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AHRC1367 10-10339

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AHRC1367 10-10339

    Naciones Unidas A/HRC/13/67

    Distr. general Asamblea General

    20 de enero de 2010

    Español Original: inglés

    Consejo de Derechos Humanos

    13º período de sesiones

    Tema 1 de la agenda

    Cuestiones de organización y de procedimiento

     Elección de miembros del Comité Asesor del Consejo de

    Derechos Humanos* **

     Nota del Secretario General

    1. Conforme a la resolución 5/1 del Consejo de Derechos Humanos, los miembros del

    Comité Asesor del Consejo de Derechos Humanos, compuesto por 18 expertos que actúan a

    titulo personal y cuyas candidaturas son propuestas por los Estados Miembros de las

    Naciones Unidas tras la celebración de consultas con sus instituciones nacionales de

    derechos humanos y con organizaciones de la sociedad civil, serán elegidos por el Consejo,

    en votación secreta, de la lista de candidatos que se hayan propuesto con arreglo a los

    requisitos acordados.

    2. La distribución geográfica de los miembros será la siguiente: a) 5 de Estados de

    África; b) 5 de Estados de Asia; c) 2 de Estados de Europa oriental; d) 3 de Estados de

    América Latina y el Caribe, y e) 3 de Estados de Europa occidental y otros Estados.

    3. En su séptimo período de sesiones, celebrado del 3 de marzo al 1º de abril de 2008,

    el Consejo eligió a los 18 miembros del Comité Asesor, 4 de ellos por un mandato de un

    año, 7 por un mandato de dos años y 7 por un mandato de tres años.

    4. El mandato de los 7 miembros elegidos por un plazo de dos años expirará en 2010.

    De esas 7 vacantes, 2 son para Estados de África, 2 para Estados de Asia, 1 para Estados de

    Europa oriental, 1 para Estados de América Latina y el Caribe y 1 para Estados de Europa

    occidental y otros Estados.

    5. De conformidad con el párrafo 71 de la resolución 5/1 del Consejo, la lista de

    candidatos se cerrará dos meses antes de la fecha de la elección, y la Secretaría pondrá la

    lista de candidatos y la información pertinente a disposición de los Estados Miembros y del

    público por lo menos un mes antes de la elección. Con arreglo al programa anual de trabajo

    del Consejo, este procederá a la elección de los siete miembros en su 13º período de

    sesiones.

     * Documento presentado con retraso.

     ** El anexo del presente informe se distribuye como se recibió, únicamente en el idioma en que se

    presentó.

    GE.10-10339 (S) 260110 150210

    A/HRC/13/67

    6. El 2 de noviembre de 2009, la Secretaría del Consejo dirigió una nota verbal a los

    coordinadores regionales interesados para alentar a la presentación de propuestas de

    candidaturas y les informó de que la fecha límite para la presentación de candidaturas era el

    11 de enero de 2010.

    7. En su sexto período de sesiones, el Consejo aprobó la decisión 6/102 sobre el

    seguimiento de su resolución 5/1, y en ella expuso los requisitos técnicos y objetivos para la

    presentación de candidaturas, que incluyen lo siguiente:

     a) Competencia y experiencia reconocidas en la esfera de los derechos humanos;

     b) Gran integridad moral, y

     c) Independencia e imparcialidad.

    8. Al seleccionar a los candidatos, los Estados deben aplicar las siguientes directrices

    sobre los requisitos técnicos y objetivos para la presentación de candidaturas:

     a) Competencia y experiencia:

    i) Estudios académicos en la esfera de los derechos humanos o en ámbitos

    conexos y/o experiencia en el desempeño de funciones de dirección en el campo de

    los derechos humanos en los planos nacional, regional o internacional;

    ii) Considerable experiencia (al menos cinco años) y contribuciones personales

    en la esfera de los derechos humanos;

    iii) Conocimiento del sistema de las Naciones Unidas y de los mandatos y

    políticas institucionales relacionados con los trabajos en el ámbito de los derechos

