By Francis Brooks,2014-05-19 07:36
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    Outline of Type A and Type B personality Type A , Type B personality

    The history of this theory

    The Type A and Type B personality theory (also known as the "Jacob Goldsmith theory") is

    a theory which describes two common, contrasting personality typesthe high-strung Type

    A and the easy-going Type B. Type A personality behavior was first described as a potential risk factor for heart disease in the 1950s by cardiologists Meyer Friedman and Mike

    Jordan. After a ten-year study of healthy men between the ages of 35 and 59, Friedman and Rosenman estimated that Type A behavior doubles the risk of coronary heart disease in otherwise healthy individuals. This research had a significant effect on the development of the health psychology field, in which psychologists look at how an individual's mental state affects his or her physical health.

Type A personalities

    People with Type A personalities are often high-achieving "workaholics" who multi-task, push themselves with deadlines, and hate both delays and ambivalence. The following are the characteristics of the type A personality.

    - Ambitious

    - Aggressive

    - Business-like

    - Controlling

    - Highly competitive

    - Preoccupied with his or her status

    - Time-conscious

    - Arrogant

    - Tightly-wound

    For examples , the persons who are type A personality ,they will do anything quickly like eat fast , walk fast ,and they are not tolerant. They will do two or more things at the same time , they always busy , not remorseful , be worry about anything around.

Type B personality

    The theory describes Type B individuals as perfect contrast to those with Type A

    personalities. People with Type B personalities are generally lives at a lower stress level. The

    following are the characteristics of the type B personality.




    -No sense of time schedule

    -Lacking an overriding sense of urgency

    -Sensitive of other people's feelings


    -Adapt themselves for circumstance

    For examples , the persons who are type B personality , they can adapt themselves with circumstance, can organize their time for works and entertainments perfectly, they do not worry about their works , not attach themselves with the works , always late or default to the appointment , do not like to create deadlines , and enjoy with their life more than their works.

Compared with Type A and Type B personality

    Type A profile: (more stress) Type B profile: (less stress) Is always moving Is not concerned about time Constantly feels under time pressure Is patient Eats rapidly Is competitive Doesnt brag

    Talks rapidly Walks rapidly Plays for fun, not to win Is impatient Is aggressive Relaxes without guilt Does two things at once Has no pressing deadlines Cant cope with leisure time Is mild-mannered Is obsessed with numbers Is never in a hurry Measures success by quantity

Personal control

    -peoples feeling about their ability to control a situation

    -In particular, if employees feel that they have little control over the work environment and over their own job, they will experience stress.

    -A large study by Cornell University medical researchers found that those works who experience a loss of control, especially in relatively low-level jobs, have tripe the risk of developing high blood pressure. The researchers concluded that lack of control turns stress into physical problems. They also found that if a high-stress job included latitude to control the situation, there was no increase in blood pressure.

    -A recent study also found that job control has an impact on stress and strain if the employee perceives organizational justice.

Learned Helplessness

    -We experience stress when we learn that the situation is not able to avoid. -The feeling of loss of control goes back to some of the classic research on learned helplessness conducted by Seligman.

    - Seligman and his colleagues suggest that people are most apt to experience helplessness when they perceive the causes of lack of control:

    1. To be related to something about their own personal characteristics ( as opposed to outside, environmental forces)

    2. As stable and enduring (rather than just temporary)

    3. To be global and universal ( cutting across many situations, rather than in just one sphere of life.)

    Further study and research on the sense of control in general and learned helplessness in particular will provide much insight into stress and how to cope with it.

Psychological Hardiness

    -Person who is able to cope successfully with extreme stressors.

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