A type of drama in which the characters experience reversals逆转 of fortune, usu. for the
worse. In tragedy catastrophe大灾难 and suffering await many of the characters, esp. the
A type of drama in which the characters experience reversals of fortune, usu. for the better. In
comedy things work out happily in the end.
:In drama lines spoken by a character in an undertone低声 or directly to the audience.
4. Soliloquy独白: In drama, an extended speech delivered by a character alone onstage. The character reveals展
现 his or her innermost thoughts and feelings directly to the audience, as if thinking aloud.
The hero or central character of a literary work. In accomplishing his or her objective, the
protagonist is hindered阻碍,干扰 by some opposing force either human , animal or natural .
6. Foil 衬托
A character in a play who sets off the main character or other characters by comparison.
The time and place in which a story unfolds. A drama may contain a single setting, or the
setting may change from scene to scene.
The part of a drama in which important background information is revealed.
The outcome of a plot. The denouement is that part of a play, short story, novel, or narrative
poem in which conflicts are resolved or unraveled拆开, and mysteries and secrets connected
with the plot are explained.
10. Epilogue收场白: A short addition or conclusion at the end of a literary work.
In literature, may be defined as the writer's or speaker's attitude toward the subject, the
audience, or toward herself/himself. Almost all the elements of poetry go into indicating its
tone: connotation, imagery, and metaphor; irony and understatement; rhythm, sentence
construction, and formal pattern.
12. Rhythm :
The term rhythm refers to any wave like recurrence of motion or sound.
13. Meter is the recurrence, in regular units, of a prominent feature in the sequence of
speech-sounds of a language.
14. A Foot is the combination of a strong stress and the associated weak stress.
15. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual
life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by
the 16th century, its influence affected literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, religion,
and other aspects. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and
searched for realism and human emotion in art.It indicated a revival of classical (Greek
and Roman) arts and sciences after medieval period.
It was a progressive intellectual movement which flourished in France and swept through
the whole Western Europe in the 18th century. Its purpose was to enlighten the whole world with the light of modern philosophical and artistic ideas. The enlighteners celebrated reason and rationality, equality and science.
17. Metaphysical Poets
The name given to a group of English lyric poets of the 17th century. The term was first
used by Samuel Johnson. The hallmark of their poetry is the metaphysical conceit (奇思妙喻) ,
a reliance on intellectual wit, learned imagery, and subtle argument(智慧的妙语，广博的意象，精妙的论证). The works of the metaphysical poets are characterized, generally speaking, by
mysticism（神秘主义） in content and fantasticality(奇异) in form. The most important metaphysical poets are John Donne, George Herbert and Andrew Marvell.