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Australias Most Successful Alternative to Sewerage South

By Todd Woods,2014-05-05 20:21
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Australias Most Successful Alternative to Sewerage South

    Portals > Wastewater

    Management for Small Communities > Development Scenarios

    (Alternatives for Wastewater Management) > Scenario I > On-

    site Management of Wastewater

    Australia‟s Most Successful Alternative to Sewerage: South

    Australia‟s Septic Tank Effluent Disposal Schemes, by: Neil

    Palmer & others.

the development & use of septic tank effluent disposal schemes has resulted in

    widespread acceptance and use of a practical and affordable alternative to

    sewerage…[more]

    http://www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/Sewerage/articles/australia.pdf

Community-Based Technologies for Domestic Wastewater

    Treatment and Reuse: Options for Urban Agriculture, by:

    Gregory D. Rose Centre Intern Spring 1999, International

    Development Research Center, Ottawa, Cities Feeding People

    Series (Report 27) (UNU/IAS)

contains information on wastewater management, reuse, on-site sanitation, isolation

    of domestic wastewater & selected treatment technologies….[more]

    http://www.ias.unu.edu/proceedings/icibs/ibs/ibsnet/report27.pdf

Onsite/Decentralized Wastewater Systems, US-EPA Office of

    Water, Office of Wastewater Management

Decentralized treatment systems include individual onsite septic systems, cluster

    systems, and alternative wastewater technologies. EPA has developed this web site

    to provide tools to help communities investigate and implement an

    onsite/decentralized management program….contains links to various related aspects (management, technology….)…[more]

    http://www.epa.gov/owm/mtb/decent/index.htm

Guidelines for Management of Onsite/Decentralized

    Wastewater Systems (US-EPA Draft)

The Guidelines will assist communities in establishing comprehensive management

    programs for properly functioning onsite/decentralized wastewater systems. The

Guidelines list five separate model programs in which management requirements of

    the system become more rigorous as the technology becomes more complex and the

    sensitivity of the environment increases…[more] http://www.epa.gov/owm/mtb/decent/downloads/guidelines.pdf

Waquoit Bay NERR: New approaches in on-site wastewater

    treatment (Coastlines Newsletter, EPA Office of Water)

    The Waquoit Bay (Massachusetts) National Estuarine Research Reserve, located on

    the south shore of Cape Cod in the towns of Falmouth and Mashpee, has been

    exploring the use of denitrifying on-site wastewater treatment systems as one

    approach to reducing nitrogen loading from the watershed to coastal waters…. Four

    papers are being written on these topics….[more] http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/estuaries/coastlines/coastlines6.2/waquoi

    t.html

UNSEWER, Alternatives for Unsewered Communities, Software

    (US-EPA)

This program is an extensive guide to the facilities planning process for small

    communities. Topics covered include needs documentation, development of

    alternative solutions and selection of the best response, as well as treatment

    management and implementation. An improved and expanded section on sludge is

    included as well….[more]

    http://www.epa.gov/seahome/unsewer.html

DECENT,Decentralized Onsite Management for Treatment of

    Domestic Wastes, Software (US-EPA)

This program provides operation and maintenance information for on-site

    wastewater treatment systems, such as septic systems….[more]

    http://www.epa.gov/seahome/decent.html

Proceedings of: Technical Expert Consultation on Appropriate

    and Innovative Wastewater Management for Small

    Communities in Countries of the EMR, Nov.2000, Amman, papers and presentations of unique relevance (middle east & north africa

    Jordan. region)…[more]

     http://www.emro.who.int/ceha/CWS/AmmanMeetingNov2000-

    Proceedings.htm

Products of: Technical Expert Consultation on Appropriate and

    Innovative Wastewater Management for Small Communities in

    Countries of the EMR, Nov.2000, Amman, Jordan. “Guiding

    Principles & Options for Accelerated Extension of Wastewater

    Management”

This document describes the recommended new approach for accelerated extension

    of sustainable and environmentally responsible wastewater management services to

    small communities in EMR countries. The document also describes the required

    education, training, research, demonstration, advocacy and networking efforts for

    wider promotion of the recommended approach…. http://www.who.sci.eg/ceha/CWS/AmmanMeetingNov2000-

    Products.htm

A Brief History of Sewerage and A Look at Modern Water

    Conservation Practices, Water Conservation in the 20th Century

    Versus 3700 years of Sewerage (by: Jonathan Berry, ECO

    Design Sustainable Housing)

I am interested in comment on an alternative to sewerage systems in the form of

    onsite waste recycling systems for, in the first instance, domestic toilet waste and

    grey water from our laundries, bathrooms and kitchens….waste management before

    & today with a variety of interesting technical options…[more]

    http://www.powerup.com.au/~edesign/ABriefHistoryofSewerage.htm

Cooperative Extension/Water Quality Program, Town of New

    Shoreham Wastewater Management (University of Rhode Contains some information tips on septage tanks & disposal, water saving devices…

    and some useful definitions…[more] Island)

    http://www.uri.edu/ce/wq/owtc/bighp/wwm_ord.html#SECTION%205.0

    Inspecting & Maintaining Residential Septic Systems (The

    Home Inspection & Construction Information Supersite)

