Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Universities Branch Out
As never before in their long history, universities have become instruments of national competition as well as instruments of peace. They are the place of the scientific discoveries that move economies forward, and the primary means of educating the talent required to obtain and maintain competitive advantage. But at the same time, the opening of national borders to the flow of goods, services, information and especially people has made universities a powerful force for global integration, mutual understanding and geopolitical stability.
In response to the same forces that have driven the world economy, universities have become more self-consciously global: seeking students from around the world who represent the entire range of cultures and values, sending their own students abroad to prepare them for global careers, offering course of study that address the challenges of an interconnected world and collaborative (合作的) research programs to advance science for the benefit of all humanity.
Of the forces shaping higher education none is more sweeping than the movement across borders. Over the past three decades the number of students leaving home each year to study abroad has grown at an annual rate of 3.9 percent, from 800,000 in 1975 to 2.5 million in 2004. Most travel from one developed nation to another, but the flow from developing to developed countries is growing rapidly. The reverse flow, from developed to developing countries, is on the rise, too. Today foreign students earn 30 percent of the doctoral degrees awarded in the United States and 38 percent of those in the United Kingdom. And the number crossing borders for undergraduate study is growing as well, to 8 percent of the undergraduates at America’s best
institutions and 10 percent of all undergraduates in the U.K. In the United States, 20 percent of the newly hired professors in science and engineering are foreign-born, and in China many newly hired faculty members at the top research universities received their graduate education abroad.
Universities are also encouraging students to spend some of their undergraduate years in another country. In Europe, more than 140,000 students participate in the Erasmus program each year, taking courses for credit in one of 2,200 participating institutions across the continent. And in the United States, institutions are helping place students in the summer internships (实习)
abroad to prepare them for global careers. Yale and Harvard have led the way, offering every undergraduate at least one international study or internship opportunity—and providing the
financial resources to make it possible.
Globalization is also reshaping the way research is done. One new trend involves sourcing portions of a research program to another country. Yale professor and Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Tian Xu directs a research center focused on the genetics of human disease at Shanghai’s Fudan University, in collaboration with faculty colleagues from both schools. The
Shanghai center has 95 employees and graduate students working in a 4,300-square-meter laboratory seminars with scientists from both campuses. The arrangement benefits both countries; Xu’s Yale lab is more productive, thanks to the lower costs of conducting research in China, and Chinese graduate students, postdoctors and faculty get on-the-job training from a world-class
scientist and his U.S. team.
As a result of its strength in science, the United States has consistently led the world in the commercialization of major new technologies, from the mainframe computer and the integrated circuit of the 1960s to the Internet infrastructure (基础设施) and applications software of the
1990s. the link between university-based science and industrial application is often indirect but sometimes highly visible: Silicon Valley was intentionally created by Stanford University, and Route 128 outside Boston has long housed companies spun off from MIT and Harvard. Around the world, governments have encouraged copying of this model, perhaps most successfully in Cambridge, England, where Microsoft and scores of other leading software and biotechnology companies have set up shop around the university.
For all its success, the United States remains deeply hesitant about sustaining the research- university model. Most politicians recognize the link between investment in science and national economic strength, but support for research funding has been unsteady. The budget of the National Institutes of Health doubled between 1998 and 2003, but has risen more slowly than inflation since then. Support for the physical sciences and engineering barely kept pace with inflation during that same period. The attempt to make up lost ground is welcome, but the nation would be better served by steady, predictable increases in science funding at the rate of long-term GDP growth, which is on the order of inflation plus 3 percent per year.
American politicians have great difficult recognizing that admitting more foreign students can greatly promote the national interest by increasing international understanding. Adjusted for inflation, public funding for international exchanges and foreign-language study is well below the levels of 40 years ago, in the wake of September 11, changes in the visa process caused a dramatic decline in the number of foreign students seeking admission to U.S. universities, and a corresponding surge in enrollments in Australia, Singapore and the U.K. Objections from American university and the business leaders led to improvements in the process and reversal of the decline, but the United States is still seen by many as unwelcoming to international students.
Most Americans recognize that universities contribute to the nation’s well-being through their
scientific research, but many fear that foreign students threaten American competitiveness by taking their knowledge and skills back home. They fail to grasp that welcoming foreign students to the United States has two important positive effects: first, the very best of them stay in the States and— like immigrants throughout history—strengthen the nation; and second, foreign
students who study in the United States become ambassadors for many of its most cherished (珍视)
values when they return home. Or at least they understand them better. In America as elsewhere, few instruments of foreign policy are as effective in promoting peace and stability as welcoming international university students.