    humanos, así como conocimiento de los instrumentos, normas y disciplinas

    internacionales en materia de derechos humanos; sería preferible que estuviera

    familiarizados con diferentes civilizaciones y sistemas jurídicos;

    iv) Dominio de al menos uno de los idiomas oficiales de las Naciones Unidas, y

    v) Disponibilidad de tiempo para participar eficazmente en los trabajos del

    Comité Asesor, tanto asistiendo a sus períodos de sesiones como realizando las

    actividades que se les encomienden entre los períodos de sesiones;

     b) Gran integridad moral;

     c) Independencia e imparcialidad: quedarán excluidas las personas que ocupen,

    en el gobierno o en cualquier otra organización o entidad, cargos directivos que puedan dar

    lugar a conflictos de intereses con las responsabilidades inherentes al mandato; los

    miembros elegidos del Comité Asesor actuarán a titulo personal, y

     d) Otras consideraciones: se respetará el principio de no acumulación

    simultánea de funciones relativas a los derechos humanos.

    9. Al elegir a los miembros del Comité Asesor, el Consejo prestará la debida atención

    al equilibrio de género y a una adecuada representación de diferentes civilizaciones y

    sistemas jurídicos.

    10. En enero de 2010, la Secretaría había recibido de los Gobiernos de Alemania, Chile,

    Egipto, la Federación de Rusia, el Japón, Kenya, la República de Corea y Uganda ocho

    candidaturas para la elección de 2010 a los puestos de miembro del Comité Asesor.

    11. Las candidaturas recibidas figuran a continuación; los datos biográficos relativos a

    los candidatos figuran en el anexo. Esta información está también disponible en la Extranet

    del Consejo.

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    A/HRC/13/67

    Estados de África

    Estado miembro que propone la candidatura Experto propuesto Egipto Mona Zulficar

    Kenya Bernards Andrews Nyamwaya Mudho

    Uganda Alfred Ntunduguru Karokora

    Estados de Asia

    Estado miembro que propone la candidatura Experto propuesto Japón Shigeki Sakamoto

    República de Corea Chinsung Chung

    Estados de Europa oriental

    Estado miembro que propone la candidatura Experto propuesto Federación de Rusia Vladimir Kartashkin

    Estados de América Latina y el Caribe

    Estado miembro que propone la candidatura Experto propuesto Chile José Antonio Bengoa Cabello

    Estados de Europa occidental y otros Estados

    Estado miembro que propone la candidatura Experto propuesto Alemania Wolfgang Stefan Heinz

    GE.10-10339 3

A/HRC/13/67

    Anexo

    BIOGRAPHICAL DATA

    [ENGLISH ONLY]

    Ms. Mona Zulficar

    (Nominated by the Government of Egypt) EDUCATION

    American College for Girls, Cairo

    General Superior Level Secondary School

    Certificate 1965.

    Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

    B.Sc., Economics and Political Science, 1969.

    Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

    LLB, 1980.

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

    1. Chair Executive Committee

    Zulficar & Partners Law Firm

    June 1, 2009 to date

    2. Chair Executive Committee

    Shalakany Law Office

    January 1, 2006May 31, 2009

3. Managing Partner

     Shalakany Law Office, Cairo

     May 2004January 2006

4. Senior Partner and Deputy Chair, Executive Committee.

     Shalakany Law Office, Cairo

     1995April 2004.

5. Senior Partner

     Shalakany Law Office Cairo

     19871995

6. Partner

     Shalakany Law Office Cairo

     19781986.

    7. Economic Analyst and Office Manager

     Shalakany Law Office Cairo

     19761978

8. Administrative Assistant

     World Health Organization (WHO)

     Regional Office at Alexandria

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     and United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

     Educational Technology Project at Cairo

     19701976

9. Research Specialist

     Peoples‘ Assembly of Egypt (The Egyptian Parliament)