Septic system inspection procedures, defects in onsite waste disposal systems, septic

    tank problems, septic drainfield problems, checklists of system components and

    things to ask. Septic system maintenance and pumping schedules…[more]

    http://www.inspect-ny.com/septic/septtext.htm

Middle East Wastewater Use Clearinghouse / Description of

    Wastewater On-site Systems. Conventional and Alternative On-site Sewage Systems

    http://weather.nmsu.edu/hydrology/wastewater/description_of_waste

    water_systems.htm

Water and Wastewater (Building Design)

Because the site is served by the local sewerage system, regulations prohibited the

    treatment of blackwater on the site…[more]

    http://www.netspeed.com.au/abeccs/healthy%20house/hhouse%20bu

    ilding%20design.htm#wastewater

    Case Studies (Greenhouse)

    Building a totally sustainable home….[more] http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/yourhome/technical/pdf/fs70.pdf

Separation technology separates the toilet waste (blackwater) from the rest of the sewage (graywater) There are two part of a system that uses separation Separation Technology technology….[more]

    http://septic.coafes.umn.edu//SystemOptions/Separation.html

The RUCK System

In the RUCK system the household's greywater (washwater) and blackwater (toilet

    and kitchen sink wastes) are plumbed separately and flow to separate septic tanks

    (Figure 1). The blackwater flows from the septic tank to the aerobic RUCK filter

    where it is nitrified and then flows to the anaerobic greywater septic tank for

    denitrification…[more]

    http://www.barnstablecountyhealth.org/AlternativeWebpage/Ruck/Ruc

    k.htm

Evaluation of Sources Control Sanitation Systems, by: Zifu Li &

    others. The 27th WEDC Conference “People & Systems for Water,

    Sanitation and Health”, Lusaka, Zambia 2001.

Useful information on classification of household wastewater flows….[more]

    http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/cv/wedc/conferences/27/pre-

    prints/Li.pdf

On-lot Sewage Program (Home Buyer's Guide)

Properly functioning on-lot systems treat, distribute and dispose of sewage through a

    clean, economic and efficient process …[more]

    http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/watermgt/Wqp/WQP_WM/FACTS/

    pa1607.htm

On-Site Sewage Management System Options (Section 5)

Very useful document (wastewater minimization, wastewater characteristics, system

    options)…[more]

http://www.dlg.nsw.gov.au/dlg/dlghome/documents/information/secti

    on5.pdf

Domestic wastewater on-site management systems

This document emphasises the importance of having environmentally sensitive on-

    site domestic wastewater management systems. It gives a brief overview of the

    EPA's proposed guidelines on this issue. These guidelines will be available in the near

    future.

    http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/mao/domesticwastewater.htm

4.1 On-site wastewater treatment systems,

    (ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGIES in wastewater

    treatment for the implementation of the UNEP GLOBAL

    PROGRAMME OF ACTION (GPA) “GUIDANCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER”)

    http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/Publications/Freshwater/SB_summary/5.asp

A. New Onsite Disposal Systems Management Measures

The objective of the management measure is to prevent the installation of

    conventional OSDS in areas where soil absorption systems will not provide adequate

    treatment of effluents containing solids, phosphorus, pathogens, nitrogen, and

    nonconventional pollutants prior to entry into surface waters and ground

    water …[more]

    http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/MMGI/Chapter4/ch4-5a.html

Technical Datasheet Septic Systems

    http://www.everhard.com.au/factsheets/fa_b_std.pdf

Domestic Wastewater Management Series - Reuse Options for http://epanote2.epa.vic.gov.au/EPA/Publications.nsf/d85500a0d7f5f07b4a25

    Household Wastewater, (EPA Victoria Information Bullet in, 65d1002268f3/7a4f9f7400a82b43ca256af600140478/$FILE/812.pdf November 2001).

    National Research Needs Conference Proceedings: Risk-Based

    Decision Making for Onsite Wastewater Treatment, May 19 20

    2000, St. Louis, Missouri.

    http://www.csuchico.edu/cwtrc/PDFFILES/fatenutrients.pdf

    Scenarios for Sound Practices - Sanitation Alternatives

    Considered in SANEX

For a low population density and where land is available around dwellings, on-site

    systems with on-site reuse provide householders with options that are a function of

    water availability, toilet type and desired reuse of blackwater and greywater…… For a

    high population density, community ablutions blocks with payment for use can work

    well…[more]

    http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/Publications/Freshwater/SB_summary/17.asp

    Septic Tank and Collection Well Accreditation Guidelines Part 4 http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/public-

    health/ehb/general/wastewater/SEPTIC~GU3.pdf

Greywater Treatment and Reuse, Tufileh, Jordan. (Cities

    Feeding People)

Using a revolving fund, the CARE-financed permaculture pilot and greywater reuse

    project (PPP) in Tufileh, Jordan, helped about 50 poor periurban families recover

    household greywater to grow fruit and vegetables. An IDRC-funded evaluation of the

    project indicated that it helped families preserve valuable freshwater, achieve

    greater food security and generate income through sales of produce…[more] http://network.idrc.ca/ev.php?URL_ID=6322&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=20

