DOC

GERUNDS

By Tiffany Henderson,2014-01-15 12:57
16 views 0
GERUNDS

    GERUNDS

    A)in subject position: Gerunds used as a subject.

     e.g. 1. I don’t like to smoke. It’s very dangerous for health.

     Smoking is very dangerous for health.

     2. She can’t speak French well.It’s very difficult.

     Speaking French is very difficult.

     3. Fishing is my favourite sport.

    B) in object position: Gerunds used as an object.

     We use Gerund after the following verbs:

     finish

     enjoy

     S + (don’t) mind + Ving(Gerund)

     dislike

     can’t stand

     feel like

     avoid

     keep on

     fancy

     We use Gerund or Infinitive after the following verbs:

     like

     love

     hate

     start/begin

     prefer gerund (Ving)

     S + help +

     stop* infinitive (to V1)

     try*

     remember*

     forget*

     can’t bear

    * meanings are different in gerund and infinitive forms.

     1

Examples:

     I like swimming.(=I like to swim)

     She prefers drinking tea.( = She prefers to drink tea)

     Jim finished doing his homework.

     She stopped working hard.

     Let’s go sailing.

    C)Gerunds used after some conjunctions :

a) after b)before c)instead of d)without

a)after

     e.g. She knocked at the door. Then she entered.

     After knocking at the door,she entered.

     She entered after knocking at the door.

     The children played a game on the computer after finishing their homework.

b)before

     First I had my meal. Then I washed the dishes.

     Before washing the dishes, I had my meal.

c)instead of

     Jack plays football. He doesn’t play basketball although he is very tall.

     Instead of playing basketball, he plays football.

     That man begs money instead of working.

d)without

     He went out. He didn’t take his umbrella with him.

     He went out without taking his umbrella wit him.

    D)Gerunds used after some propositions:

a) interested in

     good at

     bad at

     capable of

     to be + keen on + Gerund (Ving)

     fond of

     addicted to

     hooked on

     fascinated by

     into

     afraid of

     worried about

     2

b)

     apologize for

     congratulate someone on

     blame someone for

     look forward to

     to + excuse someone for + gerund ( Ving)

     insist on

     thank someone for

     object to

     dream of

Examples:

    1. The students apologized because they were late.

    The students apologized for being late.

     2. Sarah congratulated me because I’d won a prize.

     Sarah cogratulated me on winning the prize.

     3. The President congratulated the astronout because the astronout was successful

     The President congratulated the astronout on being successful.

     his success.

     4. The man blamed his son because he had broken the window.

     The man blamed his son for breaking the window.

    5. We’re looking forward to his visiting us.

     his visit.

    6. The teacher excused the student. He was late.

     The teacher excused the student for being late.

    6. The family got used to living in their new house.

     their new house.

    7. Having the party depends on her coming.

     Buying a new car depends on having enough money.

    8. He counts on getting easy questions in the exam,otherwise he’ll fail.

     She counts on her servant’s arriving early every morning.

     He doesn’t drive carefully.He counts on being lucky.

    9. The small child insisted on going out to play.

     3

    10. They thanked their friends. They gave them a present.

    They thanked their friends for giving them a present

     the present.

     11. I objected. My son behaved badly.

     I objected to my son’s (son) behaving badly.

     my son’s bad behaviour.

     They objected to her arriving so late.

     12. People often dream of winning a lot of money.

     The woman dreams of her son(son’s) winning the contest.

     his

     13. He is keen. He plays football.

     He is keen on playing football.

     14. The woman is keen.She wanted her son to learn French.

     The woman is keen on her son’s (son) learning French.

     15. My daughter is fond of eating chocolate.

     chocolate.

     16. My children are good at cooking.

     Maths.

     17. Jane is bad at Computer.

     playing tennis.

     18. They’re afraid of travelling by air.

     planes.

     19. He is capable. He can pass his exams.

     He is capable of passing his exams.

     4

    INFINITIVE or GERUND

I- It’s + adjective + to do something

     e.g. It’s easy to ride a bike.

     It isn’t difficult to drive a lorry.

     It’s wonderful to be here with you.

     It’s fantastic to win the lottery.

     It’s lovely to meet you.

     It’s nice to see you.

     It’s hard to pass the exam.

     It’s impossible to buy a Ferrari for me.

     Isn’t it possible to go there on Sunday?

II- There is nothing to do something.

     e.g. There is nowhere to go

     There is no one to ask.

     There is nothing to eat in the fridge.

     There is nowhere to go.Let’s stay at home.

III- I am pleased to do something.

     glad

     happy

     unhappy

     e.g. You’ve won the competition. I’m pleased to hear that.

     She is happy tostay here.

IV- I don’t know what to do.

     e.g. I don’t know where to go

     She doesn’t know where to stay.

     He didn’t know when to start the game.

V- need+Ving

     e.g. My house needs painting.

     Your hair needs cutting.

- need+to+V1

     e.g. I need to go shopping.There is nothing to eat in the fridge.

     VI- let somebody do something

     make somebody do something

     get somebody to do something

     5

     allow somebody to do something

    e.g. My mum never lets me go out at nights.

     I am never allowed to go out at nights.

     She makes me clean the house every day.

     I am made to clean the house every day.

     They made him wash the dishes yesterday.

     He was made to wash the dishes yesterday.

     I’ve made them help the poor.

     They have been made to help the poor.

(make somebody+adjective)

     e.g. She made me very angry last night.

     happy

     unhappy

VII- help somebody (to) do something

     dare(to) do something

     We helped them (to) clean up the kitchen.

     We didn’t dare (to) tell the truth.

     They couldn’t dare (to) disagree with her.

