Waste Tire Marketing Guide

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Waste Tire Marketing Guide

California Integrated Waste Management Board

    Waste Tire Marketing Guide

This guide provides recycling/marketing reference sources for businesses, academics, recyclers,

    and rubber product manufacturers interested in promoting the recovery and use of waste tires in


Table of Contents

    ? Definitions ? Market Information Resources ? Trade Groups and Associations ? Market Updates ? Legislative Mandates and Regulations ? References and Periodicals ? Supply Information ? Priority Market Development Actions ? Demand Information ? Miscellaneous Information


    Devulcanization is the breakdown of the bonds that provide rubber with its structural integrity.

    Gasification is a thermal process that turns a percentage of a scrap tire into a salable gas.

Pyrolysis is the thermal distillation of waste tires in the absence of oxygen.

    Waste tires are defined in Public Resources Code (PRC), Section 42807 (Waste Tire) as "… "Waste tire" means a tire that is no longer mounted on a vehicle and is no longer suitable for use

    as a vehicle tire due to wear, damage, or deviation from the manufacturer's original specifications.

    A waste tire includes a repairable tire (PRC ? 42805.5), scrap tire (PRC ? 42805.6), and altered waste tire (PRC ? 42801.5), but does not include a tire derived product (PRC ? 42805.7), crumb rubber (PRC ? 42801.7), or a used tire that is organized for inspection and resale by size in a rack

    or a stack in accordance with Section 42806.5.

This guide also contains information regarding end markets for whole tires, shredded tires and

    crumb rubber produced from waste tires.

Trade Groups and Associations

    International Tire and Rubber Association (ITRA), at, offers services to every aspect of the tire market, including scrap. P.O. Box 37203, Louisville, KY 40233-7203,

    (502) 968-8900 or (800) 426-8835, Fax: (502) 964-7859; E-mail:

California Integrated Waste Management Board Waste Tires Marketing Guide

    American Chemical Society, Rubber Division, at, is a technical group that

    links members from every section of the U.S. Its site offers an online research library. Akron

    University, P.O. Box 499, Akron, Ohio 44309-0449, (330) 972-7814, Fax: (330) 972-5269;


Scrap Tire Management Council, at, is an independent council under the

    Rubber Manufacturer's Association. The Council assists in the promotion of scrap tire as an

    economical and environmental commodity. 1400 K Street NW, Suite 900, Washington, D.C.,

    20005; (202) 682-4800, Fax: (202) 682-4854.

The Los Angeles Rubber Group, Subdivision of Rubber Division, American Chemical

    Society (ACS), at, provides information on its local ACS chapter activities and provides research information. C/O Dave M. Naylor, T E-mail:

Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP), at, operates

    under the U.S. Council for Automotive Research. This group works toward reducing the impact

    of vehicle disposal and promoting the use of recycled components in vehicle design.

    Legislative Mandates and Regulations

CIWMB Waste Tire Program

    The California Integrated Waste Management Board (Board) is dedicated to finding new uses for

    waste tires and to working in cooperation with local governments, industry, and the public to

    increase tire diversion. The Board's Waste Tire Program addresses both the environmentally safe

    handling and disposal of waste tires and the economically efficient diversion of waste tires from


The Board's Waste Tire Program is funded through a tire fee assessed on new retail tire sales.

    The Tire Recycling Act (Assembly Bill 1843, Brown, Statutes of 1989, Ch. 974) created the

    California’s Tire Management Program and the Tire Recycling Management Fund. Senate Bill

    876 (Escutia, Statutes of 2000, Ch. 838) increased the fee on tires from $0.25 to $1.00 and

    extended the realm of the fee to now apply to tires on new motor vehicles. The fee funds market

    development activities, including research contracts, business development grants, public

    information, and education materials and events. The fee also funds the Board's enforcement

    activities pertaining to waste tire handling and disposal, including the cleanup and abatement

    program for illegal and abandoned tire piles. SB 876 also made changes in the Waste Tire Hauler

    and Facility Permit programs to strengthen enforcement and revises the tire hauling manifest


The Waste Tire Diversion Section provides market assistance to businesses, local government,

    and private citizens concerning the reuse and recycling of waste tires. The section is also

    responsible for tracking market development trends for waste tire end uses. In addition, the

    section acts in support of the Recycling Market Development Zone (RMDZ) program to identify

    sources of whole tires, shredded tires, and crumb rubber for businesses that can utilize waste tires


