DOC

WATER CONSERVATION METHODS IN THE HOUSE & OFFICE

By Bryan Gordon,2014-05-05 15:51
11 views 0
WATER CONSERVATION METHODS IN THE HOUSE & OFFICE

    WATER CONSERVATION

    TIPS:-

    1.2 EXAMPLE OF A FACTORY:

    1.2.1 GENERAL MEASURES:

    ? Install a water recycling plant (e.g. for water used in cooling air-conditioning, washing, etc) ? Install rooftop rainfall harvesting system

    ? Install wastewater treatment plant (treated wastewater can then be re-used) ? Run water saving campaigns in the plant

    ? Run water saving competitions between different departments

    ? Run water saving competitions amongst employees

    1.2.2 MEASURES RELATING TO PLUMBING:

    ? Install low-volume flow control devices on shower heads and taps.

    ? Install automatic switch-off shower heads and taps.

    ? Install “half-flush” mechanisms on all cisterns.

    ? Replace existing one-flush system with half flush systems.

    ? Replace high volume cisterns (e.g. 9 litres) with low volume cisterns (e.g. 4.5 litres). ? Install “Push-Flush” system for urinals (men only)

    ? Install steel or copper pipes as these do not leak easily.

    ? Insulate hot water pipes to reduce the amount of water that must be run to get hot water to the

    faucet.

    ? Install the hot water heater as close as possible to places where hot water is needed e.g. the

    bathroom, kitchen and laundry areas. The closer the heater is to the faucet, the less water has to

    be run. For this reason. it's sometimes better to have two small water heaters located in strategic

    places rather than one big heater.

    ? Have the cleaners check all taps, pipes, shower heads, tub and lavatory faucets for leakages.

    Ensure leakages are reported immediately (e.g. the first to report a leakage can be rewarded).

    Leakages must be repaired immediately.

    ? Stress the importance of water conservation to employees to turn water faucets off tightly after

    use.

    ? Re-adjusts the float level of all toilet cisterns to reduce the amount of water necessary to flush the

    toilet.

    ? Install a piping system that channels treated wastewater, harvested rainwater, air-conditioning

    effluent water and other effluent water (called "greywater") into toilet cisterns for flushing.

    1.2.3 MEASURES IN THE CANTEEN:

    ? Install a piping system from wash basin (for washing vegetables) to toilet cistern or a small pond

    (in factory compound) to collect the greywater for reuse.

    ? Use only biodegradable dishwashing liquid.

    ? Collect organic waste for composting. The compost can then be used for gardening. ? Emphasis the consumption of fresh food like salad and steamed food. These use less water to

    prepare and are less oily. Hence, utensils need less water for washing. ? Use utensils for cooking and boiling that have tight lids to reduce loss of water through

    evaporation.

    ? Do not overcook as this wastes water and energy. Time the foods that are being cooked. ? Pressure cookers can save time and water.

    ? Do not serve bottled water as many do not finish the entire bottle. Serve water in a jug so that

    employees will pour out only what they need to drink. Unfinished jugs of water can be used for

    other purposes.

    ? Plan the cooking thoroughly by cutting down on the number of utensils used in preparing food.

    Always boil first and then fry. A pot used for boiling water will not need to be washed before

    reused for frying, but not the other way round.

    ? The dishwashing liquid should be mixed with the correct amount of water. ? In the case of dishwashers, wash only when there is a full load.

    ? Avoid using a dishwasher as a dishwasher uses about 50-75 litres of water per load.

    1.2.4 MEASURES IN THE OFFICE:

    ? Ensure the cleaners always use a mop and never a hose to wash cement, concrete, marble or other

    tiled floors.

    ? Cleaning liquids must be environmentally friendly and biodegradable.

    ? Carpets and rugs need to be vacuumed regularly so as to reduce the need for shampooing (as this

    requires water).

    ? Put decorative items (such as crafts) instead of potted plants in the office to reduce the need for

    watering.

    ? Recycle paper, tin cans, etc as this will indirectly reduce water demand (by other sectors). ? For potted plants in the office, use “greywater” from washing hands or harvested rainwater.

    Water plants only when needed as over watering can kill plants.