    1&reload=1032692741

The main objective is the standardization of means and methods for the up-scaling Greywater Treatment and Reuse for Peri-Urban Horticulture and replication of onsite greywater treatment plants for decentralized aggregates of (West Bank, Palestine) 15 to 20 houses….[more]

    http://network.idrc.ca/ev.php?URL_ID=6338&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&UR

    L_SECTION=201&reload=1032692741

Greywater Treatment and Reuse in West Bekaa, Lebanon

Initially, it involves the implementation of greywater treatment systems using trickle filters in 30

    homes. The results will then be extended throughout a five-community cluster of surrounding

    villages….[more]

    http://network.idrc.ca/ev.php?URL_ID=8008&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201&r

    eload=1032692741

Wastewater Management for Small Communities in Palestine,

    by: Prof. Rashid Al-Sa‟ed. Paper presented at Technical Expert

    Consultation on Appropriate & Innovative Wastewater

    Management for Small Communities in Countries of EMR, 6-9

    Nov., 2000. Amman, Jordan (WHO/CEHA)

    http://www.emro.who.int/ceha/Item15Paper.pdf

Grey Water Recycling & Reuse

Factsheet (2.3 Wastewater Reuse)

Onsite wastewater reuse provides numerous opportunities to reduce water use within

    the home…[more]

    http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/yourhome/technical/pdf/fs23.pdf

Create an Oasis with Greywater, Excerpt ~ The Gravity Drum

    http://www.oasisdesign.net/books/co.htm

Greywater Treatment and Reuse, Tufileh, Jordan. (Cities Using a revolving fund, the CARE-financed permaculture pilot and greywater reuse Feeding People) project (PPP) in Tufileh, Jordan, helped about 50 poor periurban families recover

     household greywater to grow fruit and vegetables. An IDRC-funded evaluation of the

    project indicated that it helped families preserve valuable freshwater, achieve

    greater food security and generate income through sales of produce…[more]

    http://network.idrc.ca/ev.php?URL_ID=6322&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201

    &reload=1032692741

Greywater Treatment and Reuse for Peri-Urban Horticulture

    (West Bank, Palestine)

The main objective is the standardization of means and methods for the up-scaling

    and replication of onsite greywater treatment plants for decentralized aggregates of

    15 to 20 houses….[more]

    http://network.idrc.ca/ev.php?URL_ID=6338&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&UR

    L_SECTION=201&reload=1032692741

Greywater Treatment and Reuse in West Bekaa, Lebanon

Initially, it involves the implementation of greywater treatment systems using trickle filters in 30

    homes. The results will then be extended throughout a five-community cluster of surrounding

    villages….[more]

    http://network.idrc.ca/ev.php?URL_ID=8008&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201&reloa

    d=1032692741

Safe Use of Household Greywater, Guide M-106. Revised by

    Marsha Duttle, Extension Research Assistant -College of

    Agriculture & Home Economics- New Mexico State University

The New Mexico Environment Department and the Construction Industries Division

    govern liquid waste disposal in New Mexico, and issue permits for approved systems.

    Greywater use is restricted by the Liquid Waste Disposal Regulations (LWDR), but

    the Environment Department can grant a variance

    if the applicant shows that:…[more] http://www.cahe.nmsu.edu/pubs/_m/m-106.html

     It is not advisable to reuse laundry wash water due to high detergent concentrations. Only divert in hot, dry conditions, in quantities that can be taken up by plants. Use a Greywater licensed plumber to install the greywater diversion system….[more] http://www.yvw.com.au/corporate/savingwater/inthegarden/greywate

    r.html

Present Technological Options for Water Use and Treatment in

    the Context of the Ecological Integrity Approach, UWEP

    Occasional Paper, Herbert Aalbers & Minne J. Sietzema,

    December 1999

The ecological integrity approach is a way of sustainable thinking and is

    characterised by three elements, which may complement each other: 1) differentiate,

    2) cascade, 3) closing cycles. All three elements require water and energy saving

    environmental technologies. Technologies, such as rainwater harvesting, water

    saving devices and decentralised wastewater treatment and re-use systems, may be

    feasible for houses, hotels, holiday resorts and industries, usually with high levels of

    water consumption. Examples from these technologies can be found at different

    places in the Netherlands and may also be feasible in the Egyptian situation, both

    from economic and ecological integrity perspectives….[more] http://www.waste.nl/dochtm/occpap/OP_tech.htm

Sustainable Options for Domestic Water Sewage, by: Bob

    Patrick. (Part of a group project, Geography 449 class Spring 1999

    Semester - Directed by Dr. Mark Roseland Ph.D. MCIP)

Investigate potential for greywater treatment and reuse for irrigation/fireflow

    purposes…[more]

    http://www.univercity.ca/bmcp/geog-449/5-1.html#5.1.4

North County Times, Gray-water use not very popular - Few

    take advantage of state law promoting use of household

    wastewater, by: GIGI HANNA

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