     19691970

    Zulficar & Partners is an international corporate law practice in Egypt offering a comprehensive range of legal services to a diverse array of commercial, industrial, and financial clients around the country and beyond. The Firm has been established in June 2009. However, its members have a long and outstanding track record as former partners and associates of Shalakany Law Office. The Firm consists of 7 partners and employs over 15 attorneys and a support staff of nearly 15 people in the conduct of its operations. Existing on the principle of providing its customers with the personal attention of a specific partner serving as the designated client manager, the Firm offers services in a range of specialties that include banking and capital markets, project finance, M&A, privatization issues, tourism and services, manufacturing, industrial and intellectual property. Zulficar and Partners also deals with major litigation and arbitration concerns, corporate practices, taxation requirements, and labour and employment questions. The Firm serves domestic commercial customers throughout Egypt and also offers its expertise to a host of multinational firms doing or seeking to do business in the country. Organized into specialized client service groups, the Practice counts such major multinationals as Citibank, Credit Agricole, Société Generale, Merrill Lynch, and the Bank of New York Mellon among its customers in addition to General Motors Corporation, EMethanex, Tanjong and Guardian Industries. On the other hand, the Firm also represents major local and regional clients, such as EFG Hermes, Citadel Capital, OCI, CIB, NBE, and Banque Misr. This list of representative business assisted by Zulficar & Partners testifies to the diversity of the Firm‘s capabilities and attests to its deserving recognition among the elite legal practices throughout the Middle East region.

    As Partner and Chair of its Executive Committee, Ms. Zulficar oversees the operations of its Banking and Capital Markets Group and directly supervises the efforts and activities of 5 partners and 10 associates who specialize in assisting clients with banking and capital markets transactions, project finance, mergers and acquisitions, securities, and corporate restructuring activities. A practicing attorney for more than 25 years, she is a specialist in major financial, industrial, and commercial transactions and has negotiated, drafted, and concluded all the major contracts required by some of the most important joint venture businesses in Egypt. Ms. Zulficar is continuously involved in major restructuring of companies, Mergers and Acquisitions transactions, and is particularly recognized for handling ground breaking or precedent transactions, such as the first Egyptian BOOT Power Plant in Sidi Krir for InterGen (the Bechtel/Shell subsidiary), the first GSM Telecom Concession to MobiNil (the France Telecom, Motorola Orascom subsidiary), the first leverage buyout of Helwan Cement Company on behalf of ASEC Cement, some of the major Orascom Telecom acquisitions and its US$2 billion acquisition finance, the US$300 million Heineken acquisition of Al Ahram Beverages, the Kraft acquisition of Family Foods, the acquisition of Egyptian Fertilizers Company, SAE by Citadel Capital for US$740 million, its sale to Abraaj Capital for US$1.4 billion, and then resale to OCI for US$1.6 billion, the largest bond issue in excess of L.E. one billion by Egyptian Cement Company and many other major international project finance and investment banking transactions including privatizations, IPO‘s, bond issues and

    GDR/ADR issues for CIB, MIbank, Suez Cement, PACHIN, Al Ahram Beverages, EFG Hermes, Lecico and others. Most recently she has handled on behalf of Orascom Construction and Industries, SAE (―OCI‖) the largest transaction

    in the history of the Middle East relating to the sale of Orascom Building Materials Holding, SAE to Lafarge, for approximately US $13 billion in addition to US $2 billion of assumed debt.

    Ms. Zulficar is playing a key role in drafting new legislation and developing existing economic legislation as adviser to the Minister of Finance, the Capital Market Authority, the Ministry of Housing and the Central Bank of Egypt and as member of the national drafting committees on many important laws, such as the new Telecom Law, the new Capital Market Regulations, the new Special Economic Zones Law and the new Banking Law regulations. She has also been appointed as a member of the Board of Directors of the Central Bank of Egypt and is directly involved in the ambitious Egyptian institutional and regulatory reform program of the banking and finance sector.

    Complementing her professional activities with a commitment to community activism, she has been an active advocate for human rights and women‘s rights in Egypt and internationally. She has recently been elected member and Vice GE.10-10339 5

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    Chair of the UN Human Rights Council Advisory Committee and she is also a member of the National Council for

    Human Rights in Egypt. For more details of her human and women rights activities, please see supplement. Pursuing a

    goal to maintain Zulficar & Partners among the region‘s best while improving its stature around the globe, Ms. Zulficar

    looks to the future with a commitment to building a strong second generation of lawyers in the Firm who will be

    qualified to take it through the third millennium.