    1.3 EXAMPLE OF A HOTEL:

    1.3.1 GENERAL MEASURES:

    ? Go for ISO14001 Certification (this certification requires water auditing, amongst others). ? Install a water recycling plant (e.g. for water used in cooling air-conditioning, washing, etc) ? Install rooftop rainfall harvesting system and stormwater harvesting system. The water harvested

    can be used for gardening and general washing of outside compounds. ? Install wastewater treatment plant (treated wastewater can then be re-used) ? Run water saving campaigns in hotel amongst guests and employees.

    ? Run water saving competitions between different departments

    ? Run water saving competitions amongst employees and guests.

    ? Install water meters in rooms and charge guests for over-usage.

    ? Change only bed linen and towels when requested by guests,

    ? Use biodegradable soap, shampoo, washing powder, cleaning liquids, etc. ? Reduce the use of air-conditioning in public areas such as the lobby, garden terrace, beach front,

    open-air cafeteria, etc. Use ceiling fans instead.

    ? Monitor and control water quality in swimming pool.

    1.3.2 MEASURES RELATING TO PLUMBING:

    ? Install low-volume flow control devices on shower heads and taps.

    ? Install automatic switch-off shower heads and taps.

    ? Install “half-flush” mechanisms on all cisterns.

    ? Replace existing one-flush system with half flush systems.

    ? Replace high volume cisterns (e.g. 9 litres) with low volume cisterns (e.g. 4.5 litres).

? Install “Push-Flush” system for urinals (men only)

    ? Install steel or copper pipes as these do not leak easily.

    ? Insulate hot water pipes to reduce the amount of water that must be run to get hot water to the

    faucet.

    ? Install the hot water heater as close as possible to places where hot water is needed e.g. the

    bathroom, kitchen and laundry areas. The closer the heater is to the faucet, the less water has to

    be run. For this reason. it's sometimes better to have two small water heaters located in strategic

    places rather than one big heater.

    ? Re-pipe air-conditioning water used for cooling (after cooling, water is hot) to bathrooms. ? Have the cleaners check all taps, pipes, shower heads, tub and lavatory faucets for leakages.

    Ensure leakages are reported immediately (e.g. the first to report a leakage can be rewarded).

    Leakages must be repaired immediately.

    ? Stress the importance of water conservation to employees and guests to turn water faucets off

    tightly after use.

    ? Re-adjusts the float level of all toilet cisterns to reduce the amount of water necessary to flush the

    toilet.

    ? Install a piping system that channels treated wastewater, harvested rainwater, air-conditioning

    effluent water and other effluent water (called "greywater") into toilet cisterns for flushing. ? Guests using the least amount of water (per capita daily basis) win a prize.

    1.3.3 MEASURES IN THE RESTAURANTS AND CAFETARIAS:

    ? Do not change plates, cups and cutlery unnecessarily during any 1 meal. Chinese restaurants have

    a bad hobby of changing plates after every course.

    ? Install a piping system from wash basin (for washing vegetables) to toilet cistern or a small pond

    (in factory compound) to collect the greywater for reuse.

    ? Use only biodegradable dishwashing liquid.

    ? Collect organic waste for composting. The compost can then be used for gardening. ? Emphasis the consumption of fresh food like salad and steamed food. These use less water to

    prepare and are less oily. Hence, utensils need less water for washing. ? Use utensils for cooking and boiling that have tight lids to reduce loss of water through

    evaporation.

    ? Do not overcook as this wastes water and energy. Time the foods that are being cooked. ? Pressure cookers can save time and water.

    ? Do not serve bottled water as many do not finish the entire bottle. Serve water in a jug so that

    employees will pour out only what they need to drink. Unfinished jugs of water can be used for

    other purposes.

    ? Plan the cooking thoroughly by cutting down on the number of utensils used in preparing food.

    Always boil first and then fry. A pot used for boiling water will not need to be washed before

    reused for frying, but not the other way round.

    ? The dishwashing liquid should be mixed with the correct amount of water. ? In the case of dishwashers, wash only when there is a full load.

    ? If possible, avoid using a dishwasher as a dishwasher uses about 50-75 litres of water per load.

    1.3.4 MEASURES IN THE FRONT OFFICE AND OTHER OFFICES:

    ? Ensure the cleaners always use a mop and never a hose to wash cement, concrete, marble or other

    tiled floors.

    ? Cleaning liquids must be environmentally friendly and biodegradable.

    ? Carpets and rugs need to be vacuumed regularly so as to reduce the need for shampooing (as this

    requires water).