California Integrated Waste Management Board Waste Tires Marketing Guide

    as a manufacturing feedstock, and for identifying potential loan applicants under the RMDZ Loan

    Program. For more information on the Waste Tire Diversion Section, contact Lin Lindert at (916)

    341-6430 or

The market development and enforcement programs are discussed in more detail in the following


Market Development Programs

    The Board has implemented a variety of incentive programs to promote markets for the use of

    waste tires. The programs include the designation of specific geographical areas where recycling

    businesses can locate and receive low interest loans to aid in start-up costs, recycled product

    procurement programs, discarded materials exchange programs, and grants to fund business and

    research development regarding waste tire recycling. The following market development

    programs are summarized:

    1. Tire Grant Program

    2. Recycling Market Development Zones Loan Program

    3. Research Contracts

    4. Tire Recycling Conferences

1. Tire Grant Program

    A portion of the revenue generated by the $1.00 tire fee funds a CIWMB grant program. The

    grants are given to promote business development using tires as a resource, for innovative

    research, and to help local governments deal with tire issues. Financial assistance

    opportunities are announced in the Notice of Funds Available (NOFA) distributed to local

    governments, businesses, and individuals on the Board's mailing list for each group as needed.

    The NOFA identifies program objectives, applicant eligibility, funds available, and final filing

    dates for the funding cycle. To be added to the mailing list, please call the Tire Recycling

    Hotline at (916) 341-6441, and leave your name, business (if any), address and telephone


2. Recycling Market Development Zone (RMDZ) Loan Program

    Within California, 40 Recycling Market Development Zones have been established. They vary

    in size and are in every part of the state, ranging from the Northeastern California Zone that

    encompasses the counties of Modoc, Lassen, and Plumas to the Los Angeles City Zone that

    covers only the enterprise districts of Los Angeles. Tire recycling companies located in these

    areas can apply to the loan program for a low interest loan for use in the start-up or expansion

    of their company as well as the purchase of machinery and equipment. Individual zones may

    also offer other incentives to businesses located in their jurisdictions. For more information,

    contact Robert Baumann at (916) 341-6526 or

3. Research Contracts

    The Board has funded a variety of research projects regarding waste tire recycling.

    Completed research projects are listed below:


California Integrated Waste Management Board Waste Tires Marketing Guide

    ? 1997 Emission Test for the TDF Trial Burn Program at Stockton Cogen, Inc. tested the

    air emissions of tires used in the coal cogeneration process. Carnot was contracted with

    to complete this report.

    ? Effects of Waste Tires, Waste Tire Facilities and Waste Tire Projects on the Environment,

    May 1996, compiled other studies on the environmental impact of waste tires. Lawrence

    Livermore Laboratory did the study.

    ? Tires as a Fuel Supplement: Feasibility Study reported CIWMB findings to the

    Legislature in January 1992, on the uses and methods of recycling waste tires. It was

    written with the assistance of the California Air Resources Board.

    ? Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis, Gasification, and Liquification,

    completed by CalRecovery in July 1995, reported findings on the use of waste tires in the

    processes listed.

    ? Recycled Tire Cutoff Wall Demonstration Project Technical Evaluation Report by

    California State University, Chico, School of Engineering, report on the feasibility and

    performance of waste tires in levee cutoff wall. (Available Spring 2001)

    Contact the Tire Recycling Hotline at (916) 341-6441, to request a report for the completed


4. Tire Recycling Conferences

    The Board has held three tire recycling conferences that gathered regulators, local government,

    industry and academians together to discuss the state of the state and industry in California

    with regards to waste tire handling, disposal and recycling. A fourth conference is tentatively

    scheduled for the fall of 2001.

Permit and Enforcement Programs

    The intent of the Board's waste tire permit and enforcement program is to ensure the

    environmentally safe handling and disposal of waste tires that cannot be diverted from disposal.