     6

     REMEMBER/STOP/TRY/FORGET/REGRET + doing something

     to do something

    remember doing something

    I remember closing the door. ( remember a past action)

    I remember sending the New Year Card to him (= I have a memory of a past action.)

remember to do something

    Please remember to lock the door.(= Don’t forget a future action) I remembered to telephone him.(= I remembered myself to phone him-I didn’t forget.)

stop doing something

    My husband stopped smoking a month ago.(=he gave up his habit.)

    I stopped going evening classes.I felt very tired.

stop to do something

    The teacher stopped to warn the naughty boy last lesson.(=She stopped teaching to warn

    him).

    They will stop to buy petrol because they’re short of it.

try doing something

    We didn’t like the way the big sofa was arranged.We tried moving it to the other side of the room.But it still didn’t look right,so I moved it back again. I had terrible heaache last night. I tried taking a painkiller,but it didn’t work.

try to do something

    She tried to get up early but she couldn’t.(try and fail) (= she wanted to get up early but it was difficult and she couldn’t .) Please try to be quiet in this library.

She was very tired. She tried to keep her eyes open at the theatre but she couldn’t.

    She tried to move the big case but it was so heavy that she couldn’t do that.

forget doing something

    I never forget forget visiting Rome.

    I won’t forget meeting you for the first time (=it will stay in my memory all the time.)

     forget to do something

    I won’t forget to do my homework.

    I won’t forget to telephone you as soon as I go home. Don’t forget to bring the notebooks to the classroom.

regret doing something

    They’ve always deeply regretted selling the house in the city centre.

    I deeply regretted telling my secret to her.

regret to do something

    We regret to inform you that you have been made redundant.

     to tell

     to say

     7

FILL IN THE BLANKS with the correct form of the words in bracets: (if necessary,add a

    preposition to the verb)

1. Do you want me ……………….(come) with you?

    2. Does she like……………..(go) to the museums?

    3. I would love ……………..(be) a helicopter driver.

    4. Mary is into ………………(play) cards in her free time.

    5. I’m thinking …………………..(learn) Italian next term.

    6. Her mother is bad ………………….(cook).

    7. They’re planning…………………..(have) a holiday in Bodrum. 8. They always dream …………………………(buy) a summer house in Fethiye. 9. We’re looking forward ………………….(have) a holiday in Europe. 10. What are you good……………..(do)?

    11. She doesn’t like…………….(iron)

    12. I’d like ……………..(have) a cup of coffee with milk now. 13. A: I would like to give back the money I borrowed from you.

    B: Did I give you some money? When? I really don’t remember…………(lend) you some.

    14. Please stop …………………..(ask) me questions.I hate them.

    15. Please remember …………………….(lock) the door when you go out. 16. A: How did the burglar break into the house?

    B: I had forgotten…………………(close) the window.

    17. I always spend my free time………………(play) computer games. 18. My mum feels like ………………(make) a chocolate cake fort he guests. 19. I spent hours ………………..(watch) TV when I was a child. 20. She can easily remember ……………..(be) in hospital when she was five years old. 21. She enjoys………(dance) so much.

    22. She suggested ……………(eat) out to a gastropub.

    23. They’ve decided …………..(move) to a small house in the city centre. 24. My husband decided ………..(not/smoke)

    25. She stopped…………………(buy) some petrol for her car. 26. Jim stopped……………..(eat) fatty food and meat because he’s getting fatter and fatter.

    27. Jane thanked me…………………..(help) her

    28. My son finally succeeded ………………….(pass) the exam. 29. I’ve just finished ………………..(answer) my e-mails.

    30. Last night I was very tired. I tried…………..(watch) the film on TV but I couldn’t. I fell

    asleep after 5 minutes.

    31. I rang the doorbell of her flat but there was no answer.Then I tried……..(knock) on the

    door,but there was still no answer.

    32. Mary tried………(put) the fire out but she was unsuccessful.She had to call the fire brigade.

    33. I needed to borrow some money. I tried …………(ask) my sister but she was short of

    money,too.

    34. My husband tried …….(reach) the shelf but he wasn’t tall enough.

    35. Please be quiet! I’m trying ………………..(concentrate).

    36. I tried……………(get) the table through the door but it was too big. 37. Jim tried ……………..(take ) some pills but the pain didn’t go away. 38. To help me get to sleep,I tried ……………….(count) the sheep. 39. I’m absolutely sure I locked the door.I clearly remember…………….(lock) it. 40. I remember…………..(visit) London when I was very young. 41. She has made me ……………..(clean) the house.

     8

42. I’d love…………………(have) a new car.

    43. ………………..(cook) is very difficult for me.

    44. Sally is afraid………………..(lose) him.

    45. How did you manage………………………..(sell) that old car? 46. They never let me …………………..(smoke) here.

    47. You must avoid……………………..(smoke) here.

    48. They refused ………………(help) me.

    49. Are you thinking ……………..(go) to Cyprus by plane?

    50. She thanked them ……………..(help)her.

    51. I can’t afford ……………….(go) out every night.I don’t have enough money. 52. It’s a sunny day.Does anyone fancy………………….(swim)? 53. She promised …………….(not/come)home late.

    54. Her husband always helps her……..(cook) the meal.

    55. Mr Taylor recommended us……………(stay) in that hotel.

    56. She never allows me …….(go) out at nights.

    57. I was made……..(wash) the dishes.

    58. Do you mind……………(wait) for a few minutes more?

    59. Our taps need ……………..(mend) so we need ……………..(call) a plumber. 60. Why don’t you try……………..(drink) some water if you want to stop your caughing?

     61. Stop…………….(talk)I’m fed up with your speech.

    62.Don’t forget …………………(find)out how many people are coming on Sunday!

     Prepeared by Güzin Akkaya

     MEB Ankara Hizmetiçi E─čitim Enstitüsü

     9

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com