    ? Put decorative items (such as crafts) instead of potted plants in the office to reduce the need for

    watering.

    ? Recycle paper, tin cans, etc as these efforts will indirectly reduce water demand (by other sectors). ? For potted plants in the office, use “greywater” from washing hands or harvested rainwater.

    Water plants only when needed as over watering can kill plants.

    1.4 EXAMPLE OF WDM IN A HOME OR BY AN INDIVIDUAL:

    1.4.1 GENERAL MEASURES:

    ? Teach children the value of water and never to play with water

    ? Never construct a swimming pool at home because it is not cost-effective, very under-utilised and

    pose a serious danger to children. It is better to swim in a club or public pool. ? Dig a well and use the water for general washing and gardening.

    ? Install a water recycling piping system (e.g. water used in bathing, washing hands and washing

    clothes can be collected for reuse in flushing or gardening)

    ? Install rooftop rainfall harvesting system

    ? Do a water audit at home and try to see how one can reduce water use.

    ? Emphasise the need to save water amongst family members.

    1.4.2 PLUMBING:

    ? Regularly check the piping system, water tanks, taps, faucets, shower heads, mains, etc for leaks. ? Check also the main pipes along the road leading to your house. Any leakage should be reported

    to the water authority immediately.

    ? Install low-volume flow control devices on shower heads and tub faucets. ? Locate water heaters near to taps (e.g. bathrooms and kitchen) so that the length of piping is

    minimized.

    ? Insulate hot water pipes to reduce heat loss before reaching the tap. ? Stress to all family members the importance of turning taps off tightly after use to ensure no

    dripping occurs.

    ? Put a brick or two into the toilet cistern. This way, you save 2 litres of water per flush. ? Adjust the float level of the toilet cistern to reduce the amount of water necessary to flush the

    toilet.

    ? Install an "environmentally friendly” or “low volume" WC. It uses only half (4.5 litres) compared

    to the conventional WC (9 litres).

    ? Install a “Dual-Flush” system for your WC – a half-flush for urinating and a full-flush for

    defecating.

    ? Collect all "gray" water (from washing hands, cleaning, bathing, etc.) via a piping system that

    channels the greywater into toilet cisterns for flushing.

    ? Never use the toilet as a trash basket for tissues, fruit peel or other disposable items. Every time

    you flush, it uses 9 litres of water.

    ? If you suspect your piping system is old, get a plumber to check it thoroughly and get a quotation

    to replace leaking pipes. In the long run, this may save you more money.

    1.4.3 LAUNDRY:

    ? Always use biodegradable washing powder/liquid.

    ? Start a wash only if there is a full load of laundry.

    ? Shop for a washing machine in terms of the amount of water it uses, rather than just on the cost.

    Buy only models that have these features:

(a) Models that use less water.

    (b) Models that allows you to wash full and half loads.

    (c) If you have a small family, buy only a machine that has average capacity. Never buy a larger

    machine than you need.

    (d) Pick the "Float fill" models as they provide a more accurate control of the amount of water used

    than the "time" fill models.

    (e) Models that have water level controls so you can adjust the amount of water you use, depending

    on the load .

    (f) Models that have the "Water Saver" mode that allows you to save wash water for later wash loads. ? Collect the "greywater” from the washing machine into a pail for re-use (e.g. for floor cleaning,

    toilet flushing, washing cars, or watering plants).

    ? If there are only a few garments to be washed, wash them by hand.

    ? For heavily soiled garments, get rid of the dirt before washing.

    ? Always check all garments to ensure nothing is in the pockets. A colored item will not only stain

    your clothes but also waste a lot of water.

    ? Emphasise to your family members that not all clothes need to be washed after one wearing. The

    idea is not to wash clothes more often than is necessary.

    ? Avoid buying clothes that are not suitable to our climate, e.g. woolen clothes.

    1.4.4 PERSONAL CARE:

    ? Brush your teeth with a cup of water. Never let the tap run.

    ? Use biodegradable soap for washing face and hands.

    ? Wipe your face and hands with a wet towel instead of using a running tap. ? Never use the long bath. Always use a shower and reduce the shower time. ? Use biodegradable soap and shampoo.

    ? Switch off the shower when you are soaping or shampooing.

    ? If your family is going away, switch off the water mains. This will ensure that there is no leakage

    while you are away.