    The following permit and enforcement programs are discussed in this section:

    1. Registered Waste Tire Hauler Program and Waste Tire Facility Permits

    2. Waste Tire Cleanup Grants

    3. Waste Tire Enforcement Program

1. Hauler Program and Facility Permits

    ? Tire Hauler: In 1993, the California Legislature passed a law requiring that waste tire

    haulers be registered by the CIWMB (PRC ? 42950 et seq). Effective January 1995,

    regulations were implemented to address the permitting of waste tire haulers pursuant to

    the statute (CCR ? 18449-18469). Under the regulations, every person transporting more


California Integrated Waste Management Board Waste Tires Marketing Guide

    than four waste tires at once must hold a valid waste tire hauler registration, with specific

    exemptions provided in CCR ? 42954. Registration is issued by the CIWMB only.

    ? Waste Tire Facilities Permits: Under California law, any facility storing 500 or more

    waste tires must be permitted by the Board. If the recipient of waste tires does not submit

    an application and obtain a Waste Tire Facility Permit or clean up the site, the facility/site

    is referred to the enforcement section for action.

2. Waste Tire Cleanup Matching Grants

    This program provides funding to local governments on a competitive basis for removal,

    transportation, and disposal of waste tires from legacy tire piles and tire piles exceeding 500

    waste tires. For Fiscal Year 1999-2000, the Board allocated $1,000,000 to this grant

    program with a maximum of $75,000 per successful applicant. Applicants are required to

    provide a 25 percent match of the total project cost. For more information regarding the

    program, please contact Diane Nordstrom at (916) 341-6448 or

3. Waste Tire Enforcement Program

    Since 1994, the Board’s Waste Tire Enforcement staff have initiated an intensive inspection

    program with the intention of generating waste tire facility (WTF) permit applications. In

    addition, Enforcement staff have also investigated waste tire sites that have been referred by

    local agencies and pose a threat to the public health, safety or the environment. Since the

    inception of the program more than 7.7 million waste tires have been removed as a result of

    direct enforcement actions taken by the Board against operators and/or property owners of

    these waste tire facilities. Whenever possible, the Board requires the property owner or the

    party responsible for dumping the tires to pay for the cleanup.

    Supply Information

California has more registered vehicles than any other state. Approximately 31 million reusable

    and waste tires are generated each year. In addition, an estimated two million waste tires are

    stockpiled throughout the state, posing a possible health and safety risk (through fire and vectors)

    to the public.

Currently, there is no formal system for tracking the generation, reuse/recycling, and disposal of

    waste tires. The generation estimates discussed in this document are based on population; the

    number of vehicles registered in the state; vehicle miles traveled; and average fuel consumption.

    However, the revised manifest system being developed should solve the problem of determining

    the number of tires generated in the state, as well as the number of tires reused and recycled.

    Currently, reuse/recycling numbers are based on information from businesses involved with waste

    tire collection and processing.


California Integrated Waste Management Board Waste Tires Marketing Guide

    Demand Information

To develop the market for waste tires, the Board has allocated $9.5 million in tire recycling grant

    funds since 1990. The Board has provided funding for rubberized asphalt projects, crumb rubber

    as a soil amendment in athletic fields, in playground mats, and other molded rubber products and

    as a fuel supplement in cement kilns, and energy facilities.

In 1999, approximately 31 million waste tires were generated in California, approximately

    2 million were imported from nearby states, and slightly more than 20 million (64.5%) were

    diverted from disposal. The remaining balance of waste tires is currently going to disposal, both

    legal and illegal.

The following end markets for waste tires are discussed in more detail:

1. Tires as a Fuel Supplement

    2. Retreading

    3. Value Added Rubber Products

    4. Civil Engineering

    5. Export of Waste Tires to Foreign Markets

    6. Potential Markets

1. Tire as a Fuel Supplement

    Using tires as a fuel supplement in cement kilns and co-generation facilities constitutes the

    largest market for waste tires, both nationally and in California. Of all waste tires generated in

    California in 1999, 38.8 percent were used as fuel. Tire Diverted Fuel (TDF) can be whole or

    shredded tires used as a fuel. TDF is a very high quality fuel having about 13,000 to 15,000

    BTU per pound, (7,200 to 8,300 kcal/kg), about the same as a superior quality coal. Most

    major boiler manufacturers have developed the technology to efficiently burn shredded tires,

    but to date they are not yet utilizing this resource in significant quantities.