MEMBERSHIPS

    Professional

    1. Chairperson (non-executive) EFG Hermes Holding, SAE 2008 to date.

    2. Board Member, the Central Bank of Egypt, 2003 to date.

    3. Egyptian Bar Association, 1980 to date.

    4. International Bar Association, 1987 to date.

    5. Member US Egypt Business Council, 2002 2008.

    6. Board Member, Egypt Kuwait Holding Co., SAE, 20032004

    7. Board Member, Suez Cement Company, SAE, 20062007

    8. Board Member, Banque du Caire, Cairo, Egypt, 20002003.

    9. The Drafting Committee, Amendments to the NGO Law 84 for 2002.

    10. The Drafting Committee of Law 1 for 2000 (Equal Right to Divorce Law) and its regulations, 19992000

    11. The Drafting Committee of the New NGO Law, 19982001

    12. The Drafting Committee of the new Banking Regulations, 2003, the CBE Fast Track Mediation and

    Arbitration regarding non performing loans and the Merger Regulations, 2005.

    13. The Drafting Team of the new Capital Market Law and Regulations of Egypt, 2003 and the new takeover

    regulations, 2007.

    14. The Drafting Committee of the new Telecom Law of Egypt, 20022003.

    15. Head of the Drafting Team of the new Special Economic Zones Law of Egypt, 20022003.

    16. Member of the National Committee on Social Legislation, Egypt, 19972000.

    17. Member, Council of Advisers of the World Bank for Middle East & North Africa Region from 2000 to date.

    Voluntary Membership/Public Service

    1. Elected member and Vice Chair, UN Human Rights Council‘s Advisory Committee 2008 – to date.

    2. Chair, External Gender Consultative Group of the World Bank, Washington D.C., 19992006.

    3. Chair, Women‘s Health Improvement Association, Cairo, June 2000 – to date.

    4. Chair, EFG Hermes Foundation, Egypt, 2006 to date.

    5. Chair, El Tadamun Foundation for Micro Finance, 2009

    6. Member, the National Council for Human Rights, 2004 to date (appointed by El Shura Council), and

    Chair of the Political and Civil Rights Committee 2008 to date.

    7. Member of the Board of Trustees, Sawiris Foundation for Social Development, 2001 to date.

    8. Member, Telecom Users Rights Board, National Telecom Regulatory Authority, Cairo, 2004 to date.

    9. Member of the Board of Trustees, Economic Research Forum, 2007 to date.

    10. Member, the National Council for Women, 20002006 (appointed by President Mubarak) and Chair of

    Legislative Sub-Committee on Family Law, 2006 to date.

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    11. Member, International Human Rights Council (Carter Centre of Emory University) presided by President J.

    Carter, 19931997.

    12. Vice Chair, National NGO Committee for Population and Development (19931996), and Member of

    International NGO Steering Committee for the UN International Conference on Population and

    Development, 1994, and coordinator/Editor of Egyptian NGO Platform Document to the ICPD, Cairo.

    13. Board Member, Population Communications International, New York, 19962002.

    14. Gender Advisory Panel, WHO Special Research Project on Human Reproduction, WHO Geneva, 1996 to

    1999.

    15. Vice Chair, Egyptian Society for Population and Development, 19952000.

    16. Board Member of the New Civic Forum, Friends of Children with Cancer and the Association for

    Consumers Protection (Egypt).

    17. Member of the National Rural Women‘s Commission, Egypt 1996 to 1999.

    18. Member, Board of Trustees, the French University in Egypt, 20052005.

    19. Member, Board of Trustees, EFTED (the Nile University in Egypt), 2004 to date. LANGUAGES

    1. Arabic

    2. English

    3. French

PUBLICATIONS, CONFERENCES, SEMINARS, LECTURES

    - As a student in 1965, was chosen by the Egyptian Government as the Egyptian delegate to the Herald Tribune

    World Youth Forum, New York, December 1964April 1965.