1(From the first paragraph we know that present –day universities have become
A(more and more research-oriented
B(in-service training organizations
C(more popularized than ever before
D(a powerful force for global integration
2(Over the past three decades, the enrollment of overseas students has increased A(by2.5 million B(by 800,000
C(at an annual rate of 3.9 percent
D(at an annual rate of 8 percent
3(In the United States,how many of the newly hired professors in science and engineering are foreign-born?
A(10% B(20% C(30% D(38%
4(How do Yale and Harvard prepare their undergraduates for global careers? A(They organize a series of seminars on world economy
B(They offer them various courses in international politics
C(They arrange for them to participate in the Erasmus program
D(They give them chances for international study or internship
5(An example illustrating the general trend of universities’ globalization is
A(Yale’s collaboration with Fudan University on genetic research
B(Yale’s helping Chinese universities to launch research projects
C(Yale’s student exchange program with European institutions
D(Yale’s establishing branch campuses throughout the world
6(What do we learn about Silicon Valley from the passage?
A(It houses many companies spun off from MIT and Harvard
B(It is known to be the birthplace of Microsoft Company
C(It was intentionally created by Stanford University
D(It is where the Internet infrastructure was built up
7(What is said about the U.S. federal funding for research?
A(It has increased by 3 percent
B(It has been unsteady for years
C(It has been more than sufficient
D(It doubled between 1998 and 2003
8(The dramatic decline in the enrollment of foreign students in the U.S after September 11 was caused by________.
9(Many Americans fear that American competiveness may be threatened by foreign students who will________.
10(The policy of welcoming foreign students can benefit the U.S. in that the very best of them will stay and________.
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is
the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through
11. A) She used to be in poor health.
B) She was popular among boys.
C) She was somewhat overweight
D) She didn’t do well at high school.
12. A) At he airport.
B) In a restaurant.
C) In a booking office.
D) At the hotel reception.
13. A) Teaching her son by herself.
B) Having confidence in her son.
C) Asking the teacher for extra help.
D) Telling her son not to worry.
14. A) Have a short break.
B) Take two weeks off.
C) Continue her work outdoors.
D) Go on vacation with the man.
15. A) He is taking care of this twin brother.
B) He ha been feeling ill all week.
C) He is worried about Rod’s health.
D) He has been in perfect condition. 16. A) She sold all her furniture before she moved house.
B) She still keeps some old furniture in her new house.
C) She plans to put all her old furniture in the basement.
D) She brought a new set of furniture from Italy last month.
17. A) The woman wondered why the man didn’t return the book.
B) The woman doesn’t seem to know what the book is about.
C) The woman doesn’t find the book useful any more.
D) The woman forgot lending the book to the man. 18. A) Most of the man’s friends are athletes.
B) Few people share the woman’s opinion.
C) The man doesn’t look like a sportsman.
D) The woman doubts the man’s athletic ability.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have heard.
19. A) She has packed it in one of her bags.
B) She has probably left it in a taxi.
C) She id going to get it the airport.
D) She is afraid that she has lost it. 20) A) It ends in winter.
B) It will cost her a lot.
C) It will last one week.
D) It depends on the weather.
21. A) The plane is taking off soon.
B) There might be a traffic jam.
C) The taxi is waiting for them.
D) There is a lot of stuff to pack.
22. A) At home.
B) In the man’s car.
C) At the airport.
D) By the side of a taxi.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 23. A) She is thirsty for promotion.
B) She wants a much higher salary.
C) She is tired of her present work.
D) She wants to save travel expenses.
24. A) Translator.
B) Travel agent.
C) Language instructor.
D) Environment engineer.
25. A) Lively personality and inquiring mind.
B) Communication skills and team spirit.
C) Devotion and work efficiency.
D) Education and experience.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will
hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear
a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D).
Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard. 26(A. They care a lot about children.
B. They need looking after in their old age.
C. They want to enrich their life experience.
D. They want children to keep them company.
27. A. They are usually adopted from distant places.
B.Their birth infromation is usually kept secret.
C.Their birth parents often try to conceal their birth information.
D.Their adoptive parents don’t want them to know their birth parents.
28. A.They generally hold bad feelings towards their birth parents.
B.They do not want to hurt the feelings of their adoptive parents.
C.They have mixed feelings about finding their natural parents.
D.They are fully aware of the expenses involved in the search. 29. A.Early adoption makes for closer parent-child relationship.
B.Most people prefer to adopt children from overseas.
C.Understanding is the key to successful adoption.
D.Adoption has much to do with love.
Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.
30. A.He suffered from mental illness.
B.He bought The washing on post.
C.He turned a failing newspaper into a success.
D.He was once a reporter for a major newspaper.
31. A.She was the first woman to lead a big U.S.publishing company.
B.She got her first job as a teacher at the University of Chicago.
