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Chicago Department of Public Health

By Rita Sanders,2014-01-10 20:12
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Chicago Department of Public Health

    Swine Flu Questions and Answers

What is swine flu?

    Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses. Outbreaks of swine flu

    happen regularly in pigs. People do not normally get swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. Most

    commonly, human cases of swine flu happen in people who are around pigs but it’s possible for swine flu viruses to spread from person to person also.

    Are there human infections with swine flu in the U.S.?

    Cases of human infection with swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses have been confirmed in the United States. CDC and

    local and state health agencies are working together to investigate this situation.

    Is this swine flu virus contagious? CDC has determined that this virus is contagious and is spreading from human to human. However, at this time, it

    not known how easily the virus spreads between people.

    What are the signs and symptoms of swine flu in people?

    The symptoms of swine flu in people are similar to the symptoms of regular human flu and include fever, cough, sore

    throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue. Some people have reported diarrhea and vomiting associated with

    swine flu. In the past, severe illness (pneumonia and respiratory failure) and deaths have been reported with swine

    flu infection in people. Like seasonal flu, swine flu may cause a worsening of underlying chronic medical conditions.

    How serious is swine flu infection? Like seasonal flu, swine flu in humans can vary in severity from mild to severe. Between 2005 until January 2009, 12

    human cases of swine flu were detected in the U.S. with no deaths occurring. However, swine flu infection can be

    serious. In September 1988, a previously healthy 32-year-old pregnant woman in Wisconsin was hospitalized for

    pneumonia after being infected with swine flu and died 8 days later. A swine flu outbreak in Fort Dix, New Jersey

    occurred in 1976 that caused more than 200 cases with serious illness in several people and one death.

    How do you catch swine flu? Spread of swine flu can occur in two ways:

    ? Through contact with infected pigs or environments contaminated with swine flu viruses.

    ? Through contact with a person with swine flu. Human-to-human spread of swine flu has been documented

    also and is thought to occur in the same way as seasonal flu. Influenza is thought to spread mainly person-

    to-person through coughing or sneezing of infected people.

    Are there medicines to treat swine flu? Yes. CDC recommends the use of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza) for the treatment and/or prevention of

    infection with these swine influenza viruses. Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid or an inhaler) that

    fight against the flu by keeping flu viruses from reproducing in your body. If you get sick, antiviral drugs can make

    your illness milder and make you feel better faster. They may also prevent serious flu complications. For treatment,

    antiviral drugs work best if started soon after getting sick (within 2 days of symptoms).

    How long can an infected person spread swine flu to others?

    People with swine influenza virus infection should be considered potentially contagious as long as they are

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symptomatic and possible for up to 7 days following illness onset. Children, especially younger children, might

    potentially be contagious for longer periods.

    What can I do to protect myself from getting sick?

    There is no vaccine available right now to protect against swine flu. There are everyday actions that can help prevent

    the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza. Take these everyday steps to protect your health:

    ? Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you

    use it.

    ? Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand

    cleaners are

    also effective.

    ? Try to avoid close contact with sick people.

    ? If you get sick with influenza, CDC recommends that you stay home from work or school and limit contact

    with others to keep from infecting them. Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread

    this way.

    What should I do if I get sick?

    If you are sick, you should stay home and avoid contact with other people as much as possible to keep from

    spreading your illness to others.

    If you become ill and experience any of the following warning signs, seek emergency medical care.

    In children emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention include:

    ? Fast breathing or trouble breathing

    ? Bluish skin color

    ? Not drinking enough fluids

    ? Not waking up or not interacting

    ? Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held

    ? Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough

    ? Fever with a rash

    In adults, emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention include:

    ? Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath

    ? Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen

    ? Sudden dizziness

    ? Confusion

    ? Severe or persistent vomiting

    Can I get swine influenza from eating or preparing pork?

    No. Swine influenza viruses are not spread by food. You cannot get swine influenza from eating pork or pork

    products. Eating properly handled and cooked pork products is safe.

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