    - Lecturer at the American University in Cairo and the Banking Institute of the Central Bank of Egypt on Legal

    Aspects of Finance, Banking and Securities.

    - Speaker and participant at Harvard Law School Seminar on Investment in Egypt, 1978.

    - Author of numerous circulars, articles in legal and economic journals on Egyptian laws, particularly on investment,

    banking, company and import/export laws, including Banking and the Law, Euromoney 1993, Privatization Laws

    in Egypt, Cahiers sur l‘Egypte, 1998.

    - Co-author of ―Legal Rights of the Egyptian Women - in Theory and Practice‖ 1988, and Editor of the 1992 revised

    edition.

    - Speaker, National Center for Middle East Studies (1990) on Economic and Social Reform in Egypt.

    - Lecturer and Instructor on Gender Equity, UNICEF Legal Literacy Program 1993. - Keynote speaker in the Regional Workshop on Women‘s Health and CEDAW (June 1993) by the Alliance of Arab

    Women.

    - Speaker at Harvard Law School Islamic Studies Workshop in 1996 and International Conference on the Islamic

    Marriage Contract in January 1999 and author of chapter on ―The New Islamic Marriage Contract‖.

    - Author of ―A Situation Analysis of the Egyptian Women under the International Convention for the Elimination of

    all Types of Discrimination against Women‖ UNICEF 1993. – ―The Egyptian Woman in a Changing World‖, The

    New Civic Forum 1994 and UNDP 2000.

    - Speaker and author of paper on ―From Human Rights to Program Realty: Vienna, Cairo and Beijing in

    Perspective‖, the International Conference on Reproductive Rights at the American University Washington D.C.,

    November 1994.

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    - Vice Chairperson and Program coordinator of the National NGO Steering Committee for the preparation for the

    International Conference on Population and Development, (ICPD) Cairo 1994, Member of International NGO

    Steering Committee for the ICPD, Cairo 1994, and Member of the Organizing Committee of the International

    Women‘s Health Coalition‘s Conference on Reproductive Health and Justice, Rio de Janeiro, January 1994.

    - Participant in the NGO Forum of the Vienna World Conference on Human Rights, as Legal Advisor representing

    Africa to the International Tribunal on Violence against Women and Panelist in the Reproductive Rights and

    Health Workshop.

    - Author of ―Women in Development - A Legal Study‖ UNICEF, January 1995. - Keynote Speaker at the Civicus Second World Assembly inaugural plenary session - Budapest 1997 on the

    ―Citizens in their Multiple Roles: State, Market and Civil Society‖. - Member of the Organizing Committee for the Second Regional Arab NGO Conference, Cairo, May 1997.

    - Author of ―The Islamic Marriage Contract in Egypt‖ Harvard University, Islamic Studies Department –

    International Conference on the Islamic Marriage Contract, January 1999.

    - Panelist, World Bank Workshop on Dialogue across Cultures, Washington D.C., May 2002.

    - Speaker on Management of Credit Risks, Restructuring and Settlement of Disputes between Banks, Conference of

    the Cairo Regional Centre for International Commercial Arbitration, December 2003.

    - Co-author, Consultative Background Report for the Egypt Country Gender Assessment Report (Legal and Political

    Rights), World Bank, 2003.

    - Member of the Global Organizing Committee for Countdown 2015, ICPD at 10 and ensuing regional activities, and

    speaker at the inaugural session of the Global Roundtable, London Countdown 2015, convened by the International

    Planned Parenthood Federation (―IPPF‖) in London, August 2004. - Egyptian delegate to the First African Union Conference for African Human Rights Institutes, Addis Ababa,

    October 2004.

    - Speaker on Egypt‘s Role as Leader of the Arab World: How does it compare to the region and what are the risks, at

    Egypt Invest 2004, 2425 November 2004.

    - Speaker, International Conference on Democracy and Human Rights in the Arab World, UNESCO, Cairo,

    December 2005, on ―Political Parties and Women‘s Participation; the case of Egypt‖.