    ? Cement Kilns

    In 1999, 4.1 million tires were used in three cement kilns in California as a supplemental

    fuel. Tires are used in place of coal because they have higher heat energy by weight and

    kilns can (in some cases) charge a tipping fee of $.40 per tire that is lower than the tipping

    fee at landfills. By using tires as fuel, cement kilns reduce emissions of criteria air

    pollutants (pollutants for which emission standards have been set) NOx and SOx (oxides

    of nitrogen and sulfur). The steel belts in the tires offer a source of iron ore for the cement

    making process.

    ? Coal Cogeneration

    Cogeneration is the process of simultaneously producing a heat source and power in a

    single thermodynamic process. There are eight plants in California operating as coal

    Cogeneration plants--Rio Bravo Poso, Rio Bravo Jasmin and Mt. Poso in Bakersfield;

    Jackson Valley Energy in Ione; Port of Stockton District Energy Facility, Air Products


California Integrated Waste Management Board Waste Tires Marketing Guide

    Stockton, and Stockton Cogen in Stockton, and GWF Power System in Hanford. Of

    these, the Stockton Cogen Plant is using shredded tires as a supplement with the coal.

    Contact,Tom Heller, General Manager, at (209) 983-0391 for more information. Recently,

    the Port of Stockton District Energy Facility and the Jackson Valley Energy Plant

    conducted emissions tests funded by the Board. Each of these plants could use

    1-2 million tires per year.

2. Retreading

Tire retreading is an established market for waste tires. Based upon surveys of industry

    contacts, about 2.5 million retreaded tires were sold in 1999. Most tire retreads are heavy truck tires, which use economically competitive tires with new truck tires. Passenger tires are not designed for retreading, thus diminishing this market for passenger tires.

3. Value Added Rubber Products

One area that offers more diversion potential for waste tires is through expanding crumb rubber

    markets. In 1999, an estimated 5.5 million tires were diverted from disposal through crumb

    rubber applications. End uses included rubberized asphalt, molded products, mats, playground

    covers, speed bumps, and carpet pads. Recent technological improvements in crumb rubber

    production allow smaller particle sizes, which have wider applications in molded rubber and

    composite products.

? Rubberized Asphalt Concrete (RAC)

    The Rubberized Asphalt Concrete Technology Centers (RACTC) are cooperative efforts

    with Los Angeles County and Sacramento County and the CIWMB to promote the use of

    crumb rubber from scrap tires in roadway rehabilitation projects. The RACTC offers

    services to local public agencies throughout California at no charge. These include

    regional workshops, on-site project assistance, problem solving, technical assistance and a

    toll-free hotline. For more information in Los Angeles, contact Lynn Nicholson at (888)

    777-4775 and in Sacramento contact Theron Roschen at (800) 373-1113. The RACTC

    also has a website at

? Rubber Products Manufacturers List

    Tires can be used in the production of everything from porous irrigation pipe to sound

    barriers. There are many manufacturers around the United States turning used tires into

    valuable and marketable goods. Please see our list of manufacturers at:

4. Civil Engineering

     Tires can be used in numerous structural and nonstructural applications, such as alternative

    daily cover at landfills, lightweight fill, fence construction, and retaining walls.

Alternative Daily Cover (ADC)


    California Integrated Waste Management Board Waste Tires Marketing Guide

    State requirements regarding ADC prescribe the quality, quantity, and methodology employed

    in the application of daily cover at municipal solid waste landfills. Specifically,

    27 CCR ? 20164 of defines daily cover material as

    "…cover material placed on the entire surface of the active face at least at the

    end of each operating day in order to control vectors, fire, odor, blowing litter

    and scavenging."

The Board has approved the use of shredded tires as an ADC at municipal solid waste landfills.

    The Board has also determined that this is an approved diversion end use. This represents a

    potentially large market in California because there are 190 landfills in the state. A large

    municipal landfill may use up to 3 million tires per year in this application. The two landfills in

    California using ADC are the Altamont Landfill in Alameda County and the Chicago Grade

    Landfill in San Luis Obispo County.

Other civil engineering applications include:

    ? Loose Fill. Shredded tires can be used as fill for low places and trenches. A layer of

    topsoil would then be placed over. This allows excess water to drain as well as acting as

    fill material.

? Slope Stabilization. Shredded tires are used on inclines to prevent sliding of the soil

    because of the tire material's lighter weight compared with the surrounding soil. This

    reduces the risk of mud and landslides.

? Levee Slurry Walls. Tires can be chipped into 1-2 inch pieces and added to a slurry

    mixture to form a levee cutoff wall. The mixture hardens into a water impermeable levee.