    ? Take showers and never turn on the shower at full blast. Never use the long bath. A long bath

    uses 200 litres of water. For a quick short shower, about 20-30 litres are used instead. ? Reduce the number of showers per day.

    ? Reduce shower time to 3 minutes or less.

    ? Never use the shower as a means of relaxation or massage.

    ? Install an environmentally friendly shower head (one that uses less water). ? While soaping and shampooing, turn off the shower.

    ? Use a cup of water for shaving. Do not use a running tap.

    ? Try to wear clothes at least twice before washing them.

    ? Encourage children to wear play clothes that can be worn several times before washing. ? Cut hair short. Crew cut is better. Short hair saves water, soap and shampoo. ? Wear cotton clothes as they need less water to wash compared to thick woolen clothes. ? Choose sports that require less change of clothes. Swimming is the best as you need only wash a

    small swimming trunk. Badminton and tennis players need to change clothes several times during

    a game.

    1.4.5 FOOD PREPARATION:

    ? Eat more fresh food such as salads. They are healthier and require no cooking. ? Cook more steamed food rather than fried food. They are healthier and require less water for

    washing.

    ? Collect water used for washing vegetables and fruits for re-use in cleaning, watering plants, and

    general washing purposes.

    ? Buy poultry and fish that have already been cleaned.

    ? Buy food that has very little “uneatables”. For example, you can almost eat a whole guava but a

    nangka has lots of left-overs that cannot be eaten. However, the Malays have an ingenious way of

    cooking curry nangka peel. A good idea is to eat the nangka fruit and use the seed and peel for

    cooking curry.

    ? Reduce throwing away all kitchen waste. A lot can be composted. For example, fruit peeling

    vegetables, seeds, and other biodegradable food can be composted.

    ? It is not necessary to use elaborate cooking method that uses 4 or 5 utensils and 20 or more herbs

    (as found in cooking classes). The best and most delicious food are those with the least amount of

    cooking and no herbs (as you can really taste them). It is important to also use only the minimum

    amount of water necessary. Too much water and you'll probably “kill” the taste and destroy the

    nutritional value of the food.

    ? Pans and pots used for cooking should have tight lids to prevent evaporation of liquid/water. ? Always have a mixture of dishes some requiring more water to cook (e.g. curry) and some

    requiring none (e.g. salad).

    ? If you need to use hot water for cooking, always boil it in a kettle and then transfer it to the

    cooking pot. Boiling water in the cooking pot will lose water through evaporation. ? Always time your cooking time so as not to over-cook or waste water and energy. ? Always choose the correct sized utensils for cooking a certain meal. Utensils that are too large

    require more cooking water and wastes more energy.

    ? Pressure cookers save time and water. Use it if you have one.

    ? Covering or wrapping food in aluminum foil (for baking or roasting) cuts down on moisture loss

    and keeps the juices in.

    ? Juices from previously cooked dishes can be used for cooking soups, as a stock for other dishes,

    or for making gravy. They can even be turned into a dip. Just add some chili. ? Leftover fruit juices should be consumed or put in the refrigerator for consumption later. ? Always store some water in a tub or tank for drinking and meal preparation in case there is water

    rationing or water cut.

    ? Cool water in bottles/pitchers in the refrigerator for drinking to avoid letting the tap run for a few

    minutes on a hot day in order to get cool water.

    ? Serve drinking water with a pitcher and pour into cups only if your family members/guests want

    it. Do not pour unnecessarily.

    1.4.6 DISHWASHING:

    ? Wash utensils and cutlery with two sinks one for soaping and the other for rinsing.

    ? Do not wash every time you have a dirty plate or a pair of chopsticks. Wait for a full sink of

    dishes before washing.

    ? Try to cook different meals with the same utensil. For example, a wok can be used first to steam a

    fish and then to fry vegetables. Reduce the number of utensils used in preparing food. ? Reduce the number of cutlery used for meals. One plate will do for most occasions except on

    special occasions when you have special guests.

    ? Be a true Malaysia. Use your hand to eat rice. This will save on washing forks, spoons or

    chopsticks.

    ? If you have a dishwasher, wash only full loads of dishes in dishwasher. Get rid of all dirt and

    grease as much as possible before putting dishes into the dish washer.

    ? If you do not have a dishwasher, do not ever think of buying one. A dishwasher uses about 50-75

    litres of water per load.