    - Speaker, International Conference, Towards Peace and Prosperity, Women: Engines of Change, Cairo, January

    2006, and author of paper on ―Peace as a Human Right‖. - Speaker, Amnesty International Workshop on Diplomatic Assurances and the Challenge to Human Rights, Beirut,

    18/19 January 2006.

    - Speaker, World Bank Global Workshop on Promoting the Gender Equality MDG, the Implementation Challenge,

    Washington D.C., February 2006.

    - Speaker, Workshop on Success of Women as Leaders of Change, convened by ABA in Bahrain, March 2006.

    - Central Bank of Egypt delegate to the ―Secondary Mortgage Markets: Institutions and Instruments‖, sponsored by

    JP Morgan, March 8-10, 2006.

    - Speaker, Conference on the Role of the Judiciary in Political Reform in Egypt and the Arab World, Cairo 13

    April, 2006.

    - Speaker, World Economic Forum on the Middle East, Sharm El Sheikh, May 2006 on the Promise of a New

    Generation.

    - Speaker at the ―Philanthropy for Development in Egypt‖ Conference, February 28, 2007 on the role of Foundations

    and the concept of Waqf under Egyptian Law.

    - Speaker at the Fourth Arab Reform Conference, Bibliotheca Alexandrina, March 13, 2007 on Human Rights,

    Women and Development.

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    - Speaker at the Conference on the Model Principles for NGO Laws in the Arab World, convened by the Arab

    Network for Non Governmental Organizations, and author of paper on ―Reforming the NGO Law 84 for 2002‖,

    March 2007.

    - Speaker at Seminar on launch of Arabic version of report of UN Research Institute for Social Development,

    convened by MERIC, UNRISD and Arab Women Organization at the Cairo University, Faculty of Economics and

    Political Science on March 28, 2007.

    - Speaker in the International Conference on Citizenship Rights held by the National Council for Human Rights,

    Cairo, December 2007 and author of concept paper ―Towards a New Law on Equal Opportunity and Non

    Discrimination‖.

    - Speaker, Second Ministerial Conference on Asia Middle Eastern Delegation, 56 April 2008. Sharm El Sheikh

    on the role of civil society

    - Speaker, ICNL Workshop on model NGO laws, Cairo 2425 May 2008. - Speaker and Chair of NHCR Conference session with the Egyptian bloggers regarding the ―Use of Internet and

    Freedom of Expression‖, Cairo 23 June 2008.

AWARDS AND RECOGNITIONS

    - Selected in December 1994 by Time Magazine as one of the Global 100 young leaders of the 21st Century.

    - UNDP Award 1995 in the occasion of celebrating the Women Global Day in Cairo.

    - Cairo Governor Award 2000 for defending women‘s rights, in addition to the Awards of Assiut Governor and the

    President of Assiut University, 1999 & 2000 for her key role in establishing the Cancer Hospital in Assiut

    University.

    - Awards of Guiza Governor, the Red Crescent Association and the Business Men Association in Guiza for her role

    in establishing the Children‘s Hospital in Guiza. - The CEWLA Award 2003 for her unique role in the issue of equal right to divorce law (Khul) by Law No. 1/2000.

    - The General Organization for Culture Award 2004 for her social work in defending women‘s rights and human

    rights.

    - NGO Network Award 2004 for her role in issuing the new Nationality Law giving equal rights to women in giving

    nationality to their children and defending the women‘s rights in general. - The Annual CEOSS Award for Social Leadership, 2005.

    - Recognized by almost all international legal directories as the leading lawyer in Egypt, particularly in the areas of

    banking, securities, project finance and M&A.

    - In 2009, La legion d’honneur by the President of France Nicola Sarkozy for her significant role, as a professional

    lawyer, in reinforcing economic and cultural relations between Egypt and France and for her achievements in the

    field of human rights.