C.She committed suicide because of her mental disorder.
D.She took over her father’s position when he died.
32. A.People came to see the role of women in the business world.
B.Katharine played a major part in reshaping Americans’mind.
C.American media would be quite different without Katharine.
D.Katharine had exerted an important influence on the world.
Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
33. A.It’ll enable them to enjoy the best medical care.
B.It’ll allow them to receive free medical theatment.
C.It’ll protect them from possible financial crises.
D.It’ll preent the doctors from overcharging them.
34(A.They can’t immediately get back the money paid for their medical cost.
B.They have to go through very complicated application procedures.
C.They can only visit doctors who speak their native languages.
D.They may not be able to receive timely medical treatment.
35(A.They don’t have to pay for the medical services.
B.They needn’t pay the entire medical bill at once.
C.They must send the receipts to the insurance company promptly.
D.They have to pay a much higher price to get an insurance policy.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
More and more of the world’s population are living in towns or cities. The speed at which cities are growing in the less developed countries is (36) __________. Between 1920 and 1960 big cities in developed countries (37) ________ two and a half times in size, but in other parts of the world
the growth was eight times their size.
The (38) __________ size of growth is bad enough, but there are now also very (39) __________ signs of trouble in the (40) __________ of percentages of people living in towns and percentages of people working in industry. During the nineteenth century cities grew as a result of the growth of industry. In Europe the (41) __________ of people living in cities was always smaller than that of the (42) __________ working in factories. Now, however, the (43) __________ is almost always true in the newly industrialised world: (44)
________________________________________________________________________________. Without a base of people working in industry, these cities cannot pay for their growth; (45) ____________________________________________________________. There has been little opportunity to build water supplies or other facilities. (46)
________________________________________________________________________________, a growth in the number of hopeless and despairing parents and starving children. Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once. Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
As war spreads to many corners of the globe, children sadly have been drawn into the center of conflicts. In Afghanistan, Bosnia, and Colombia, however, groups of children have been taking part in peace education __47__. The children, after learning to resolve conflicts, took on the __48__ of peacemakers. The Children’s Movement for Peace in Colombia was even nominated
(提名) for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1998. groups of children __49__ as peacemakers studied human rights and poverty issues in Colombia, eventually forming a group with five other schools in Bogota known as The Schools of Peace.
The classroom __50__ opportunities for children to replace angry, violent behaviors with __51__, peaceful ones. It is in the classroom that caring and respect for each person empowers children to take a step __52__toward becoming peacemakers. Fortunately, educators have access to many online resources that are __53__ useful when helping children along the path to peace. The Young Peacemakers Club, started in 1992, provides a Website with resources for teachers and __54__ on starting a Kindness Campaign. The World Centers of Compassion for Children International call attention to children’s rights and how to help the __55__ of war. Starting a Peacemakers’ Club is a praiseworthy venture for a class and one that could spread to other
classrooms and ideally affect the culture of the __56__ school.
A) acting I) information
B) assuming J) offers
C) comprehensive K) projects
D) cooperative L) respectively
E) entire M) role F) especially M N) technology
G) forward O) victims H) images
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
In this age of Internet chat, videogames and reality television, there is no shortage of mindless activities to keep a child occupied. Yet, despite the competition, my 8-year-old daughter Rebecca wants to spend her leisure time writing short stories. She wants to enter one of her stories into a writing contest, a competition she won last year.
As a writer I know about winning contests, and about losing them. I know what it is like to work hard on a story only to receive a rejection slip from the publisher. I also know the pressure of trying to live up to a reputation created by previous victories. What if she doesn’t win the contest again? That’s the strange thing about being a parent. So many of our own past scars and dashed hopes can surface.
A revelation (启示) came last week when I asked her, “Don’t you want to win again?” “No,”
she replied, “I just want to tell the story of an angel going to first grade.”
I had just spent weeks correcting her stories as she spontaneously (自发地) told them. Telling
myself that I was merely an experienced writer guiding the young writer across the hall, I offered suggestions for characters, conflicts and endings for her tales. The story about a fearful angel starting first grade was quickly “guided” by me into the tale of a little girl with a wild imagination taking her first music lesson. I had turned her contest into my contest without even realizing it.
Staying back and giving kids space to grow is not as easy as it looks. Because I know very little about farm animals who use tools or angels who go to first grade, I had to accept the fact that I was co-opting (借用) my daughter’s experience.
While stepping back was difficult for me, it was certainly a good first step that I will quickly follow with more steps, putting myself far enough a way to give her room but close enough to help if asked. All the while I will be reminding myself that children need room to experiment, grow and find their own voices.
57. What is the most striking feature of the University of Phoenix?
A) All its courses are offered online.