    ? Avoid unnecessary rinsing of dishes that go into the dishwasher. Scrape if necessary. ? Always use biodegradable and environmentally friendly dishwashing powder or liquid.

    1.4.7 HOUSEHOLD CLEANING

    ? Always use biodegradable and environmentally friendly floor cleaning, toilet cleaning and

    general cleaning powder or liquid.

    ? Always get a good cleaning liquid even if it costs more. This is because cheaper ones (less

    effective) will cause you to waste a lot of water before the floor, toilet or kitchen surfaces get

    cleaned.

    ? Always mop the floor with a pail of water and a mop rather than using a hose. ? Sweep the floor often as this will reduce the need for mopping.

    ? For carpets and rugs, vacuum them regularly in order to reduce the need for shampooing. ? Plan your "household cleaning chores” so as to do all of them at one go. This will save water.

    ? Use a duster often to dust away dusts on tables, cabinets, furniture etc. This will reduce the need

    for washing or wiping.

    1.4.8 GARDENING AND HOUSE PLANTS

    ? Use a gardening water dispenser to water plants. Never use a hose.

    ? Aim the dispenser directly at the roots or inside the flower pot to avoid wasting water. ? Use recycled water collected from the bathroom (for bathing, washing hands and face), from the

    washing machine, or harvested rainwater for gardening. However, do not use soapy water on

    plants. Hence, it is wise to use biodegradable soap, which is friendly to plants. ? Plan your garden in such a way that you have dry (cactus) as well as wet (water lily) plants. ? Plan your watering on fixed days. Have a roster and only one person should do it. Too many

    persons could result in over-watering. Too much watering can also damage plants, especially dry

    plants such as cactus.

    ? Use green/organic fertilizers or your own compost. This will not harm the groundwater. ? Use organic or green pesticides. Reduce the use of chemical pesticides. ? Never fix a sprinkler system in your garden. It uses too much water. Often, when put on the

    automatic mode, a sprinkler will go off even when in the midst of a rain storm. ? For people with a large garden, it may be advisable to have a well (open well or pump well).

    1.4.9 CAR WASHING AND WATER USE OUTSIDE THE HOME:

    ? Use a pail of water when washing your car. Never use a hose.

    ? In a rainy country like Malaysia, take advantage of the rain. Drive your car outside when it is

    raining to get a “free” car wash. Take advantage of the rain to wash your car. You can even soap

    and sponge your car in the rain. However, avoid doing so in a thunderstorm due to the danger of

    lightning!

    ? Reduce the number of times you wash your car as it uses a lot of water. ? If you have a garden lawn, drive your car onto the lawn before washing it. As you wash your car,

    your lawn (the grass) gets the water as well.

    ? Always use biodegradable and environmentally friendly car washing liquid. It saves water and is

    less damaging on your car paint

    ? If you go to a car wash, always choose one that recycles water.

    ? If you have an outdoor pool, always cover the pool when it's not being used to prevent leaves and

    other dirt from getting in and also to prevent water loss through evaporation. ? Ensure that the swimming pool filter is maintained properly and checked often. A faulty filter

    means water gets dirty faster and the need to change the water more often.

    ? When you are releasing the dirty water from your swimming pool, install a pump that pumps it

    out to be used for cleaning, washing car and gardening.

    ? During dry weather, grass lawns and annuals (plants that grow and die every year) should receive

    the lowest priority for watering. Perennials (plants that are there all the time) should get watering

    priority since they are more expensive to replace.

    ? Practise "mulching" the ground to reduce evaporation and retain moisture in the soil. Collect

    organic wastes, dead leaves, grass, newspapers or other biodegradable wastes and spread them

    over the top surface of your garden. Mulching also controls weeds that compete with garden

    plants for water.

    ? If you cannot do the heavy work and you need irrigation, install a "trickle" or "drip" irrigation

    system in your garden. These methods use 80-90 percent less water than hose or sprinkler

    methods. These are easy to install. Lay plastic tubes along the ground near to plants and punch

    holes in the tubes near to plants. When you switch on the tap, water will only drip out near the

    root of plants. There is little evaporation and waste.

    ? For outdoor cleaning, use a broom, to clean the garage, the sidewalks and the driveway. Never

    use a hose.

    ? If your car is leaking engine oil, use a pail to collect the leaking oil as a temporary measure. For a

    more permanent measure, fix the leak.

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com