closely accompanied the American mythwhich the

    earliest immigrant who came to the north American continent made up. In these early

    immigrantsmindsthey were meant to reestablish a commonwealth based on the

    Teachings of the Biblerestore the lost Paradise and build the wilderness into a new

    Garden of Eden on the new continentwhere man could at long last live the way he

    should and unbounded opportunities could be met through hard work and wise

    management. This new world was in sharp contrast with the old onewith the

    Americans as Newmans standing simple and sincere before the world. The world was

    just reborn and the human beings were endowed the second chance to reestablish a

    complete new ideal life. The earliest successful representative of the American Dream

    was Benjamin Franklinwhose image inspired countless Americans who wanted to

    create a new world with their own dreams fulfilled. As time went onthe American Dream gradually integrated into the American life and even developed into an

    American Dream complex which hundreds of thousands of Americans clung to. But

    with several hundred years developmentespecially with the prosperity of the economy and the Prevalence of the materialismthe connotation of the American Dream experienced serious distortion and deformity. It was greatly corrupted and

    degenerated. In the Roaring twentiesthrough the description of F.Scott Fitzgerald

    The corruption of the American Dream was exposed. The Death of a Salesman (1949)

    by Arthur Miller revealed the deceptiveness of the dream and further Pointed out its

    important change: college education became the key to success. When the time

    reached 1950sthe society became highly prosperous and material culture became the

    dominant trend in life. People were alienated by the materialized technocratic

    civilization and lived on the spiritualwasteland”,having lost their spiritual faith. The Pursuit of the material success became the sole content of the American Dream. The

    important means by which to achieve the dream was college education. People in

    1950s tended to see a college degree as a means of a goodsafe career rather than as the mark of a liberal education. Working in the officemaking a big money and driving a Cadillac were their ideals. Cars became the materialized symbol of the

    American Dreamreflecting a persons wealth and social status.

    2.3 The American Language in 1950s

    As we all know, language is the carrier of the culture which it tries to express.

    Language is also the mark that indicates the civilization and progress of the human

    beings. So the mainstream culture of any nation inevitably requires a kind f civilized

    expression which conforms to its standards.

    In the 1950s, America had come to a stage of prosperous and affluent industrial

    society. American people were not concerned about the social problems any more.

    What they wanted to do was to make fortunes and become a member of the middle

    class. For most intellectuals at that time, they were employed by all kinds of postwar

bureaucratic agencies. They became the new middle class and the toll serving for the

    bureaucratic agencies. As a result, they lost their independence and moral convictions.

    In their writings, they used a formal and elegant language to describe America as a

    paradise. At the same time, several prominent writers such as Mark Twain and

    Hemingway used the colloquial language in their literary writings. However, this kind

    of language was rarely found in most writings. It was inevitable for most writers to be

    influenced by the mass media. So their writing was greatly commercialized. They

    wrote with a language that conformed to the language standard of the mainstream

    society. What‘s more, there was a strict censorship system in America. The writings

    full of obscene and rude words were not allowed to publish and banned from schools

    and libraries. Any writer at that time knew what risk he had taken if he wrote a work

    full of rude and obscene words. However, J.D.Salinger in his masterpiece The Catcher in the Rye in 1951 created his hero Holden who opposed to the mainstream

    culture and spoke an inelegant, obscene and profane language.

    III. Holden: A Rebel against the Mainstream Culture

    3.1 Rebellion against the Clique Spirit of Pencey Prep

    The clique spirit is characteristic of Pencey Prep school in which Holden studies.

    The clique spirit of Pencey Prep is one of the important parts of the mainstream

    cultural code. The so-called clique spirit makes students in several cliques and trains

    them to cling to common interests and hobbies of the clique. Finally they can form a

    kind of so-called fraternity or brotherhood. When they grow up and enter into the

    society, they continue to belong to those fixed cliques and strive for the profit of the

    organization. In the post-industrial society, the clique spirit is very important to the

    young men.

    In this novel, Holden‘s parents fail to choose a proper prep school for him. They only send their son to one private prep school after one another. Pencey Prep in

    Agerstown, Pennsylvania is the third expensive private prep school. It claims to mold

    boys into splendid clear-thinking young men, the ―strictly for the birds.‖ In fact, Pencey Prep strangles the individuality of the youth. In Holden‘s eyes, the school is boring, trivial and full of phonies. The atmosphere of Pencey Prep suffocated him. He

    cannot obey the rules and regulations which govern the boarding school. At Pencey,

    one is expected to play the game, whether it is the football contest pitting Pencey

    against Saxon Hall or what Dr.Thurmer, Pencey‘s headmaster, calls the larger ―game of life‖. The critic Geismer Maxwell further pointed out that Holden opposed to all

    those old routines and stuck to his own opinions, even about literature. Though he

    thinks he is quite illiterate, he reads a lot. He thinks that Out of America is a good book. In contrast, A Farewell to Arms has become a real phony book. Holden regards

    himself as a ―half-coward‖. To some extent, he is a type of hero who shows the strong

    opposition to the popular aggressive tough images in Hemingway‘s novel. However, even such a ―half-coward‖ hero hates bitterly ―these dirty little goddam cliques‖ which is the hypocritical team spirit in Pencey Prep. The students in Pencey Prep

    collude with one another and show prejudice to others. The peer group‘s influence is very powerful. ―Yow ought to go to a boy‘s school sometime…every body sticks together in these dirty little goddam cliques. The guys that are on the basketball team

stick together, the Catholics stick together, the goddam intellectuals stick together, the

    guys that play bridge stick together. Even the guys that play bridge to the goddam

    Book-of-the-Month club stick together.‖There was this one pimply, boring guy,

    Robert Ackley, that wanted to get in, and they wouldn‘t let him. Just because he was boring and pimply.‖