    Supplement to Mona Zulficar’s CV

    Ms Zulficar has been a human rights and women‘s rights activist since the early 1980‘s. The following is a summary of

    some of her successful and ongoing campaigns:

    1. The New Marriage Contract and Equal Rights to Divorce

    Her first campaign was for a new form of Marriage Contract, that would allow women the option to retain their

    right to unilateral termination of the Marriage Contract, by divorce or repudiation (khul) and to restrict the

    right of a husband to take a second wife. She argued that although such rights are consistent with Sharia, they

    are not permitted by Family Law. She published her first draft of the New Marriage Contract in 1985 in

    conjunction with a campaign to raise women‘s consciousness of their legal rights.

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    She also played a leading role in negotiating the re-issuance of the progressive amendment to the Family Law passed in June 1985, to replace that which was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Constitutional Court in May 1985.

    Her campaign for a new Marriage Contract was subject to fierce debates in the press, on radio and TV, including the highest religious establishment such as Al Azhar, and she bravely responded in writing and on TV to various accusations of being pro-West or pro-East or by intending to breach religions and social tradition.

    She lead the new Marriage Contract campaign with civil society organizations in Egypt and spoke in conferences and seminars in Egypt and internationally, including the International Conference on Population and Development NGO Forum in Cairo, 1994 and Beijing Fourth Women‘s Conference in 1995. Harvard Law

    School - Islamic Studies Department got interested in her project and organized an International Conference on the Islamic Marriage Contract in January 1999 and are publishing a book on the matter in which she wrote a chapter. She also helped establish the Youth Association for Population and Development in 1995 and assisted its young members to launch a similar campaign in ten Egyptian universities, raising awareness of women‘s legal rights and advocating the new Marriage Contract.

    Through her exceptional bridge building skills, this campaign merged in 1992 with a project of the Ministry of Justice to introduce formal modifications to the then existing Marriage Contract Certificate, which is issued by a Ministerial decree, intended to include photographs of the wife and husband and other information. This joint project developed into a campaign to issue a new law on procedures in family law disputes which was issued after a long struggle as Law No. 1 for 2000. This law represented a revolutionary step in modernizing procedures in the family law disputes. It also provided for women‘s right to unilaterally terminate the marriage contract by repudiation (khul), providing for equality between men and women in this respect. This equality could only be achieved through using an indigenous language of human rights to advocate and in fact achieve this change which was intensively resisted by the prevailing patriarchal culture. In this case, she advocated the Islamic concept of ―khul‖, as basis for such equality.

    In addition, this law provided for a new family insurance scheme, facilitated execution of alimony and financial maintenance judgments, and secularized the procedural family law completely, by making the ultimate reference, in case the law is silent, to the Code of Procedures, and not to any Sharia sect, as was the case under the old law.

    In 2000, the new Marriage Contract form was reissued, in implementation of Law 1 of 2000, allowing women to include conditions in their marriage contracts restricting the husband‘s right to take a second wife and

    permitting women to terminate marriage unilaterally by divorce. The condition re termination by repudiation (khul) was no longer required in the new Marriage Contract, as she had succeeded to provide for this right in Law 1 of 2000.

    2. Equal Rights under the Nationality Law

    She joined this campaign in the early 1980‘s and advocated the change of the Nationality Law issued in the 1970‘s to provide for the equal rights of women married to foreigners to give Egyptian nationality to their

    children.

    While men gave Egyptian nationality to their children automatically and unconditionally, women married to foreigners did not have this right.

    A campaign was started in the 1980‘s and she led and backed specific activities intended to mobilize public

    opinion and put pressure for change. This included seminars, conferences, TV programs, producing films and video tapes of real life cases of Egyptian mothers and children suffering due to deprivation from Egyptian nationality. She also started and supported probono cases before the courts, aiming at reaching the Supreme Constitutional Court to rule that the relevant Nationality Law provisions were unconstitutional and in breach of Article 40 of the Constitution on equality before the law, without discrimination based on race, colour, sex, religion or creed.

    She participated intensively in all the Women‘s national conferences in the 1990‘s and campaigned for women‘s rights to equality under the Nationality Law and Family Law.

    In 2000, she was appointed as member of the National Council for Women (NCW). As such, her campaign developed and she wrote memoranda supporting this case within this instrumental institution to help rally political support for it.

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