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By Elizabeth Cooper,2014-03-12 09:50
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UNIT 1 Animal Education 1. Animals perform many useful and entertaining jobs. Dogs are particularly valuable in guiding the blind, protecting property, finding lost people, and hunting criminals. Horses are used in guarding herds, carring men in lands where there are no roads, and helping farmers work their land. Pigeons have long been used to ..

UNIT 1

    Animal Education

    1. Animals perform many useful and entertaining jobs. Dogs are particularly valuable in

    guiding the blind, protecting property, finding lost people, and hunting criminals. Horses are

    used in guarding herds, carring men in lands where there are no roads, and helping farmers

    work their land. Pigeons have long been used to carry messages, wild animals form the

    jungles, forests and sear are very popular performers in circuses and moving pictures. People

    realize that, although animals may not have the same intelligence as human beings, they are

    smart enough to learn certain things.

    2. the first thing a dog is taught is to obey. It should not take too long for him to learn

    commands. Simple orders, such as sit, lie down”, stay there, and come here, can even

    be tought by a child.

    3. training a dog to be a watchdog often produces unexpected results. Some dogs quickly learn

    the difference between unwanted people and friend. This is because their masters welcome

    friends and invite them into their house. However, some dogs will always attack the postman

    who comes to deliver letters. One explanation for this behavior is that, although the postman

    comes to the house often, he never enters the house. Therefore, the dog thinks the postman is

    someone who is not wanted, but keeps coming back anyway.

    4. masters of dogs who attack postmen can easily show the dog that the postman is a friend and

    that the dog does not need to treat him as an unwanted person. A dog is quite ready to do

    what his master whishes, and a dog is always happy when he is praised for understanding

    correctly.

    5. dogs can be taught to obey commands when the sound of a word is connected with a certain

    act. Two important factors in teaching a dog to obey commands are: using the same word

    each time for the same act, and teaching only one act at a time. Dogs can learn not only to sit,

    lie down, come, and stay in place when their masters go away, but also to jump, carry, and

    fetch..

    6. after a dog learns to carry an object, he can learn to bring something back from a distance. A

    stick can be thrown far away, and the dog enjoys running after it, and searching for it until he

    finds it, after a lot of practice, the dog can retrieve a stick(or other object) even when he has

    not seen it thrown.. to teach a dog this skill, the master makes a simple trail by walking some

    distance in a straight line. Then he leaves the stick at the end of the trail.. the dog learns to

    follow the straight line at first. Then, later, he learns to follow more irregular lines.

    Eventually, he can learn to follow an odor instead of looking for an object. With this skill he

    can be very useful in tracking down lost people or criminals.

    7. dogs are extremely useful as companions for blind people. When a dog has been properly

    trained, he will always lead his blind master in the right direction and keep him out danger.

    For example, seeing-eyes dogs lean never to cross a bussy road when cars are coming, even if

    their masters command them to do so.

    8. horses are also albe to learn many things. Horses that are used for guard or police duty must

    learn never to be frightned of noises, traffic, and other disturbances. Racing horses are able to

    run much faster than other horses, but they are also quite hight strung. Therefore, it is

    necessary for those people who train them to be very patient and understanding. 9. pigeons have a natural instinct to return home, even if they are very far away and the trip is

    hard or dangerous. Men utilize this homing instinct to send messages on small pieces of paper which are fastened to the pigeons’ backs or legs. In war time, pigeons have been known

    to fly as fast as 75 miles an hour and to cover distances of 500 to 600. these homing pigeons

    begin their training when they are about four weeks old. After a few weeks they can begin flying and carring messages. If all goes well, their flying carrer lasts about four years.

    10. animals can learn to do many things that, while not necessarily useful, are very amusing to watch. In circuses, animals are taught to do the tricks that are most compatible to their physical and temperamental make-up. Lions and tigers can be taught to leap and spring gracefully when told to do so, or to stay in place on command. Elephants learn to walk in line, to stand on their hind legs, to lie on their sides, and to stand on their heads. They can also learn to dance.

    11. anogher trainer had an elephant and a tiger. After many weeks of living in the same cage, the two animals became accustomed to each other. Then the tiger was taught to jump on the elephant’s back both animals became so interested in the act (as well as the praise and food

    they received after the act) that they forgot they were natural enemies. Later a lion was added to the act. This also took a lot of patient training. However, then the three animals grew accustomed to each other they made a most successful circus act.

    12. the moving pictures and television can use trained animals too. Some animals, such as skunks and foxes, are easy to film. All you have to do is to make a trail in front of the camera by dragging some thing that smells good to the animals over the ground. Big animals such as lions and tigers, can be photographed as they bound happily back to their families and dinner. If a movie actor is nearby, the well-trained animal will pay no attention to him. However, the audience may imagine that the actor escaped a terrible death by the skin of his teetch.

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