    But Holden feels identified with Ackley. In Pencey Prep one student should not refuse

    to receive a statement the others think true. James Castle is forced to jump out of the

    window to die just because he despises them and cannot accept the statement that they

    think true. This situation can be found everywhere in the book. you have to keep making believing you give a damn if the football team loses…‖I know this one Catholic boy…then, after a while right in the middle of the goddam conversation he

    asked me, did you happen to notice where the Catholic church is in town, by any

    chance? the thing was, you could tell by the way he asked me that he was trying to

    find out if I was a Catholic…he would‘ve enjoyed it more if I was a Catholic and all.‖I left all the foils and equipment and stuff on the

    goddam subway. It was not all my fault…The whole team ostracized me the whole

    way back on the train. It was pretty funny, in a way.‖

    Through the above examples, it is obviously seen that Pencey Prep puts

    pressures on people to conform to and to be like one another. Holden lives in the

    school and feels deeply the pressure. He sees through the deceptive and hypocritical

    clique spirit of Pencey Prep and condemns it by showing a nonconformist attitude and

    rebelling against it. So disgusted with Pencey Prep and his peers, he deliberately

    flunks several subjects and chooses to ―drop out‖ of the boring school.

    3.2 Rebellion against the American Dream

    The American Dream has played a significant role in the American life and

    become the inseparable part of the mainstream culture. Later on, it has even

    developed into the ―American Dream Complex‖. With the development of science and technology and economic prosperity and material affluence, the connotation of

    the American Dream has greatly changed. It has come to a stage of material

    corruption and decadence. Many writers have described the deteriorated American

    Dream in their writings. After the civil war, Mark Twain said that the American Myth

    had begun to evaporate. In the 1920s, Fitzgerald created The Great Gatsby showing

    that the American Dream had been broken. In the 1950s, J.D.Salinger exposed the

    corruption of the American Dream in The Catcher in the Rye. Undoubtedly, it is a complete and merciless negation of the American Dream. To Holden, this most

    important representation of the mainstream culture is nothing.

    The American Dream requires much of the children like Holden who come from

    a rich middle-class family. The change of the American Dream can be proved in

    Arthur Miller‘s novel The Death of a Salesman. In this novel, Arthur Miller pointed out that the college education is the key to success. In the 1950s, the Americans

    looked on the college education as a means to gain a comfortable and decent job. As

    the school advertisements of Pencey Prep says: ―Sine 1888 we have been molding

    boys into splendid, clear-thinking young men.‖ Both the teachers in Pencey Prep and

    Holden‘s parents want him to study abroad so that he can learn enough to be able to

    buy a goddam Cadillac someday. The successful representative is Holden‘s alumnus Ossenburger, a phony undertaker and the pet is a ―Pencey hero‖ named stradlater, a student in Pencey Prep. Old Ossenburger comes up to school in this big 19 goddam

    Cadillac and claimed what a ―hot-shot‖ he is. The ―Pencey hero‖ stradlater lives a leisurely life. He is a popular student in Pencey. These two are the kind of persons the

    school requires students to be.

    Holden‘s brother D.B used to be a promising writer, but now he has become a Hollywood scenarist. In most people‘s eyes, his job represents the typical American

    success story and a good example to follow. Even the little sister Phoebe requires

    Holden to be something, to be a lawyer like his father.

    However Holden cannot fit into the mainstream society and begins to reject the

    American Dream‘s requirements. In the beginning, Holden was expelled by Pencey

    Prep because he flunked four subjects. After reading the novel we know that Holden

    is actually an intelligent and sensitive student, not the type of ―illiterate‖ boy as he claims himself to be. In fact, Holden has read a lot of books like those written by

    Maugham, Hardy, William Shakespeare and many other writers. He is also good at

    English and writing. He has his own ideas and thought patterns. Probably, he is kicked

    out of Pencey Prep because of his defiance to the school education and educational

    system. Furthermore, he was disgusted with the suffocating atmosphere of the school.

    He cannot stand the life in all those private schools. ―All you to do is to talk about girls and liquor and sex all day…‖ He feels he was surrounded by phoniness. In the

    novel, schools are not a place where students can healthily grow up but a place to

    train students‘ competitive abilities to deal with the world. Stradlate is such an

    example the Pencey Prep cultivates. After the college graduation, the successful life

    course is to work in an office, to make a lot of dough, to play golf, to play bridge, to

    buy cars and drink Martinis, and to look like a ―hot-shot‖. In such schools, the education is completely materialized and utilized. Holden hates Pencey Prep and its

    educational system. So he rebels against it in his own way and decides to leave the

    school to go to the west.

    Holden disagrees with his little sister phoebe‘s suggestion to be a lawyer which is a status symbol in the mainstream society. He rejects his father‘s example, which is a typical success story. In the novel Holden‘s parents never formally appear in the novel, they lack the minimal real care for and understanding of Holden. His father

    wants him to go to Yale or Princeton, but he does not want to go to any of those Ivy

    League colleges. He neglects his parents‘ expectation for him. Here, the love between

    parents and their children has been replaced by the material pursuit. It is first in the

    family that Holden sees through the essence of the American Dreamcorrupted and degenerate reality. The most surprising reality can be seen from Holden‘s former English teacher, Mr.Antolini. He is an adult representative in the society and Holden

    trusts him the most. Mr.Antolini is married to an older woman, lives in an expensive

    apartment in New York and is a pretty heavy drinker. He even tries to make Holden

    believe his egoistic creed, ―the mark of the immature man is that he wants to die nobly for a cause, while the mark of the mature man is that he wants to live humbly

    for one.‖

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