    The California State University, Chico, is testing this in a partnership with a private

    company. Contact Rovan Younger at (530) 898-5216 or

? Landfill Leachate Collection Systems. Shredded tires are used as a filter material in this

    process, which allows the leachate to drain and be pumped elsewhere for treatment. The

    Yolo County landfill uses this method to drain their local landfill. The leachate drains into

    a sump pool and is pumped out to a wastewater treatment center.

    ? Baled Tires. Baled tires have been used in several structural and non-structural civil

    engineering applications such as retaining walls, berms, and as fences. Tire bales have

    been successfully used as fill material in a Gabion-style retaining wall in Humboldt County.

    The light weight of the tire bales make them an attractive alternative to conventional fill

    materials, such as pea gravel. When used in a fencing or berm application, the bales are

    usually covered with stucco, gunite, or dirt.

    5. Export of Waste Tires to Foreign Markets


California Integrated Waste Management Board Waste Tires Marketing Guide

    Tire export (consisting of both reusable and waste tires) reduces the number of tires requiring

    eventual disposal in California. According to industry contacts and staff estimates,

    approximately 1.5 million tires were exported for reuse, retreading, and crumb rubber

    production in 1999.

6. Potential Markets

    There is a potentially large market for waste tires through the following technologies. These

    technologies need to be further developed to make them more economically competitive.

    ? Pyrolysis - There are currently few markets for the products of pyrolysis (oil, gas, carbon

    black, and steel), principally because the revenue from the sale of the products does not

    cover the cost of producing them.

    ? Devulcanization - The major advantage to devulcanization is the ability to take old tires

    and break them down into a feedstock that could be used to make new tires and other

    rubber products. Tire manufacturers believe that new tires may be manufactured with up

    to 10 percent recycled-content within the next two to three years.

    ? Gasification - Because of the high cost of production, there is currently no commercially

    viable market for this product.

Market Information Resources

California Materials Exchange (CalMAX), at is a free service

    provided by the Board. It is designed to help businesses find markets for materials they have

    traditionally discarded.

Global Recycling Network Internet Business Recycling Center, at is a free-

    access public site dedicated to recycling-related information.

    Recycler's World, at is a free world-wide information exchange for those who wish to buy, sell or trade recyclable commodities, used materials, and collectible items.

    Secondary material can be direct-marketed through this site.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's page, at links to various branches of

    the agency that oversee environmental issues and recycling.

    Shred-Tech, at manufactures shredders and shredding reduction systems for industrial, commercial, and government applications.


California Integrated Waste Management Board Waste Tires Marketing Guide

Market Updates

In following tires through their life cycle, starting with their purchase to the end, there is a price to

    pay. Table 1 compares the difference in price between retreaded and new tires. Table 2 exhibits

    the price range for different sizes of crumb rubber. Finally, Table 3 shows the difference in

    tipping fees in the three regions of California for whole and shredded tires.

    Table 1. Prices for New Tires versus Retreads

    Passenger Light Truck

    Tire Size Cost New Cost Tire Size Cost New Cost

    Retread Retread P175-80R-13 $35 - $90 $24.00* LT215-85R-16 $70 - $175 $70 P185-75R-14 $45 - $100 $27 LT265-75R-16 $74 - $112 $69 - $91 P235-75R-15 $57 - $103 $29 - $29 LT31x10.5-16 $100 - $117 $69 - $110 * Cost data is based on a sampling of retail store prices for new tires vs. retreads (Third Quarter 2000)

Crumb rubber is graded by mesh size. Mesh size is how many pieces per square inch. For

    example, 10 Mesh is ten pieces per inch. As the number increases, the size decreases. 10 Mesh

    rubber is very versatile and can be used in everything from mats to molded products. 40 Mesh

    has a higher cost and is used mainly in molded rubber products. 80 Mesh is used primarily in

    molded products that require a higher density or smoother surface finish.

    Table 2. Price for Crumb Rubber

    Mesh Size Cost Price, FOB, Lbs.

    10 Mesh 10-18 cents

    40 Mesh 14-42 cents

    80 Mesh 25-52 cents

     Note: Price data is based on a sampling of crumb rubber producers.

    Table 3. Waste Tire Landfill Tipping Fees (100 tires = 1 ton)


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