B) Its online courses are of the best quality.
C) It boasts the largest number of students on campus
D) Anyone taking its online courses is sure to get a degree.
58(According to the passage , distance learning is basically characterized by_____ A) A considerable flexibility in its academic requirements
B) The great diversity of students’ academic backgrounds
C) A minimum or total absence of face-to-face instruction
D) t the casual relationship between students and professors
59. Many students take Internet -based courses mainly because they can_____
A) Earn their academic degrees with much less effort
B) Save a great deal on traveling and boarding expenses
C) Select courses from various colleges and universities
D) Work on the required courses whenever and wherever
60. What accounts for the high drop-out rates for online students?
A) There is no strict control over the academic standards of the courses.
B) The evaluation system used by online universities is inherently weak.
C) There is no mechanism to ensure that they make the required effort.
D) Lack of classroom interaction reduces the effectiveness of instruction.
61. According to the passage, universities show great enthusiasm for DL programs for the purpose of_____
A) building up their reputation
B) cutting down on their expenses
C) upgrading their teaching facilities
D) providing convenience for students
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
By almost any measure, there is a boom in Internet-based instruction. In just a few years, 34 percent of American universities have begun offering some form of distance learning (DL), and among the larger schools, it’s close to 90 percent. If you doubt the popularity of the trend, you
probably haven’t heard of the University of Phoenix. It grants degrees entirely on the basis of online instruction. It enrolls 90,000 students, a statistic used to support its claim to be the largest private university in the country.
While the kinds of instruction offered in these programs will differ, DL usually signifies a course in which the instructors post syllabi (课程大纲), reading assignment, and schedules on
Websites, and students send in their assignments by e-mail. Generally speaking, face-to-face communication with an instructor is minimized or eliminated altogether.
The attraction for students might at first seem obvious. Primarily, there’s the convenience
promised by courses on the Net: you can do the work, as they say, in your pajamas (睡衣). But
figures indicate that the reduced effort results in a reduced commitment to the course. While dropout rate for all freshmen at American universities is around 20 percent, the rate for online students is 35 percent. Students themselves seem to understand the weaknesses inherent in the setup. In a survey conducted for eCornell, the DL division of Cornell University, less than a third of the respondents expected the quality of the online course to be as good as the classroom course.
Clearly, from the schools’ perspective, there’s a lot of money to be saved. Although some of the more ambitious programs require new investments in servers and networks to support collaborative software, most DL courses can run on existing or minimally upgraded (升级)
systems. The more students who enroll in a course but don’t come to campus, the more school
saves on keeping the lights on in the classrooms, paying doorkeepers, and maintaining parking lots. And, while there’s evidence that instructors must work harder to run a DL course for a variety of
reasons, they won’t be paid any more, and might well be paid less.
62. What do we learn from the first paragraph?
A) Children do find lots of fun in many mindless activites.
B) Rebecca is much too occupied to enjoy her leisure time.
C) Rebecca draws on a lot of online materials for her writing.
D) A lot of distractions compete for children’s time nowadays.
63. What did the author say about her own writing experience?
A) She did not quite live up to her reputation as a writer.
B) Her way to success was full of pains and frustrations.
C) She was constantly under pressure of writing more.
D) Most of her stories had been rejected by publishers.
64. Why did Rebecca want to enter this year’s writing contest?
A) She believed she possessed real talent for writing.
B) She was sure of winning with her mother’s help.
C) She wanted to share her stories with readers.
D) She had won a prize in the previous contest.
65. What’s the author’s advice for parents?
A) A writing career, though attractive, is not for every child to pursue.
B) Children should be allowed freedom to grow through experience.
C) Parents should keep an eye on the activities their opinions.
66. According to the passage, universities show great enthusiasm for DL programs for the purpose of ________.
A) building up their reputation
B) upgrading their teaching facilities
C) providing convenience for students
D) cutting down on their expenses
Part V Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
One factor that can influence consumers is their mood state. Mood may be defined __67__ a temporary and mild positive or negative feeling that is generalized and not tied __68__ any particular circumstance. Moods should be __69__ from emotions which are usually more intense, __70__ to specific circumstances, and often conscious. __71__ one sense, the effect of a consumer’s mood can be thought of in __72__ the same way as can our reactions to the __73__ of our friends—when our friends are happy and “up”, that trends to influence us positively, __74__
when they are “down”, that can have a __75__ impact on us. Similarly, consumers operating under a __76__ mood state tend to react to stimuli (刺激因素) in a direction __77__ with that
mood state. Thus, for example, we should expect to see __78__ in a positive mood state evaluate products in more of a __79__ manner than they would when not in such a state. __80__, mood states appear capable of __81__ a consumer’s memory.